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See detailMaking Smart Meters Acceptable: An End-user Standpoint
Brossolet, Côme; Schelings, Clémentine ULiege; Elsen, Catherine ULiege

Conference (in press)

This research studies one of the many energy-related issues of changing cities: the challenge of implementing smart meters at a household level, through the prism of users’ perception. We look into the ... [more ▼]

This research studies one of the many energy-related issues of changing cities: the challenge of implementing smart meters at a household level, through the prism of users’ perception. We look into the acceptability of both the devices themselves and the smart meters-related behaviors, believed to decrease the households’ energy consumption. We model that acceptability thanks to a mix between Davis’ Technology Acceptance Model and Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior. Our research then splits in two complementary field studies. The first one, mainly qualitative and exploratory, is conducted via two participatory workshops, allowing us to analyze opinions from both naive and smart meters-aware samples. We then confirm our first hypotheses through a quantitative online survey, distributed amongst an « early adopters » population. That sample takes a favorable stance towards the adoption of smart meters, but demonstrates a fairly low level of instruction about the smart meter-related issues. Moreover, being highly smart meter-aware is not correlated to good dispositions, and people seem to overlook smart meter’s ability to decrease consumption and change behaviors. Main factors fostering smart meters’ acceptability (and related energy-sparing behaviors’) seem to be perceived usefulness (both on an environmental and an economical level), perceived control over the behavior (along with high perceived privacy), perceived ease of use and perceived subjective norms. Potential future paths to increase acceptability are then discussed, such as turning energy-reduction goals into concrete, everyday actions and consequences; gamification features and convergent, multi- sourced energy-related information. [less ▲]

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See detail« Cette chose énigmatique » : Les Temps modernes (présentation du colloque)
Franck, Thomas ULiege; Demoulin, Esther; Louette, Jean-François et al

Conference (2021, December)

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See detailJouer avec les nombres sur les doigts pour améliorer les précurseurs aux mathématiques chez de jeunes enfants d'âge pré-scolaire
Rousselle, Laurence ULiege; Maillart, Christelle ULiege; Binamé, Florence ULiege et al

Conference (2021, December)

Introduction Dès l'école maternelle, les compétences numériques précoces varient considérablement d'un enfant à l'autre. Afin de réduire ces inégalités dès le plus jeune âge (Ramani & Siegler, 2008), les ... [more ▼]

Introduction Dès l'école maternelle, les compétences numériques précoces varient considérablement d'un enfant à l'autre. Afin de réduire ces inégalités dès le plus jeune âge (Ramani & Siegler, 2008), les apprentissages numériques font l'objet de réflexion approfondie dès la maternelle dans différents pays (Starkley, Klein & Wakely, 2004; Vilani, 2018). En effet, de nombreuses recherches ont démontré l'existence d'une relation forte entre les compétences numériques chez le jeune enfant d'âge pré-scolaire et les compétences mathématiques à l'école primaire et secondaire (Stevenson & Newman, 1986; Jordan, Kaplan, Ramineni & Locuniak, 2009; Geary, Hoard, Nugent & Bailey, 2013; Watts, Duncan, Siegler & Davis-Kean, 2014). De plus, il a été montré que les interventions précoces ciblant les forces et faiblesses individuelles permet de réduire des troubles d'apprentissage (Vellution & Scanlon, 2002). Methode Dans cette étude, 84 enfants d’âge préscolaire se situant entre 48 mois et 60 mois ont été répartis en 3 groupes pour participer à différents types d'intervention pédagogique : 27 enfants ont suivi un programme d'intervention numérique basé sur les jeux de doigts stimulant le développement de la compréhension de la cardinalité, 28 enfants ont suivi un programme de lecture partagée ciblant les précurseurs au langage écrit, et enfin 29 enfants ont suivi un programme ciblant la motricité globale. Les interventions pédagogiques ont été données en parallèle pendant dix semaines, trente minutes par jour, cinq fois par semaine. Resultats Les résultats montrent que les enfants qui ont participé au programme numérique ont davantage progressé dans la compréhension de la cardinalité que les enfants qui participaient aux autres interventions. Ils ont également montré une amélioration des compétences arithmétiques précoces (non entrainées dans le programme) que les autres groupes. Discussion Ces résultats montrent l'efficacité d'intervention précoce réalisée directement en milieu scolaire sur le développement des précurseurs aux compétences mathématiques. Mots clé : Intervention, cardinalité, précurseurs arithmétiques, prévention Praet M, & Desoete A. (2014) Enhancing young children’s arithmetic skills through non-intensive, computerised kindergarten interventions: A randomised controlled study. Teaching and Teacher Education, 39, 56–65. Wang, A. H., Firmender, J. M., Power, J. R., & Byrnes, J. P. (2016). Understanding the program effectiveness of early mathematics interventions for prekindergarten and kindergarten environments: A meta-analytic review. Early Education and Development, 27(5), 692–713. Lafay, A., Thevenot, C., Castel, C., & Fayol, M. (2013). The role of fingers in number processing in young children. Frontiers in psychology, 4, 488. Gracia-Bafalluy, M., & Noël, M.-P. (2008). Does finger training increase young children’s numerical performance? Cortex, 44(4), 368–375. Sella F, Tressoldi P, Lucangeli D, Zorzi M. (2016).Training numerical skills with the adaptive videogame “The Number Race”: A randomized controlled trial on preschoolers. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 5(1), 20–9. [less ▲]

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See detailProfanation ou consécration ? Art contemporain et lieux patrimoniaux
Bawin, Julie ULiege

Conference (2021, November 19)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULiège)
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See detailErasurist Poetics and Politics in North-America: 1998-2016
Delville, Michel ULiege

Conference (2021, October 15)

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See detailIntroduction à la journée "Empathies"
Englebert, Jérôme ULiege; Monville, François

Conference (2021, October 14)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (2 ULiège)
See detailGiovenale a Bisanzio
Rochette, Bruno ULiege

Conference (2021, October 14)

Après une période d’oubli relatif, Juvénal redevient à la mode à partir du IVe s. Ce sont surtout les auteurs chrétiens qui le citent pour illustrer et critiquer les travers moraux de la société romaine ... [more ▼]

Après une période d’oubli relatif, Juvénal redevient à la mode à partir du IVe s. Ce sont surtout les auteurs chrétiens qui le citent pour illustrer et critiquer les travers moraux de la société romaine. Le succès de Juvénal fut très important entre la fin du IVe et le VIe siècle. Il est lu en Italie, Gaule, Espagne et Afrique. Son succès n’est pas moindre en Orient. Juvénal est très présent chez Jean le Lydien, préfet du prétoire d’Orient sous Justinien, qui le cite dans son traité De magistratibus. Jean Malalas, qui étudia le droit à Antioche, parle de l’exil de Juvénal, qui aurait été puni pour avoir attaqué le danseur Paris, amant de Domitien. On trouve aussi des traces de connaissance du Juvénal dans le traité περὶ πολιτικῆς ἐπιστήμης connu par un palimpseste du Vatican (Vat. Gr. 1298) et attribué à Menas Patricius, magister officiorum de Justinien. Cet auteur attribue faussement à Juvénal un vers de Perse, ce qui montre que les deux poètes circulaient conjointement en Orient comme en Occident. On observe une présence très forte de Juvénal dans l’Ars de Priscien, professeur de latin à Constantinople. Les vers de Juvénal lui servent à illustrer des règles grammaticales au même titre que des passages d’auteurs plus classiques comme Virgile, Salluste, Cicéron et Térence. L’influence de Juvénal se fait aussi sentir sur des auteurs d’origine grecque écrivant en latin. Claudien d’Alexandrie trouve en Juvénal un modèle pour les invectives qu’il écrit contre Eutrope. L’africain Corippe, qui vint à Constantinople à la fin du règne de Justinien, se souvient régulièrement de Juvénal dans son épopée intitulée Ioannis (De bellis Libycis) célèbre la conquête byzantine de l’Afrique vandale. La preuve la plus tangible de la présence de Juvénal en Orient et de son étude dans les milieux hellénophones vient du fragment d’Antinoë, publié par C.H. Roberts (1935). L’écriture utilisée est l’onciale juridique de type B-R, une écriture répandue dans les chancelleries pour la rédaction les manuscrits juridiques, spécialement durant le règne de Justinien. Le fragment d’Antinoë est un témoin direct de l’activité de copie et de commentaire de textes d’auteurs latins à Constantinople. Il présente des accents et des marques de quantité ajoutés par une seconde main ainsi que des annotations marginales et interlinéaires en grec et en latin dues à d’autres mains (Roberts distingue 5 mains différentes). Le fragment de Juvénal provenant d’Antinoopolis est représentatif d’un lectorat hellénophone intéressé par la littérature latine durant la période byzantine à un niveau avancé. [less ▲]

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See detailHeritagization and Endurance: False Friends? The Case of the ′′Industrial Abbeys′′ in Belgium.
Macaux, Mathilde; Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Conference (2021, October)

The rural landscape of Belgium abounds with ancient monasteries not far from which you can still sometimes perceive the silhouette of a smokestack or the shape of a saw-tooth roof. These remains are ... [more ▼]

The rural landscape of Belgium abounds with ancient monasteries not far from which you can still sometimes perceive the silhouette of a smokestack or the shape of a saw-tooth roof. These remains are witnesses of the industrial fate that many rural monastic sites knew from the 19th century onwards. Sold as Biens Nationaux, as a consequence of the French Revolution (1796-1813), they took part in the early industrialization of Wallonia, second industrial power of the world in the 19th century after the United Kingdom. Coveted for their many assets (hydraulic energy, vast and robust buildings, significant land heritage), these secularized monastic estates were particularly conducive to the establishment of industrial complexes whose activities continued, for the most remarkable, until the second half of the 20th century. During the last decades of the 20th century, many of these sites entered the heritage corpus, as former monastic ensembles. The industrial phases were considered as inappropriate interventions, insensitive to the cultural values of the buildings. Thus many valorisation projects included heavy and costly restorations or evocations of the monastic phases at the expense of later transformations. Today, at a time when heritage can less and less claim an exceptional status, escaping the global effort to save material and financial resources, these pragmatic appropriations, which in spite of everything have enabled these sites to survive the centuries, appear to us in a different light. Among these reused sites, the abbey of Saint-Denis-en-Brocqueroie, used as a cotton spinning mill from 1803 to 1957, is an exception. Here, no major restoration programme with a colossal budget, but rather occasional renovation and restoration works, in constant evolution, undertaken with little means by about thirty families who have been working together for forty years to keep the site alive. Rather than denying the complex evolution of the site, with its ups and downs, the approach is part of the gradual construction of a palimpsest. It significantly contributes to the persistence of the site’s genius loci through different cultural and economic contexts. Unlike many other comparable sites, the heritagization of this abbey has not introduced a break, or even a step backwards, in its history. The site has adapted, almost "naturally", to successive reuse phases and is therefore a model of endurance. Through this counter-current example, set in relation to contemporary cases, we aim to highlight the possible contradictions between the consequences of heritagization and the notion of endurance. In today’s society, is it not sometimes preferable to draw inspiration from the pragmatic and spontaneous approaches of the 19th century industrial reuses, rather than risk freezing the sites in artificial states through restoration, breaking with the "natural" capacity of buildings to adapt to the successive contexts and their constraints? [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of ORF9p in VZV-induced cell-cell fusion
Lebrun, Marielle ULiege; Lambert, Julien ULiege; Zhou, momei et al

Conference (2021, August)

VZV infection is characterized by the formation of syncytia resulting principally from the fusion of neighboring infected cells, more rarely from the fusion of infected cells with uninfected ones. One ... [more ▼]

VZV infection is characterized by the formation of syncytia resulting principally from the fusion of neighboring infected cells, more rarely from the fusion of infected cells with uninfected ones. One naturally occuring hyperfusogenic strain (VZV-MSP), discovered in the late nineties exhibits a single-point mutation on gE. Exaggerated cell-cell fusion is also observed with laboratory-engineered strains in which gH cytoplasmic strain is deleted or containing mutations within gB cytoplasmic domain. These VZV viral strains poorly replicates in skin models. On the other hand, to our knowledge, spontaneous non-fusogenic VZV strains are not described in the literature and the generation of gH mutant with cell fusion defect can lead to the appearance of compensatory mutations. Cell-cell fusion regulation seems then to be crucial to maintain viral fitness. We previously identified on ORF9p an acidic dileucine motif (E227GLNLI232) important for its interaction with the cellular adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1), an heterotetramer regulating the shuttling of cargo proteins between endosomes and the TGN. Disrupting ORF9p binding to AP-1 by mutating leucine 231 to alanine strongly impacts viral growth but also completely abolishes cell-cell fusion. Strikingly, after about 15-20 passages, the phenotype spontaneously reverts to an apparent WT cell-cell fusion efficiency. This prompted us to sequence the whole VZV genome of nine spontaneous revertants. Five had a point mutation introducing a stop codon within gH cytoplasmic tail, removing the last seven amino acids, the region already known to regulate cell fusion. Two had a two distinct point mutation on gE, one in the extracellular domain (D436H) and one on the cytoplasmic tail (D620Y). The last two revertants had both the gHΔcyt and the gE-D620Y mutations. We now are trying to understand the role of ORF9p in the maintenance of the gB/gH/gL complex and the role of the gE/gI complex in the regulation of cell-cell fusion. [less ▲]

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See detailSuppression of Varicella Zoster Virus Spread by Macrophages in a hiPSC-derived Neuro-Immune Cell Culture Model.
Buyle-Huybrechts, Tamariche; Boeren, Marlies; Van Breedam, Elise et al

Conference (2021, August)

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See detailInterferon-α limits varicella-zoster virus (VZV) spread in human iPSC-derived neuronal cultures upon axonal infection
Boeren, Marlies; Buyle-Huybrecht, Tamariche; Van Breedam, Elise et al

Conference (2021, August)

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See detailThe Famennian flora of Barraba, New South Wales, Australia.
Meyer-Berthaud, Brigitte; Decombeix, Anne-Laure; Girard, Catherine et al

Conference (2021, July 19)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (5 ULiège)
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See detailAnticipating ageing: interviews on home experiences in Belgium
Schaff, Gwendoline ULiege; Elsen, Catherine ULiege; Petermans, Ann et al

Conference (2021, July 08)

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See detailDélaissés urbains réenchantés
Le Coguiec, Eric ULiege

Conference (2021, July 05)

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See detailSchizophrénie, vécu corporel et subjectivité
Englebert, Jérôme ULiege

Conference (2021, July 03)

Detailed reference viewed: 75 (7 ULiège)
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See detailTesting the cellular nature of large (>10µm) spheroids in the ~3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation
Coutant, Maxime ULiege; Lepot, Kevin; Fadel, Alexandre et al

Conference (2021, July)

The oldest traces of life on Earth are still highly debated and both biotic and abiotic arguments are proposed for isotopic, mineral and morphological biosignatures1,2. The ca. 3.4 Strelley Pool Formation ... [more ▼]

The oldest traces of life on Earth are still highly debated and both biotic and abiotic arguments are proposed for isotopic, mineral and morphological biosignatures1,2. The ca. 3.4 Strelley Pool Formation (SPF), in Western Australia, is well-known for its stromatolites and for its diverse assemblages of carbonaceous microstructures. Some of these microstructures have been claimed as the oldest microfossils2,3,. The SPF lies in greenstone belts of the Pilbara craton, and comprises (volcano)clastic material, silicified sediments, dolomite (including stromatolites) and precipitated cherts (including stromatolites). Metamorphism grades from to greenschist to amphibolite facies and it is cut across by siliceous and siliceous-carbonaceous veins4. Such veins may have transported carbonaceous matter into hydrothermally-influenced sediments2,3. For example, microstructures in silicified volcanic clasts of the SPF exhibit morphologies resembling mineral textures associated with organic matter5, such as simple spheres or lenses. Here we rigorously describe unusual spherical microstructures which differ from the abundant, smaller (≤10 µm) spheres previously reported in cherts of the SPF3. These microstructures are imaged and analyzed through a combination of in situ techniques, including optical microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and transmitted electron microscopy (TEM) on ultrathin (focused ion beam) sections (FIB). This approach yields an effective visualization of carbonaceous microstructures and their relationships with quartz crystal grains down to the nanoscale. It revealed a wealth of textural features that allow us to classify the spheroids into three new types (+sub-types) and to discuss possible cellular origin versus mineral morphogenesis in presence of organic compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailMoving cells to the market: an inquiry into the circulation and valuation of stem cells
Delvenne, Pierre ULiege; Hendrickx, Kim ULiege; Parotte, Céline ULiege

Conference (2021, June 17)

Innovation in the life sciences in general and stem cell science in particular is driven by an interlinked set of market demands with regulatory arrangements. Predominant among these markets are research ... [more ▼]

Innovation in the life sciences in general and stem cell science in particular is driven by an interlinked set of market demands with regulatory arrangements. Predominant among these markets are research funding, scientific labor, research materials, clinical labor, venture capital, patenting and, last but not least, patients. In other words, biological materials and biomedical products have become key sites of capital accumulation and encapsulate huge hopes for new health therapies and economic growth. Yet very little scholarly attention has been paid to the movement of human tissues from the clinic to the market — the various steps from sampling to storage, packaging, transportation and commercialization — and the successive stages to ‘realize value’. To address this shortage, we suggest to empirically investigate stem cells not as objects in their own right, but as co-constituted with infrastructures that translate and valorize them. We develop a framework to detect multiple, potentially conflicting, notions of ‘value’ and focus on the difficulties and negotiations to objectify this multiplicity in standards of economic value (e.g. in financial terms such as price and reimbursement). Relying on prolonged ethnographic research conducted in parallel in a laboratory of gene and cell therapy at a university hospital and in a clinical stage pharmaceutical company, this presentation will empirically allow to question how, why and with what consequences stem cells circulate and gain value by following their journey from donors to the market. Informed by science and technology studies, valuation studies and the material turn in social science, our results will illuminate the mutual shaping of moving stem cells markets, medical and regulatory practices. [less ▲]

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See detailTom Phillips : la poésie contre le roman contre la poésie
Delville, Michel ULiege; Belloi, Livio ULiege

Conference (2021, June 17)

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See detailQuand l’obscurité s’abat sur le récit Iconicité, oblitération et engendrement poétique dans l’œuvre de Jochen Gerner
Delville, Michel ULiege; Belloi, Livio ULiege

Conference (2021, June 14)

Notre communication se focalisera sur un cas très particulier de mise en contact entre l’iconique et le textuel. Elle portera en l’occurrence sur l’œuvre, très largement expérimentale, du plasticien ... [more ▼]

Notre communication se focalisera sur un cas très particulier de mise en contact entre l’iconique et le textuel. Elle portera en l’occurrence sur l’œuvre, très largement expérimentale, du plasticien français Jochen Gerner. Depuis une vingtaine d’années, Gerner s’est attaché à explorer, dans ses multiples enjeux, une procédure formelle spécifique. Pour l’essentiel, son travail consiste en une double manœuvre de réappropriation et d’oblitération. Inspiré par les travaux de l’OuBaPo (Ouvroir de Bande dessinée Potentielle), le volume intitulé TNT en Amérique (L’Ampoule, 2002) s’avère tout à fait exemplaire à cet égard. Dans cette œuvre, Gerner s’empare d’un récit canonique (le fameux Tintin en Amérique [1946] d’Hergé) et entreprend d’en recouvrir chaque planche d’encre noire, n’y laissant à découvert que quelques mots tenus pour révélateurs et qui, dans le processus de reconfiguration matérielle auquel ils sont soumis, finissent par former entre eux une sorte de récit alternatif, éclaté et volontiers incantatoire. Dans TNT en Amérique, le véritable black-out qui s’empare de la représentation se complémente par ailleurs d’une dissémination, à la surface de la page, de divers pictogrammes monochromes qui fonctionnent comme autant d’éclats lumineux dans l’obscurité ambiante et qui inscrivent la démarche de Gerner sous le signe du minimalisme le plus radical. L’ouvrage repose de la sorte sur un puissant mécanisme de suppression-adjonction (pour reprendre une expression chère au Groupe Mu et à sa Rhétorique générale) qu’il applique et systématise à l’ensemble du matériau-source. À sa façon, l’œuvre de Gerner tend à reproblématiser et à éclairer d’un jour nouveau la question placée au centre du colloque. D’une part, elle invite en effet à s’interroger quant à ces cas de figure où c’est non pas une image, mais bien une surface aniconique qui touche le textuel au point de l’absorber et qui, par là même, concourt à le diffracter. D’autre part, TNT en Amérique, en tant qu’œuvre au noir, instaure des rapports inédits entre oblitération et création poétique. Dans une affiche encartée à la fin de l’ouvrage, Gerner en effet, s’appuyant sur les mots qu’il a soigneusement sélectionnés dans l’album d’Hergé, produit une suite de 62 quatrains dûment numérotés et à leur tour complémentés de divers pictogrammes qui les illustrent, les commentent ou en ramifient les effets de sens. Évoquant aussi bien la pratique surréaliste du cadavre exquis que le cut-up à la William Burroughs , ces brefs poèmes, qui mériteraient à eux seuls une analyse serrée, auraient été inconcevables sans la mise en contact du matériau-source avec la surface aniconique au travers de laquelle ils s’engendrent. Au départ de l’œuvre si singulière de Jochen Gerner, il s’agira donc de se poser la question fondamentale des rapports entre iconicité, oblitération et production textuelle. Chemin faisant, nous convoquerons d’autres œuvres du même auteur (notamment Abstraction [1941-1968] et Panorama du feu) qui, fondées sur la même procédure formelle, permettent tout à la fois d’élargir et d’affiner la perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailQualitative methodology for the study of desistance
Glowacz, Fabienne ULiege

Conference (2021, June)

Desistance has become in recent years a important research topic in criminological psychology, however the state of knowledge on this topic is still relatively limited. The desistance refers to the ... [more ▼]

Desistance has become in recent years a important research topic in criminological psychology, however the state of knowledge on this topic is still relatively limited. The desistance refers to the process by which people come to cease offending behavior. Studies on desistance are no longer focused on motivations explaining the delinquent trajectory, but try to understand “why” and especially “how” people get out of delinquency .This new scientific interest for going out of criminality brings the shift from risk-focused work to focused work on human resources. While early research has used quantitative methodology to measure the stop of criminal offenses, to understand the dynamics of the processes, the qualitative methodology is very interesting. Qualitative methods can approach the complexity of dynamics and processes of change mobilized in desistance. This presentation focuses on different methodology for studying the desistance in several areas: violent radicalization, domestic violence and juvenile delinquency with a clinical approach (case study), a longitudinal methodology and a Life course methodology. The relevance of these different methodologies and for the study of desistance will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLes traductions contemporaines de l’antiparlementarisme
Cervera-Marzal, Manuel ULiege

Conference (2021, May 27)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULiège)
See detailRéfléxions autour du mécénat cardinalice, Girolamo Colonna
Corswarem, Emilie ULiege

Conference (2021, May 21)

Le « pouvoir culturel » des cardinaux est relativement bien connu pour la Renaissance. Leur rôle est déterminant quant à la circulation des formes, des idées et des artistes dans l’Europe culturelle de ... [more ▼]

Le « pouvoir culturel » des cardinaux est relativement bien connu pour la Renaissance. Leur rôle est déterminant quant à la circulation des formes, des idées et des artistes dans l’Europe culturelle de l’époque. Nonobstant les réformes, plus ou moins timides, introduites à partir du Concile de Trente, le pouvoir économique des cardinaux demeure durant tout l’Ancien Régime. Rome est aujourd’hui encore marquée de leurs actions magnificentes. Cette intervention se concentre sur la fonction de protecteur de couronne qui est parfois associée au titre de cardinal, et en particulier sur Girolamo Colonna, cardinal-protecteur du Saint-Empire (1644-1664) et d’Aragon (1645-1666). L’étude de la nature et de l’ampleur de la contribution de Girolamo Colonna aux festivités célébrées par l’Empire ou l’Espagne à Rome met en évidence la fragilité de la distinction traditionnelle entre mécénat privé et public, et la porosité des catégories historiographiques traditionnelles envisageant de manière distincte la musique du palais ou celle de la chapelle. À la faveur de la fonction assumée pour une « nation » déterminée, le cardinal protecteur intervient à différents niveaux de la vie festive et musicale romaine. C’est tantôt lui qui initie les festivités, tantôt lui qui contribue à leur financement. Dans la mesure où certaines institutions nationales à Rome sont placées sous une domination politique plus rigide, certains assument aussi une fonction de contrôle protocolaire. Quel modèle analytique peut-on dès lors élaborer pour un tel type de mécénat ? Comment dépasser le modèle interprétatif de l’échange élémentaire entre prestige et protection ? Ou celui du geste politique d’affirmation sociale ou d’auto-légitimation du pouvoir dudit cardinal et du prestige de la nation qu’il représente ? Peut-on y voir aussi une certaine esthétisation de la politique, qui confèrerait à ce type de mécénat, ainsi que le suggère Claudio Annibaldi , une forme de supériorité spirituelle et éthique ? Le cas particulier du mécénat de Girolamo Colonna, relativement peu connu à ce jour, sert ici de cas d’étude à la réflexion. [less ▲]

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See detailL'apport de la papyrologie aux sciences de l'Antiquité
Carlig, Nathan ULiege

Conference (2021, May 20)

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See detailArm@rium et les collections patrimoniales de l’Université de Liège
Valenti, Gianluca ULiege; Macarenko, Aleuna ULiege

Conference (2021, May 07)

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See detailEffects of Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins on the Expression of Key Genes of Gammarus pulex at Two Exposure Times
Jaegers, Jeremy ULiege; Joaquim-Justo, Célia ULiege; Gismondi, Eric ULiege

Conference (2021, May 06)

Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are organic alkane formulations that are released in the environment by industrial processes and electronic waste. They are widely dispersed by wind and water ... [more ▼]

Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are organic alkane formulations that are released in the environment by industrial processes and electronic waste. They are widely dispersed by wind and water, and therefore have been found in numerous ecosystems and organisms worldwide, where they are not readily biodegradable. This long environmental half-life coupled with continuous dispersal on a planetary scale means that organisms may repeatedly be exposed to them at various time scales. Thus, this work aimed to investigate the effects of SCCPs on the relative mRNA levels of numerous genes involved in vital biological functions (osmoregulation, oxidative stress, the endocrine system, oxygen transportation, immunity and antitoxic defences) of males of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex. They were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of SCCPs (10, 100, and 1000 ng/L) at two exposure times (7 and 21 days). Results indicate that SCCPs significantly modified the expression of genes from all the studied functions, depending on exposure time. All studied functions were especially impacted in the acute 7 days exposure, while only the expression of genes involved in oxygen transportation, apoptosis regulation, and antioxidant functions was modified after 21 days. This work concludes that SCCPs impacted the expression of genes coding for antioxidant and antitoxic defences as well as endocrine, osmoregulatory, apoptotic and immune functions of G. pulex at ng/L concentrations, with this effect changing over time. The effects of these contaminants are under-studied in invertebrates, however these results indicate that further investigations may be warranted and needed to understand their potential effects on freshwater ecosystems. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of advanced electrodes materials for alkali‐ ions batteries by spray‐drying method
Bodart, Jérôme ULiege; Eshraghi, Nicolas ULiege; Piffet, Caroline ULiege et al

Conference (2021, May 05)

Developing new materials with high performance, long cycle life while being environmentally friendly and affordable has become a main challenge of our time in promoting energy storage technologies. To ... [more ▼]

Developing new materials with high performance, long cycle life while being environmentally friendly and affordable has become a main challenge of our time in promoting energy storage technologies. To successfully meet this challenge, it is essential to find effective methods of optimizing electrode materials. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that purity of the materials, composition, particle size, crystallinity, aggregation, and porosity of the particles are features which determine the electrochemical performance of the battery materials. Furthermore, optimizing the microstructure is a key parameter to obtain advanced performance materials. These parameters are related to the synthesis methods and conditions used to obtain the electrode material Therefore, it is essential to find a suitable and versatile synthesis method to prepare the active electrode material. Spray-drying is an easy method to control the morphological properties of the electrode materials. In addition to its versatility, spray-drying method has the advantages of being cost effective, easily up-scalable and allow obtaining highly homogenous composites powders 1. This makes it a method of choice for synthesizing complex (multi-component) powders with a high homogeneity, characterized with a very good electrochemical properties. In this presentation, we will show a summary of our recent results obtained in battery field using spray-drying method at GREEnMat laboratory. Spray-drying method was used to synthesize different polyanionic compounds as active cathode materials for Na/K-ion batteries (such as Na2FePO4F, Na3V2(PO4)2F3 and K3V(PO4)2 and K3Fe2(PO4)3) and also to enhance their electronic conductivity by addition of carbon sources 2-4. Spray-drying was also used as shaping method in the case of nano-structured silicon recovered from solar panel as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. One of the main problems with silicon anode material is the volume expansion during cycling. The spray-drying method has allowed the structuration of the silicon in order to reduce the volume expansion and thus offer a long cycling life 5. The influence of the synthesis method and the addition of carbon sources on the structural, morphological, electrochemical properties of the electrode materials has been rigorously analyzed by combining different characterization techniques such as: XRD, SEM and TEM, Mössbauer spectroscopy (for iron containing material), BET, Cyclic Voltammetry, Galvanostatic cycling etc.References : 1- Vertruyen, B.; Eshraghi, N.; Piffet, C.; Bodart, J.; Mahmoud, A.; Boschini, F. Spray-Drying of Electrode Materials for Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Batteries. Materials (Basel). 2018, 11 (7). 2- Mahmoud, A.; Caes, S.; Brisbois, M.; Hermann, R. P.; Berardo, L.; Schrijnemakers, A.; Malherbe, C.; Eppe, G.; Cloots, R.; Vertruyen, B.; et al. Spray-Drying as a Tool to Disperse Conductive Carbon inside Na2FePO4F Particles by Addition of Carbon Black or Carbon Nanotubes to the Precursor Solution. J. Solid State Electrochem. 2018, 22 (1), 103–112. 3- Eshraghi, N.; Caes, S.; Mahmoud, A.; Cloots, R.; Vertruyen, B.; Boschini, F. Sodium Vanadium (III) Fluorophosphate/Carbon Nanotubes Composite (NVPF/CNT) Prepared by Spray-Drying: Good Electrochemical Performance Thanks to Well-Dispersed CNT Network within NVPF Particles. Electrochim. Acta 2017, 228, 319–324. 4- Bodart, J.; Eshraghi, N.; Carabin, T.; Vertruyen, B.; Cloots, R.; Boschini, F.; Mahmoud, A. Spray-Dried K3V(PO4)2/C Composites as Novel Cathode Materials for K-Ion Batteries with Superior Electrochemical Performance. J. Power Sources 2020, 480 (June). 5- Eshraghi, N.; Berardo, L.; Schrijnemakers, A.; Delaval, V.; Shaibani, M.; Majumder, M.; Cloots, R.; Vertruyen, B.; Boschini, F.; Mahmoud, A. Recovery of Nano-Structured Silicon from End-of-Life Photovoltaic Wafers with Value-Added Applications in Lithium- Ion Battery. ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 2020, 8 (15), 5868–5879. [less ▲]

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See detailSeaDataCloud Data Products for the European marginal seas and the Global Ocean
Simoncelli, Simona; Coatanoan, Christine; Myroshnychenko, Volodymyr et al

Conference (2021, May)

Data products, based on in situ temperature and salinity observations from SeaDataNet infrastructure, have been released within the framework of SeaDataCloud (SDC) project. The data from different data ... [more ▼]

Data products, based on in situ temperature and salinity observations from SeaDataNet infrastructure, have been released within the framework of SeaDataCloud (SDC) project. The data from different data providers are integrated and harmonized thanks to standardized quality assurance and quality control methodologies conducted at various stages of the data value chain. The data ingested within SeaDataNet are earlier validated by data providers who assign corresponding quality flags, but a Quality Assurance Strategy has been implemented and progressively refined to guarantee the consistency of the database content and high quality derived products. Two versions of aggregated datasets for the European marginal seas have been published and used to compute regional high resolution climatologies. External datasets, the World Ocean Database from NOAA and the CORA dataset from the Copernicus Marine Service in situ Thematic Assembly Center, have been integrated with SDC data collections to maximize data coverage and minimize the mapping error. The products are available through the SDC catalogue accompanied by Product Information Documents containing the specifications about product’s generation, characteristics and usability. Digital Object Identifiers are assigned to products and relative documentation to foster transparency of the production chain, acknowledging all actors involved from data providers to information producers. [less ▲]

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See detailProposition d'un modèle intégrateur portant sur la place des émotions dans la réception et l'interprétation de feedbacks en contexte académique
Hausman, Matthieu ULiege

Conference (2021, April 30)

Communication brève, relative à l'enjeu de la thèse de doctorat menée actuellement par l'auteur dans le cadre de la session "Ma recherche en trois minutes" du colloque. La présentation pose le cadre de la ... [more ▼]

Communication brève, relative à l'enjeu de la thèse de doctorat menée actuellement par l'auteur dans le cadre de la session "Ma recherche en trois minutes" du colloque. La présentation pose le cadre de la recherche qui vise en priorité deux objectifs : [1] la compréhension de la façon du le processus émotionnel s'intègre au processus de réception et interprétation de feebbacks en contexte académique et [2] le soutien au développement des compétences émotionnelles des étudiants en vue de faire un usage constructifs de ces mêmes feedbacks. [less ▲]

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See detailParameters influencing green roof carbon and nutrient stocks
Steenaerts, Laure; Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Carnol, Monique ULiege et al

Conference (2021, April 30)

Increasing urbanization brings along problems such as elevated CO2 emissions, eutrophication, air and water pollution, floods, rising temperature and a decrease in biodiversity. Urban green ... [more ▼]

Increasing urbanization brings along problems such as elevated CO2 emissions, eutrophication, air and water pollution, floods, rising temperature and a decrease in biodiversity. Urban green infrastructures, such as green roofs, have the potential to help mitigate those by using the properties of natural ecosystems and the services they provide in a “engineered” way. Green roofs can for example act as buffers and filters for carbon (C), nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and water. Hereby improving CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere by capturing it in plant biomass and improving eutrophication by retaining some dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and mineral N and P in the substrate. In this research we determine which green roof properties affect the C, N and P cycle in a beneficial way. Therefore, we investigate the influence of different parameters (i.e. roof age, roof size, vegetation type (Sedum and herbs vs. Sedum-only), fertilization, substrate depth, substrate water content, substrate bulk density, substrate pH, plant biomass, plant C/N ratio, N mineralization and nitrification) on the C and nutrient stocks of green roofs. We hypothesize that vegetation type and roof age will be the main factors influencing the C and nutrient stocks. A roof with Sedum and herbs will have a higher nutrient and C input resulting in higher stocks compared to a Sedum-only roof because herbs have a higher turn-over rate compared to Sedum-species. Furthermore, older roofs will stock more C. In the beginning C will be mainly sequestered in plant biomass until the roof is densely covered. Here after, green roofs will be able to build up an organic matter layer if the net primary production exceeds decomposition. To assess the influence of these parameters on the C, N and P stocks, twelve extensive green roofs were investigated in Belgium. The substrate and vegetation of every roof was sampled at four timepoints (spring, summer and autumn of 2019, winter 2020). Substrate samples were analyzed for stocks (total C, total N, total P) along with other abiotic soil parameters as well as some key soil processes (N mineralization and relative nitrification) for soil fertility. Our first findings show, as expected, that roofs with Sedum and herbs have an increased total C, N and P in their substrate. In addition, C and P stocks are significantly influenced by roof age: while P stocks slightly decrease over time, C stocks only increased transiently —against our predictions—, with a peak at around 9 years old. [less ▲]

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See detailLes aspects fiscaux des augmentations de capital et de capitaux propres
Richelle, Isabelle ULiege

Conference (2021, April 29)

Les aspects fiscaux des augmentations de capital et de capitaux propres

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See detailLe projet ULLA : développement d’une application de diffusion de feedbacks à distance : initiation d’une démarche institutionnelle de Learning Analytics
Hausman, Matthieu ULiege; Crahay, Vinciane ULiege; Verpoorten, Dominique ULiege et al

Conference (2021, April 29)

Notre communication porte sur le développement d’une interface qui constitue la première pierre d’une ambitieuse démarche de Learning Analytics au sein de notre institution. Après un premier rapport ... [more ▼]

Notre communication porte sur le développement d’une interface qui constitue la première pierre d’une ambitieuse démarche de Learning Analytics au sein de notre institution. Après un premier rapport faisant état du potentiel de ce champ pour l’enseignement supérieur belge francophone, nous avons entamé le développement d’une interface dédiée à la production de feedbacks semi automatisés à l’intention des étudiants. Cette interface se décline en deux outils complémentaires, un portail web et une application smartphone. Le premier outil est destiné aux enseignants qui pourront paramétrer des feedbacks globaux et/ou personnalisés à destination de leurs étudiants, suivre la consultation de ces feedbacks et initier un dialogue constructif. L’interface est aussi destinée à l’usage de conseillers pédagogiques et de chercheurs qui pourront, respectivement, proposer une série de recommandations ponctuelles aux étudiants, proposer des enquêtes en ligne et exploiter les données d’utilisation de l’application. Cette application permettra aux étudiants d’utiliser quatre grandes fonctionnalités ; 1) consulter leurs feedbacks, 2) répondre à des enquêtes, 3) recevoir des conseils et 4) partager leur ressenti. Cette dernière fonctionnalité répond à un intérêt croissant pour le rôle des émotions dans les apprentissages et, dans le cas présent, dans la réception/interprétation de feedbacks à distance. [less ▲]

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See detailImagining Queer Futures: Postcolonial Utopias of Desires in Trinidadian Writing
Bomans, Bastien ULiege

Conference (2021, April 29)

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See detailClassification et effets des tableaux de bord d’apprentissage: une revue systématique
Lejeune, Sara; Verpoorten, Dominique ULiege

Conference (2021, April 29)

Dans le contexte d’une hybridation de l’enseignement supérieur à la fois urgente et croissante, les données des étudiants issues de l’utilisation des plateformes d’apprentissage représentent une mine ... [more ▼]

Dans le contexte d’une hybridation de l’enseignement supérieur à la fois urgente et croissante, les données des étudiants issues de l’utilisation des plateformes d’apprentissage représentent une mine d’informations. A l’aide des Learning Analytics, ces traces numériques sont converties en indicateurs, que l’on peut présenter visuellement sous la forme tableaux de bord d’apprentissage (TBA). Le but d’un TBA est de renvoyer à l’utilisateur une représentation immédiatement intelligible de sa situation : sa progression, sa gestion du temps et des ressources, comment il se positionne par rapport à ses objectifs… Cette étude est une revue systématique visant à documenter les différentes étapes et réflexions nécessaires à l’implémentation d’un TBA, ainsi qu’à identifier les plus-values avérées de ces derniers pour les étudiants. Les résultats permettent de classer les TBA selon les buts poursuivis, le type de données exploitées, les représentations choisies, et l’approche dans la conception et l’implémentation. De plus, l’implémentation d’un TBA au sein d’un cours semble avoir un effet sur la réussite scolaire, la motivation et l’investissement dans l’apprentissage, ainsi que sur la réflexion et la prise de décisions. Ce travail soulève la question de la comparaison sociale que l’on retrouve dans les TBA, et interroge le bien-fondé de cette pratique. [less ▲]

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See detailIndicators of soil functioning in conventional, conservation and organic agriculture
Carnol, Monique ULiege; Chartin, Caroline; Krüger, Inken et al

Conference (2021, April 27)

Sustainable management of agricultural systems is a major challenge for ensuring food security of the growing world population. Organic farming and reduced tillage are assumed to be sustainable ... [more ▼]

Sustainable management of agricultural systems is a major challenge for ensuring food security of the growing world population. Organic farming and reduced tillage are assumed to be sustainable agricultural practices improving soil quality relative to conventional management strategies. However, assessment of soil quality is often restrained to either physical, chemical or biological parameters. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the most widely used indicator of soil quality, but it is not necessarily reactive to change, nor representative of the functioning of soil systems, in particular in relation to the realization of soil microbial processes, as it is composed of fractions with different availability for microbial activity and decomposition. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of three major cropping systems: organic agriculture and conservation agriculture (no/reduced-tillage) vs. conventional agriculture on SOC fractions and microbial processes related to C and N cycling and to establish relationships between carbon fractions and microbial processes in order to identify the most relevant indicator of soil functioning. We hypothesized that 1) organic farming and conservation agriculture would improve soil functioning, 2) labile organic fractions would be better indicators of soil functioning. We measured C and N in physical and chemical fractions (bulk, <20 µm, 20-2000µm, dissolved organic C, hot water extractable C, water soluble C, K2SO4 extractable C, microbial biomass C) and microbial processes (respiration potential, net N mineralization, metabolic diversity of soil bacteria) in 16 cropland sites in Wallonia, south Belgium (CARBIOSOL project). Preliminary data analyses indicate improved soil functioning in organic managed sites relative to sites under conventional and conservation management and reveal hot water extractable carbon as a promising proxy for monitoring changes in soil functioning in response to agricultural practices. Final detailed data analyses will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailDo motivation and participation predict student performance in blended learning?
Sacre, Margault ULiege; Lafontaine, Dominique ULiege; Policard, Florence et al

Conference (2021, April 24)

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted higher education. It is likely that blended and distance education systems will be used on a massive scale in the post-pandemic period. However, the governing bodies of ... [more ▼]

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted higher education. It is likely that blended and distance education systems will be used on a massive scale in the post-pandemic period. However, the governing bodies of universities and colleges are all asking the same question: Will this transition benefit students? In this study, we aim to assess the effect of motivation and participation on student success in a blended course. The program offered to the students is organized according to an alternation between distance learning and face-to-face sessions. The totality of the learning content is proposed in video clips accessible on the Moodle platform. Motivation is an essential variable because it has a strong influence on different academic variables such as persistence, commitment and success (Darnon & Butera, 2005; Dweck, 1986). In some blended courses, student engagement may be weakened compared to a traditional teaching context (Tuckman, 2007, cited by (Sun & Rueda, 2012)). However, student engagement is seen as a fundamental variable (Sun & Rueda, 2012). In blended or distance education, an easily observable aspect of student engagement can be measured through student participation, which is one of the indicator of student engagement (Baragash & Al-Samarraie, 2018; Cacciamani et al., 2012; Hrastinski, 2008). We measured motivation using two scales: academic self-concept (Dierendonck, 2008) and achievement goals (Darnon & Butera, 2005). The indicator of online participation corresponds to the number of logs on the platform. A multiple regression model including many control variables (age, gender, social status, educational and professional background, access to ICT, attitudes towards ICT, previous knowledge) was designed. The backward method was chosen in order to keep only the variables that contribute significantly to R2. The results show that two achievement goals and participation predict student performance. More specifically, we see a positive effect of performance-approach goals and mastery-avoidance goals. There was no effect of academic self-concept. The performance-approach goals correspond to the desire to be competent in relation to others and therefore refer to normative comparisons. This result would be a reflection of the higher education context in which they appear since competence can be defined in terms of relative ability and normative comparisons (Barron & Harackiewicz, 2003). In addition, student persistence is positively influenced by the adoption of performance-approach goals (Ferla et al., 2010). Mastery avoidance goals are goals adopted to avoid not mastering the task or regressing. It is possible that despite the insecurity of students who adopt these goals, they may remain focused on their learning objectives. Finally, this study shows that participation in online activities is a key consideration when designing blended courses. [less ▲]

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See detailFameux ou infâmes? Bonnes et mauvaises réputations aux/des Temps Modernes - Introduction de la journée
Duriau, Nicolas; Regibeau, Julien ULiege

Conference (2021, April 23)

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See detailThe "Société générale" case
Richelle, Isabelle ULiege

Conference (2021, April 22)

Presentation of the "Société générale" C-403/19 case

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (1 ULiège)
See detailWeaving Myths: Homer and the Trojan War's Tapestries in the Renaissance
Laruelle, Anne-Sophie ULiege

Conference (2021, April 22)

The Trojan War was a particularly prolific motif for European tapestries in the Renaissance. Until the beginning of the sixteenth century, the complex narrative of the medium was based not on Homer, but ... [more ▼]

The Trojan War was a particularly prolific motif for European tapestries in the Renaissance. Until the beginning of the sixteenth century, the complex narrative of the medium was based not on Homer, but on more recent retellings. According to our current research, the mid-century appears as a turning point for the iconographic schemes. This paper will especially focus on a Brussels set of the "Story of Ulysses", largely unknown today, for which numerous pieces have survived. Our findings provide valuable new insights regarding this idiosyncratic iconography, and more broadly on the reception of Homer in Netherlandish art [less ▲]

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See detailStrutt house: Preserving an icon of Canadian modern architecture
Jouan, Pierre-André ULiege

Conference (2021, April 21)

Presentation of conservation issues related to the preservation of the Strutt House, located in Canada's National Capital Region (NCR).

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See detailOdour sampling system with remote triggering: feedback from a Belgian experience
Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Fays, Sébastien

Conference (2021, April 21)

An automatic odour sampling system can be activated remotely to collect samples when an odour event is perceived. Activation of sampling can be done by a neighbour when he smells an odour but also by an ... [more ▼]

An automatic odour sampling system can be activated remotely to collect samples when an odour event is perceived. Activation of sampling can be done by a neighbour when he smells an odour but also by an environmental agency, a laboratory or local authorities. Another approach is instrumental triggering for instance by a chemical analyser, an instrumental odour monitoring system (e-nose) or even simply by a wind vane. Remote odour sampling is particularly useful in ambient air at the receptor site and at the fenceline when emissions and perceptions are not continuous. It is ideal for cases of short exposition time and low frequency. Indeed, in most cases, the service in charge of the odour sampling is not close enough to arrive during the odour event and collect/measure the odour during a complaint in order to “objective” it [1]. If there is a temperature system conditioning, it allows for sampling at any time of the day and the night while maintaining a good preservation of the odour in the bags (among others preventing condensation). Complementary sampling/measurement materials like adsorbent tubes and low cost gas sensors can be activated at the same time as the odour bag sampling. Odour correlation with chemicals is then possible. The study in Belgium was performed with the collaboration of the local authorities: they were in charge of activating the sampling devices located in the close proximity of industrial areas. Two samplers (Odorprep®) were installed in a Wallonia industrial valley, where odour complaints were usual. The campaign had lasted from November 2018 to September 2019. Two trailers, from ISSeP, equipped with air quality analyzers, measured half-hourly NH3, H2S, BTEX, limonene and pinene. A meteorological weather station measured wind direction and speed, T, RH and pressure. Olfactometric analyses were performed by ULiège SAM laboratory with a TO Evolution 6FC according to EN 13725. One aim was to use the odour concentrations measured at the receptor level in order to estimate an odour emission rate [2]. Odour dispersion modelling is performed with ADMS 5 software (CERC). A second goal was to study potential correlation of the odour event and some chemical compounds. The results (odour concentration, chemicals concentration, dispersion model results, weather conditions) will be presented as well as the assessment of strengths and weaknesses of the automatic sampling system. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of out-of-equilibrium thermo-physical properties of AlSi10Mg processed by LPBF through modeling and experiment
Delahaye, Jocelyn ULiege; Delahaye, Jocelyn ULiege; Mertens, Anne ULiege et al

Conference (2021, April 21)

The AlSi10Mg processed by the additive manufacturing Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) exhibits an out of-equilibrium microstructure as a result of rapid solidification inside the melt pool. During the ... [more ▼]

The AlSi10Mg processed by the additive manufacturing Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) exhibits an out of-equilibrium microstructure as a result of rapid solidification inside the melt pool. During the measurement of the thermo-physical properties, the as-built microstructure undergoes a transformation at high temperature accompanying by a change of properties. To address the device limitation over this temperature range, the thermo-physical properties of the as-built AlSi10Mg is investigated through a CALPHAD (CALculation of Phase Diagram) model associated to a non-equilibrium solidification model. The computed thermo-physical properties is in agreement with the experimental one at low temperature where the as-built microstructure is conserved while the models provide extrapolated values at high temperature. The corresponding thermo-physical data can be used as inputs for models of the LPBF process. [less ▲]

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See detailLes papes dans l’œuvre de Liudprand de Crémone († 972) – un témoignage authentique ? La construction de récit face à la réalité historique
Rozein, Matthias ULiege

Conference (2021, April 21)

Cette communication retrace la manière dont Liudprand de Crémone représente les papes du début du Xe siècle dans sa chronique Antapodosis. Ce portrait des évêques de Rome – au fondement de la notion de ... [more ▼]

Cette communication retrace la manière dont Liudprand de Crémone représente les papes du début du Xe siècle dans sa chronique Antapodosis. Ce portrait des évêques de Rome – au fondement de la notion de "pornocratie romaine" – ne reflète pas une réalité historique authentique. Liudprand offre à son lecteur une image d'une Rome qui se trouverait dans les mains d’une élite qui aurait abandonné toutes les règles de bonne conduite. Ce témoignage, délibérément construit, marque un écrit de combat. Celui-ci vise à rétablir la mémoire mise à mal du pape Formose et de ses soutiens et à incriminer la classe politique romaine qui s'est établie à la suite de la seconde condamnation de Formose en 904 par Serge III jusqu'à Jean X et Marozia. [less ▲]

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See detailControlling porosity and protein release profile of nanofibrillar chitosan scaffolds
Jérôme, Christine ULiege; Haji Mansor, Muhammad; Colige, Alain ULiege et al

Conference (2021, April 21)

Chitosan is an abundantly common, naturally occurring, polysaccharide biopolymer. Its biocompatible, biodegradable, and antimicrobial properties have led to significant research toward biological ... [more ▼]

Chitosan is an abundantly common, naturally occurring, polysaccharide biopolymer. Its biocompatible, biodegradable, and antimicrobial properties have led to significant research toward biological applications such as drug delivery, artificial tissue scaffolds for functional tissue engineering, and wound-healing dressings. For applications such as tissue scaffolding, formation of highly porous mats of nanometer-sized fibers, such as those fabricated via electrospinning demonstrated high potentials. In this framework, we have as first objective to control better the scaffold porosity by decreasing the fiber density while keeping enough mechanical performances to be handled and implanted. By playing on the design of the collector used for electrospinning, we have developed structured fiber mats that meet both targeted high porosity and mechanical resistance properties. In a second objective, strategies have been developed allowing proteins encapsulation within the chitosan scaffolds for locoregional release. The electrospinning process has been optimized in order to preserve the protein integrity and its biological activity. Various release profiles of the protein have been achieved from the structured electrospun scaffolds. A sustained release has been obtained by the use of proteins loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles. The developed electrospinning process allowing both the precise control of the porosity and of the release profile of a protein will be useful for elaborating porosity and concentration gradients which are critical when developing biomimetic scaffolds aiming to control cell migration and trapping. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic management of networks as revealed by DYNAVERSITY case studies
Klaedtke, Stéphanie ULiege; Hecquet, Corentin ULiege; Stassart, Pierre M ULiege

Conference (2021, April 20)

In the framework of the DYNAVERSITY project, 21 case studies lead to the identification of 4 main obstacles for crop diversity initiatives and 4 types of "bridges" (networking practices), that allow to ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the DYNAVERSITY project, 21 case studies lead to the identification of 4 main obstacles for crop diversity initiatives and 4 types of "bridges" (networking practices), that allow to ovecome those obstacles. Based on that analysis, 5 recommendations were formulated to support networking within and among crop diversity initiatives in Europe. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailLeaving the triangle: marine tetrapod tooth guilds using automated high-density 3d geometric morphometrics
Fischer, Valentin ULiege; Maclaren, James ULiege; Bennion, Rebecca ULiege et al

Conference (2021, April 20)

Defining feeding guilds based on tooth morphology is an entire subfield in marine tetrapod science, which essentially started with a seminal paper by Judy Massare in 1987. However, these assessments have ... [more ▼]

Defining feeding guilds based on tooth morphology is an entire subfield in marine tetrapod science, which essentially started with a seminal paper by Judy Massare in 1987. However, these assessments have mostly been qualitative, subjectively placing teeth on a triangle using a series of criteria that draw both from tooth shape, rarely preserved gut content, and killing/hunting behaviour. Moreover, some of the data at the foundation of these guilds have proven to be debatable and there is an ever clearer need for a testable, quantitative framework to assess feeding guilds. We develop a novel protocol that incorporates the pseudo-landmarking technique into high-density geometric morphometrics procedures, sampling 3D surface models of tooth crowns automatically and densely (e.g. 2000 surface landmarks) after placing just 5 fixed landmarks on each tooth. This very dense sampling of shape permits full characterisation of crown shape, and we provide the first ever quantification of dental morphospace occupation among a sample of mosasaurs, ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, archaeocetes, and odontocetes with conical (i.e., non-multicuspid) teeth. A crushing-to-piercing transition is evident along the first axis of the PCA-based morphospace, while the presence and shape of carinae, as well as crown curvature, is captured by the second axis. This allows an efficient visualisation of tooth shape differences and definition of regions/guilds with just two axes that explain ca. 90% of the total variance. Because crown shape has a direct functional signal, our results provide important data to better understand how marine tetrapods evolved and functioned. Despite their gigantic size, the teeth of the largest marine macropredator ever, the physeteroid Livyatan melvillei, have crowns with an unremarkable shape, occupying a position close to the center of the morphospace. In fact, peculiar structures such as crown curvature or carinae are mostly recorded on medium-sized teeth, suggesting that a scaling factor is at play. Similarly, crown shapes that have rarely or never been evolved, either by certain groups or during certain time periods, also carries information. For example, the perfectly straight teeth of the Early Jurassic ichthyosaurian Temnodontosaurus platyodon with protruding flange-like carinae are unique and indicate neoichthyosaurians developed a unique pathway towards hypercarnivory, albeit only once. Further work will incorporate as many different taxa and tooth-shapes into the morphospace as possible to usher in a new, quantitative paradigm for understanding marine tetrapod feeding ecology. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon Dioxide for Producing Non-Isocyanate Polyurethane Foams, Adhesives, Hydrogels and—Much More!
Detrembleur, Christophe ULiege; Siragusa, Fabiana ULiege; Habets, Thomas ULiege et al

Conference (2021, April 19)

The recycling of carbon dioxide (CO2) by transforming this waste into value has become a major goal in contemporary science. Strategies are emerging to turn this renewable carbon feedstock into valuable ... [more ▼]

The recycling of carbon dioxide (CO2) by transforming this waste into value has become a major goal in contemporary science. Strategies are emerging to turn this renewable carbon feedstock into valuable engineering plastics while diversifying renewable resources for the sustainable production of consumer materials. Novel routes to efficiently turn CO2 into polymers are expected to accelerate and facilitate the transition from existing fossil-based to future generations of more sustainable materials while trying to meet the requirements of a circular economy for consumer plastics. In the first part of this talk, we will discuss how CO2 can be converted into monomers that are then involved in step-growth copolymerizations with diamines to produce non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs), greener variants of conventional polyurethanes that are commonly prepared by the toxic isocyanate chemistry. These monomers can be easily and quantitatively produced at the multi-kg scale under solvent-free conditions in our lab. We will show how they can be exploited to design some representative high performance NIPUs materials. We will first discuss how adhesives and coatings can be produced under solvent-free conditions, with adhesion performances on various substrates (aluminum, wood, stainless steel, glass) that compete to those of commercial products, provided that appropriate curing is applied. We will then report on an innovative robust and solvent-free process for the construction of flexible or rigid self-blown NIPU foams that offers the first realistic alternative to the traditional isocyanate route. In this process, the CO2-based monomer is not only exploited to construct the NIPU matrix but also for its self-blowing. If time permits, we will also show that NIPUs hydrogels can be produced in water at room temperature without any catalyst with impressive short gel times. These hydrogels can be easily reinforced by introducing natural polymers or clay in the formulations prior to curing. All these technologies can be easily scaled-up and are highly versatile, opening new opportunities in the design of more sustainable materials while valorizing CO2 as a renewable carbon feedstock. In the second part of the talk, we will describe an innovative approach for the facile preparation of new regioregular functional NIPUs (e.g. poly(oxo-urethane)s and poly(oxazolidone)s) at room temperature by using a novel family of monomers prepared by the CO2 chemistry. The special reactivity of these monomers will be discussed, and if time permits, we will show how they can be exploited for the facile construction of other relevant polymers (e.g. polycarbonates, sulfur-containing polymers) under mild operating conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailRecyclable epoxy vitrimers based on imidazolium-catalyzed dynamic ester cross-links
Debuigne, Antoine ULiege; Falireas, Panagiotis ULiege; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULiege

Conference (2021, April 19)

Thermosets, and epoxy resins in particular, constitute an important class of materials on the global polymer market that are valued in plethora of applications requiring superior mechanical properties as ... [more ▼]

Thermosets, and epoxy resins in particular, constitute an important class of materials on the global polymer market that are valued in plethora of applications requiring superior mechanical properties as well as thermal and chemical stability. As downside, however, they can hardly be recycled and reprocessed due to their permanent cross-linked architecture. In response to this concern, adaptable covalent networks featuring dynamic cross-linking based on associative exchange reactions, also called vitrimers, emerged some years ago. Above a certain temperature, the kinetic of the exchange reactions increases significantly, the topology of the network changes and the material can be reshaped or healed. In the case of epoxy-acid vitrimers, the relaxation of the network relies on transesterification exchanges promoted by catalysts such as zinc carboxylates, organotin compounds, triphenylphosphine, etc. Despite the recognized activity of the latter, the search for alternative non-toxic catalysts with high efficiency, low leaching tendency as well as heat and air sensitivity is still relevant. As will be discussed in the communication, driven by the attractive properties and catalytic activity of ionic liquids (ILs), we designed epoxy-acid resins in the presence of ILs for the first time and produced unprecedented imidazolium-catalyzed epoxy vitrimers. In addition to outstanding features such as chemical and thermal stability, low vapor pressure, high conductivity, imidazolium salts are known as very efficient homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts especially in transesterification reactions. In practice, a series of cross-linked epoxy-acid networks were synthesized from diepoxy and diacid compounds cured in the presence of imidazolium acetate catalysts obtained via a single-step and atom economical Radziszewski multicomponent reaction. The impact of the imidazolium on the course of the curing reaction, the structure of networks and the mechanical properties, will be discussed. The vitrimer-like properties of these IL-containing networks, and so the ability of the imidazolium additives to catalyze the transesterification exchange reactions, will also be demonstrated via stress relaxation experiments. The effect of the nature and concentration of the imidazolium derivatives on the network dynamics will also be discussed. Finally, it will be shown that such imidazolium-containing resins can be recycled several times while preserving their excellent mechanical properties. In addition to demonstrate the capacity of ILs to play the role of catalysts in the field of adaptable networks, this contribution also emphasizes that a low amount of imidazolium within ester networks is likely to induce some relaxation. Moreover, given the great variety of ILs and the large set of reactions they can catalyze, this approach should be applicable to adaptable networks governed by other types of crosslinking bonds and could contribute to the recycling of various polymer resins in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailA Semi-Continuous Flow Platform for the Direct Preparation of Novel Cyclic Phosphate Monomers from Bulk Chemicals and Their Further Polymerization Toward Functional Polyphosphoesters
Morodo Martinez, Romain ULiege; Riva, Raphaël ULiege; Jérôme, Christine ULiege et al

Conference (2021, April 19)

Polyphosphoesters have recently emerged as new materials for biomedical applications thanks to their biocompatibility and biodegradability properties that can be finely tuned by varying their functional ... [more ▼]

Polyphosphoesters have recently emerged as new materials for biomedical applications thanks to their biocompatibility and biodegradability properties that can be finely tuned by varying their functional side-chains linked to a pentavalent phosphorus. The preparation of polyphosphoesters frequently relies on the ring-opening polymerization of 5-membered cyclic phosphate monomers (CPMs), which are generally synthetized through a 3-step procedure. Starting from bulk chemicals the preparation of such monomers by a batch process is time-consuming, difficult to scale-up and involves safety concerns such as the uncontrolled generation of HCl by-product and the handling of sensitive and corrosive intermediates. To this end, we developed a semi-continuous flow platform allowing the direct preparation of CPMs starting from PCl3 and a 1,2-diol derivative without isolation of the intermediates. The first step involved the preparation of cyclic chlorophosphite derivatives by reacting a neat diol with a highly concentrated organic solution of PCl3 at room temperature with an associated residence time of 1 minute in a compact coil reactor. This procedure allowed to produce a wide range of novel cyclic chlorophosphites starting from various diols in moderate to high yields and with a daily productivity of up to ~500 g. The scope was also extended to thioalcohol, dithiol, aminoalcohol and diamine derivatives and the process was eventually adapted to a base-involving procedure allowing the conversion of more demanding substrates such as highly hindered pinacol-type diols. The next oxidation step toward cyclic chlorophosphates was directly concatenated with the upstream production of chlorophosphites in a single continuous flow system. A high pressure and an improved mixing capacity allowed to perform the oxidation using 4 equivalents of molecular oxygen in only 21 seconds of residence time at 65 °C toward a quantitative conversion while batch procedures usually require tens of hours or days of reaction time. A final functionalization of chlorophosphates toward various CPMs was subsequently integrated in a semi-continuous flow platform where the effluent coming from the oxidation step is directly reacted in a batch reactor. The system allowed to produce the CPMs directly from PCl3 in an extremely shortened time by a single process without purification and isolation of the sensitive intermediates while mitigating the hazards linked the corrosive derivatives produced. Among the novel monomers prepared, a bifunctional derivative was successfully copolymerized by ring-opening polymerization allowing the introduction of a typical alkoxy pendant group linked to a pentavalent phosphorus and an additional convertible chloromethyl function directly linked to a main-chain carbon. The introduction of such functionalizations opens new opportunities for the preparation of novel materials with various properties which could be time-dependent through the quick (P-linked group) or slower (C-linked group) degradation of the polyphosphoester linkages. [less ▲]

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See detailBiodegradable aliphatic polyphosphoester-based particles — green production by batch and flow processes
Lecomte, Philippe ULiege; Jérôme, Christine ULiege; Monbaliu, Jean-Christophe ULiege et al

Conference (2021, April 19)

Nano- and microparticles are used as carriers for the controlled delivery of an active ingredient with a high potential for applications for, among others, the health care and personal care industry ... [more ▼]

Nano- and microparticles are used as carriers for the controlled delivery of an active ingredient with a high potential for applications for, among others, the health care and personal care industry. Particles made up of aliphatic polylactones, typically, polylactide, polyglycolide and polycaprolactone are very well-known since many years. Aliphatic polyphosphoesters less popular even though they this class of polymers has witnessed a renewed interest. This communication aims at comparing the potential of aliphatic polylactones and aliphatic polyphophoesters with a special attention paid on particles, based on the recent developments carried out in the Center of Education and Research of Macromolecules of the University of Liège. Ring-opening polymerization of 5-membered cyclic polyphosphoesters is very efficient for the synthesis of high molar mass aliphatic polyphosphoesters. As far as cyclic 5-memberd phosphates are concerned, their extremely high sensitivity to hydrolysis remains a strong limitation at the time being. In this context, efficient processes allowing the synthesis of a wide range of aliphatic polyphosphoesters, functionalized or not, will be reported based on: (1) flow technologies, (2) organocatalysis and (3) chemical modification of the polymers. Advantages and drawbacks of aliphatic polyphosphoesters compared to polyesters will be detailed with a special attention on both the synthesis of these polymers and their properties, to assess their potential for future applications. Particles made up of biodegradable poly(phospho)esters will be shown to be prepared by the self-assembly of amphiphilic polymers or by nanoprecipitation in batch or in flow reactors. Depending on the preparation process and the chemical structure of the polyesters, the size and size-dispersity of particles as well as the loading content, loading efficiency and release rate of a model active ingredient will be discussed. Acknowlegements: Philippe Lecomte is research associate by the belgian FNRS. The authors thanks all the partners of the IN-Flow project carried out under the Interreg V-A Euregio Meuse-Rhine Programme, with €2.1 million from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). By investing EU funds in Interreg projects, the European Union invests directly in economic development, innovation, territorial development, social inclusion, and education in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine. [less ▲]

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See detailPerception amodale, Intersensorialité, Synesthésie. Introduction aux enjeux du séminaire.
Hagelstein, Maud ULiege

Conference (2021, April 19)

Si on s’aventure au contact d’œuvres d’art contemporaines, on trouve de nombreuses expériences hors-normes, ou en tout cas hors des normes de l’expérience sensible ordinaire. Et tout ceci m’a donné une ... [more ▼]

Si on s’aventure au contact d’œuvres d’art contemporaines, on trouve de nombreuses expériences hors-normes, ou en tout cas hors des normes de l’expérience sensible ordinaire. Et tout ceci m’a donné une première fois envie de travailler la question du rapport (ou du non-rapport) entre les sens et des modèles qui permettent de le théoriser. Doit-on reconnaître et décrire les liens entre les modalités sensorielles comme des liens de solidarité, d’alliance, de renforcement, de concurrence, de désaccord ou de conflit ? Comment penser leur éventuelle unité et pour quels types d’expérience ? Et, à rebours de cette quête d’unité, quelles sont les expériences qui réclament de sortir du holisme perceptif ? Autrement dit : Y a-t-il des situations empiriques particulières (existentielles, cliniques, artistiques, écologiques) dans lesquelles les sens peuvent s’autonomiser, s’exercer de manière pure ou déconnectée ? Parmi les modèles qui théorisent les structures de la perception sensorielle, on trouve notamment celui de la perception amodale (ou de la « synesthésie ontologique »), qui fait référence – comme chez Merleau-Ponty – à une couche originaire du sentir, antérieure à la division des sensorialités en canaux différenciés d’informations, où les sens semblent engagés dans une connivence primordiale. Je pense par ex. aux travaux du psychologue Daniel Stern avec les nourrissons : ses expériences indiquent que ces derniers auraient une aptitude générale innée à traiter des informations reçues dans une modalité sensorielle donnée en les traduisant instantanément pour une autre modalité sensorielle (actualisation dans le champ de la psychologie du problème de Molyneux). Et Stern utilise l’expression « perception amodale » pour désigner ce sentir général non découpé chez les nourrissons (The Interpersonal World of the Infant, 1985). Il y aurait là une « harmonie préétablie » ou une « confusion originaire des sens » qui se perd/résout par la suite, probablement sous l’effet de l’accumulation d’expériences (contraction d’habitudes) et de l’acquisition du langage. Daniel Stern reste assez discret sur ce qui – selon lui – pourrait expliquer les délimitations entre les sens, et l’assimilation de certaines modalités du sentir à des organes précis. Ce qui m’intéresse dans ce modèle : l’idée d’un non-ajustement ou d’une non-spécialisation des conduites sensorielles des nourrissons. Et toutes les expérimentations ouvertes que ce non-ajustement ou cette non-évidence entraîne : le bébé – dans son indifférence au découpage de la sensibilité – ne sait pas quel type de comportement sensoriel il est censé adopter pour telle ou telle expérience, donc il teste des choses inédites (et il est programmé pour les tester) : avaler des lumières, manger avec les yeux, etc. Les nourrissons chercheraient et seraient curieux de stimulations sensorielles qu’ils ne connaissent pas. Ils se lassent d’ailleurs assez vite des stimulations qu’ils reconnaissent : leur recherche précède l’élaboration d’hypothèses et tout système de motivations. Il y aurait une grande créativité relative à cet ajustement imprécis à l’expérience – que Stern lui-même associe aux actes de création chez les artistes. Si on refuse le modèle de la perception amodale, qu’on s’éloigne de l’idée du holisme perceptif, on pourra se demander dans quel type d’organisation (souvent hiérarchique et concurrentielle) les modalités sensorielles sont saisies. Ceci engage d’autres questions : Comment s’est construit le déni des sensorialités basses (olfaction, goût, toucher) ? Quels seraient les avantages spécifiques des différentes modalités du sentir (qui justifieraient le primat accordé à l’une ou l’autre) ? Mais aussi : est-il possible de borner la perception sensible – même provisoirement, même par l’entremise d’une expérience hors-norme – à l’exercice d’un seul de nos sens (comme dans la fiction de Condillac) ? Y a-t-il une indépendance possible ou radicale des sens (expérience hystérique du sentir au sens de Deleuze) ? Y a-t-il des intensités que la synthèse perceptive ne parvient pas à dompter, qui sont de pures différences, réfractaires à l’harmonie ? Et sinon : comment les sens peuvent-ils se combiner, étant entendu que les phénomènes relevant de l’intersensorialité ne sont pas toujours réfléchis au départ d’une conception « synchronisée » des sens (tendus par la nécessité d’une synthèse perceptive), mais qu’ils révèlent aussi parfois des décalages, des différences et des concurrences (des subordinations et des insubordinations plus ou moins fortes) ? Enfin, un autre type d’association entre les sens semblait intéressant à envisager, celui de l’association directe, instantanée, de la synesthésie. Partant de cette tension (que j’esquissais très vite) entre un modèle unitaire et un modèle atomiste ou différencié de la vie sensorielle, comment décrire les phénomènes dits synesthésiques – qui sont par définition des phénomènes d’association et de traduction instantanée entre les sens ? La perception synesthésique est-elle la règle ou l’exception ? Que faire de ces expériences particulières où l’on « reçoit » des données sensorielles d’un organe qui n’est a priori pas directement stimulé (entendre des couleurs par ex.) ? Que révèlent ces expériences ? En particulier, si l’on part de l’idée qu’elles ne révèlent pas une connivence fondamentale des sensorialités entre elles, est-il possible de penser philosophiquement la synesthésie autrement que comme accord sans heurt de nos sensations ? [less ▲]

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See detailRevisiting America’s Last Frontier: Richard Proenneke’s and Ernestine Hayes’s “Worlds” and Ecological Sublimes
Lombard, David ULiege

Conference (2021, April 17)

Alaska is a world apart, America’s “last frontier”, which offers a challenging and awe-inspiring wilderness experience (Nash 2014). While its nature illustrates the horrid features of the Burkean sublime ... [more ▼]

Alaska is a world apart, America’s “last frontier”, which offers a challenging and awe-inspiring wilderness experience (Nash 2014). While its nature illustrates the horrid features of the Burkean sublime, the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and air traffic show the presence of technology in a state that has been perceived as “pure” and “pristine”, a view customarily associated with the natural sublime. Consequently, contemporary U.S. memoirs which include descriptions of extra-textual Alaskan landscapes constitute suitable case studies for analyzing the rhetorical affordances and limits of (1) using the concept of wilderness as world in the environmental humanities and of (2) the sublime for figuring modes of (non-)human materiality in the Anthropocene, in which the reality of nature can no longer be separated from humanity and its culture. While the Anthropocene and the sublime are linked to senses of excess, overwhelm, and disorientation (Purdy 2015), the memoir, as inevitably human-centered, is a privileged genre to investigate the Anthropocene sublime and related affects. Through a rhetorical and narratological—mainly informed by recent insights from econarratology (James and Morel 2020) which will help interpret emotions and affects produced by the sublime and examine readers’ emotional engagement with narratives of the sublime¬—analysis of Sam Keith’s One Man's Wilderness (1973) and Ernestine Hayes’s Blonde Indian (2006), this paper will argue that the natural sublime and the concept of wilderness are still problematic, and will explore the “haptic sublime” (McNee 2016) and “stuplime” (Ngai 2005) as contributing to shaping a more participative, “ecological sublime” (Hitt 1999). [less ▲]

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See detailMultimodal encoding of motion events in French and Dutch as L1 and L2
Piot, Christina ULiege

Conference (2021, April 17)

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See detailClassifying/Lexicalyzing the outside world
Winand, Jean ULiege

Conference (2021, April 16)

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See detailPrésentation Séminaire M2 Recherche à l'ESIT
Schumacher, Perrine ULiege

Conference (2021, April 16)

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See detailENMG des nerfs facial et phrénique
WANG, François-Charles ULiege

Conference (2021, April 15)

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See detailINFLUENCE DE LA PLONGÉE SOUS-MARINE (CALVI, CORSE) : FRÉQUENTATION, COMPORTEMENT DES PLONGEURS ET CONSÉQUENCES SUR LA COMMUNAUTE ICHTYOLOGIQUE MÉDITERRANÉENNE
Iborra, Laura ULiege; Leduc, Michèle; Gobert, Sylvie ULiege et al

Conference (2021, April 15)

La popularisation de l’activité de plongée sous-marine s’est accrue ces dernières années ajoutant une nouvelle dimension aux impacts humains sur les systèmes aquatiques (Spalding et al., 2017). Bien que ... [more ▼]

La popularisation de l’activité de plongée sous-marine s’est accrue ces dernières années ajoutant une nouvelle dimension aux impacts humains sur les systèmes aquatiques (Spalding et al., 2017). Bien que des impacts au niveau individuel aient été identifiés (Chung et al., 2013, Au et al., 2014), les causes de ces comportements et les réponses à l’échelle de la communauté ichytologique méditérranéenne ne sont pas clairs (Di Franco et al., 2013, Rouanet et al. 2017). La présente étude vise à étudier, durant deux années consécutives (2019 et 2020) (i) la fréquentation du site de plongée de la Revellata (baie de Calvi, Corse, France) grâce à l’intégralité des feuilles de palanquées des structures de plongée locales mais aussi avec la prise de photographies (ii), le comportement des plongeurs grâce à l’observation de leur pratique en plongée, par tranche de 10 minutes, afin de déterminer le nombre de contacts qu’ils ont avec le milieu, le type de contact (volontaire/involontaire) et la partie du corps ou l’instrument concerné et enfin (iii) la composition de la communauté ichtyologique (i.e. richesse spécifique, abondance, structure démographique) grâce à des comptages visuels de poissons réalisés en plongée avant et après l’arrivée des plongeurs sur le site. En complément, une attention particulière a été portée sur l’espèce patrimoniale qu’est le mérou brun (Epinephelus marginatus), en relevant la taille et la réaction des individus observés face aux plongeurs, selon 5 typologies comportementales : « Fuite proche < 10 m », « Fuite lointaine > 10 m », « Attraction », « Indifférence » et « Changement de position, observation du plongeur ». Les résultats montrent que le site de plongée suivi est particulièrement fréquenté avec en moyenne 82 plongeurs par jour en saison. Les plongeurs sont peu sensibilisés aux impacts de la plongée et plus de 80 % des plongeurs ont un contact avec le milieu durant leur plongée, avec une moyenne de 9 contacts/10 min. La majorité des contacts involontaires est effectuée par les palmes et le reste des contacts est très diversifié, aussi bien avec le corps qu’avec des équipements (octopus, bloc, manomètre, parachute etc). De plus, le plongeur ayant un appareil photo est plus susceptible d’avoir des contacts volontaires avec le substrat. L’expérience des plongeurs est également un facteur prépondérant et ainsi la gestion de leur flottabilité influe sur les types de contacts observés. Les populations de poissons répondent différemment en fonction de l’espèce concernée. Les corbs (Sciaena umbra) et les mérous bruns (Epinephelus marginatus) semblent être les plus dérangés par la présence de plongeurs. Leurs biomasses diminuent significativement après le passage de plongeurs ce qui traduit une fuite des grands individus ou une volonté de se cacher. En complément, il apparaît que plus les mérous sont gros, plus ils ont tendance à fuir loin. Au contraire, les petits individus sont curieux et sont plus susceptibles de montrer une attraction envers le plongeur. Finalement, il apparaît que la fréquentation des sites de plongée, la sensibilité environnementale et les connaissances du plongeur, sa technicité ainsi que son type de pratique conditionnent son impact sur le milieu marin. La combinaison de suivis complémentaires permet d’avoir une vision d’ensemble des processus en action dans le cadre de cette activité. Ces résultats permettront finalement de proposer des recommandations, d’aider à éclairer la décision publique, notamment pour orienter plus efficacement les politiques de gestion et de conservation. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing simulation to assess patient's self-triage for unscheduled urgent care : the ODISSEE Platform
GILBERT, Allison ULiege; BRASSEUR, Edmond ULiege; François, Sophie et al

Conference (2021, April 14)

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See detailExperimental test bench for performance-assessment of large submersible and dry-action pumps used in waterways
Hardy, Joris ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Pirotton, Michel ULiege et al

Conference (2021, April 13)

Pumping in waterways, particularly in artificial canals, is energy-intensive, costly and may be responsible for the emission of large quantities of CO2. Innovative pumping technologies have the potential ... [more ▼]

Pumping in waterways, particularly in artificial canals, is energy-intensive, costly and may be responsible for the emission of large quantities of CO2. Innovative pumping technologies have the potential to reduce energy consumption; but their performance needs to be thoroughly as-sessed. This communication presents the design, sizing and construction of an experimental test bench for evaluating the performance of large submersible and dry-action centrifugal pumps typically used in waterways. It enables testing prototype-scale pumps and was designed in close collaboration with stakeholders such as canal operators. This experimental facility is challeng-ing on many aspects given its size, as well as requirements for power supply and for measure-ment of system efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailLiègeCraft : la ville de Liège dans Minecraft. Un outil issu du jeu vidéo pour des événements en ligne ?
Messina, Alexis ULiege

Conference (2021, April 12)

Le projet LiègeCraft est un dispositif de médiation culturelle et d’éducation populaire qui vise, à travers l’expérience de Minecraft, à interroger des problématiques citoyennes liées à l’urbanisme. Un ... [more ▼]

Le projet LiègeCraft est un dispositif de médiation culturelle et d’éducation populaire qui vise, à travers l’expérience de Minecraft, à interroger des problématiques citoyennes liées à l’urbanisme. Un groupe d’une trentaine de joueurs et joueuses se connectent, reproduisent l’espace public, le scénarisent, l’interrogent, pour ensuite être amené.es à le transformer et se le réapproprier. Dans cette communication, nous souhaitons présenter une situation dans laquelle le dispositif LiègeCraft a été détourné pour constituer une plateforme de discussion et d’échange dans le cadre d’un événement scientifique d’envergure internationale : Replaying Japan. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychopathologie de l’homme en situation
Englebert, Jérôme ULiege

Conference (2021, April 09)

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See detailLes résistances mémorielles des minorités
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULiege

Conference (2021, April 09)

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See detailFrom Cheechako to Koviashuvik and Shahóon: Wilderness and the Alaskan Sublime in Ken Ilgunas’s Walden on Wheels and Ernestine Hayes’s Blonde Indian
Lombard, David ULiege

Conference (2021, April 09)

As “America's last frontier”, Alaska provides an opportunity to revisit the pioneer past in a challenging and awe-inspiring landscape (Nash 2014). While the Alaskan nature illustrates the inhospitable and ... [more ▼]

As “America's last frontier”, Alaska provides an opportunity to revisit the pioneer past in a challenging and awe-inspiring landscape (Nash 2014). While the Alaskan nature illustrates the inhospitable and terrifying features of the Burkean sublime, the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and air traffic exemplify the presence of technology in a state that has been perceived as “pure” or “untrammelled”, a view associated with the natural sublime. For these reasons, contemporary U.S. memoirs including descriptions of Alaska constitute suitable case studies for analyzing the rhetorical affordances and limits of the sublime for figuring (non-)human materiality and for questioning the nature/culture divide. While the Anthropocene and the sublime produce senses of excess, overwhelm, and disorientation (Purdy 2015), the memoir, as human-centered and referring to an “extra-textual reality” (Couser 2011), is a privileged genre to investigate the Anthropocene sublime and these related affects. Through a rhetorical and narratological—mainly informed by recent insights from econarratology, which study the place and function of materiality and (non-)human agency in literary texts while rhetorically alerting readers to an ethics of care for (non-)human otherness (James and Morel 2020)—analysis of Ken Ilgunas's Walden on Wheels (2013) and Ernestine Hayes's Blonde Indian (2006) as well as of their uses of the notions of koviashuvik and shahóon, this paper will argue that the natural sublime and the American concept of wilderness are still problematic and divisive, and will present the “haptic sublime” (McNee 2016) and “stuplime” (Ngai 2005) as contributing to imagining a more participative and “ecological sublime” (Hitt 1999). [less ▲]

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See detailAn atypical antenna complex is involved in state transitions in Euglena gracilis
Vega de Luna, Felix ULiege; Miranda Astudillo, Héctor Vicente ULiege; Dang, Van et al

Conference (2021, April 09)

The secondary green microalga Euglena gracilis is an important species for diverse biotechnological applications and evolutionary studies. Yet, its photosynthetic traits are not detailed as it is for ... [more ▼]

The secondary green microalga Euglena gracilis is an important species for diverse biotechnological applications and evolutionary studies. Yet, its photosynthetic traits are not detailed as it is for other photosynthetic model organisms. We aimed to study the spectroscopic properties of the antenna system of E. gracilis and its participation in the state transitions (ST), a common regulatory mechanism of photosynthesis. Cultures of E. gracilis grown photo-autotrophycally in low light (50 μmol photons m-2s-1) were exposed to high light intensity (HL; 450 μmol photons m-2s-1) for 48 hours. Transition to state 1 was induced by illuminating dark acclimated cells with far-red light (720-730 nm), and in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence was used to monitor changes in the maximum fluorescence value (Fm). Room temperature (RT) fluorescence emission spectra and absorption spectra were recorded. Thylakoid membranes were also extracted from the two cultures to perform high resolution clear native electrophoresis. No state transitions could be observed in HL cells following Fm changes. The HL treatment caused a decrease of the chlorophyll a to b ratio, a lower absorbance in the far-red region (peak at 695 nm), and loss of RT fluorescence emission band peaking at 705 nm. These spectroscopic changes were accompanied by the specific loss of a 250 kDa antenna complex enriched in chlorophyll a, while abundance of typical LHCII trimers was not altered. The spectroscopic properties of the isolated antenna complex corresponded to the difference observed between the control and HL treated cells. We conclude that the atypical antenna component which absorbs in the far-red region and is responsible of energy diverting to its low energy chlorophylls, is needed to perform ST and may be pivotal for light energy regulation in Euglena gracilis under different light conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailL’affaiblissement de l'ordre international libéral et ses conséquences sur la formation de nouvelles coopérations entre les puissances émergentes et les puissances régionales : le cas du rapprochement entre l'Iran, la Chine et la Russie.
Bayramzadeh, Kamal ULiege

Conference (2021, April 08)

L’affaiblissement de l’ordre international libéral et ses conséquences sur la formation de nouvelles coopérations entre les grandes puissances et les puissances régionales : le cas du rapprochement entre ... [more ▼]

L’affaiblissement de l’ordre international libéral et ses conséquences sur la formation de nouvelles coopérations entre les grandes puissances et les puissances régionales : le cas du rapprochement entre l’Iran, la Chine et la Russie Lorsqu’en 1945 la Deuxième Guerre mondiale s’est achevée, la société internationale est entrée dans une nouvelle période historique (bipolaire) caractérisée en particulier par l’émergence de deux superpuissances (les États-Unis et l’Union soviétique) et le déclin relatif de l’Europe. Dans ce nouveau contexte international (d’ordre bipolaire), de 1945 à 1949, les États-Unis ont quasiment exercé une hégémonie dans la politique internationale, car ils avaient le monopole de l’arme atomique. Mais avec le premier essai nucléaire de l’Union soviétique en 1949, les relations internationales sont entrées dans une période d’hégémonie partagée (stabilité hégémonique) entre ces deux superpuissances qui a duré jusqu’en 1990, car la rivalité entre les deux superpuissances a instauré une paix négative du fait des armes de destruction massive. Avec l’effondrement de l’Union soviétique en 1991, les relations internationales sont entrées dans une nouvelle phase marquée par l’hégémonie sans rivale des États-Unis pendant quelques années (un monde unipolaire), mais progressivement cet ordre libéral a été contesté par des puissances émergentes qui ont limité l’hégémonie américaine. De plus, elles sont favorables pour un monde multipolaire. L’évolution des relations internationales dans ces dernières années montre que la Chine et la Russie sont devenues des grandes puissances. C’est pourquoi les États-Unis veulent les affaiblir, en particulier depuis l’arrivée au pouvoir de Donald Trump en 2016. À ce facteur il faut ajouter d’autres puissances régionales comme l’Iran et la Turquie qui s’opposent à l’hégémonie de l’Occident et se rapprochent davantage de la Russie (le cas de la Turquie), et de la Chine et de la Russie (le cas de l’Iran dans ces derniers mois). En effet le retrait des États-Unis de l’accord nucléaire iranien de 2015 a accru la place de la Chine et de la Russie dans l’économie iranienne qui est sous embargo depuis des années. Pour sortir de cette situation, l’Iran a choisi en 2020 de développer ses relations avec la Chine dans le cadre du projet chinois : la nouvelle route de la soie (une route, une ceinture) afin de remédier à ses difficultés économiques importantes, ce qui a provoqué la protestation des États-Unis qui considèrent la Chine comme un ennemi. En ce qui concerne la Russie et l’Iran, les coopérations militaires et économiques ont augmenté ces derniers temps. Nous assistons donc à une forme de coopération multidimensionnelle entre l’Iran et ces deux grandes puissances qui résistent à la volonté de puissance des États-Unis et n’acceptent pas de suivre la politique de ces derniers à l’égard de l’Iran. En dépit de la politique anti- hégémonique de ces trois pays à l’égard des États-Unis, il est très prématuré de parler d’une alliance stratégique entre l’Iran, la Chine et la Russie. L’objectif principal de cette contribution est de répondre à la question suivante : dans quelle mesure et comment la nouvelle politique des États-Unis au Moyen-Orient contribue-t-elle au renforcement de la position stratégique de la Chine et de la Russie en particulier en Iran ? Nous allons développer ce sujet en trois parties. La première sera consacrée au déclin de l’ordre international libéral caractérisé par l’affaiblissement des États-Unis, la montée en puissance de la Chine et de la Russie. Dans la deuxième, nous allons montrer la politique des Etats-Unis à l’égard de l’Iran. En fin, la troisième partie va analyser le développement des relations de l’Iran avec la Chine et la Russie. [less ▲]

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See detailL’enquête comme instauration de la justice écologique
Hallin, Maud ULiege; Stassart, Pierre M ULiege; Magda, Danièle

Conference (2021, April 08)

Face aux impératifs de transition socio-écologique, se développent les réflexions sur une remise en question du rapport sciences-sociétés, et les possibilités d’interactions entre citoyens et chercheurs ... [more ▼]

Face aux impératifs de transition socio-écologique, se développent les réflexions sur une remise en question du rapport sciences-sociétés, et les possibilités d’interactions entre citoyens et chercheurs pour une co-production de connaissances. Ces innovations sociales se retrouvent au croisement d’enjeux de justice écologique et de justice épistémique : à la définition tridimensionnelle de la justice écologique initialement proposée par D. Schlosberg (distribution, reconnaissance et participation), certains y incluent la reconnaissance d’un pluralisme épistémique qui autorise différentes formes de connaissances, scientifiques ou non. Au prolongement de ce croisement, nous pensons que la justice écologique peut aussi se déplier dans sa dimension expérimentative, via des publics mixtes citoyens chercheurs qui se construisent autour de démarches de production de savoirs en réponse à des enjeux environnementaux. Nous proposons de revenir ici sur la notion de justice écologique pour la redéployer en mobilisant la proposition pragmatique d’enquête sociale et d’expérimentation de John Dewey. Une enquête ethnographique en cours sur la zone industrialo-portuaire de Fos-sur-Mer (France), et son Institut écocitoyen pour la connaissance des pollutions illustrera cette proposition. À travers l’expérience de cette mobilisation, et l’apprentissage d’une pensée collective associant chercheurs et citoyens, nous interrogeons la possibilité d’une justice écologique en construction. [less ▲]

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See detailFermentation pathways and their interactions with photosynthesis in the marine diatom T. pseudonana: proteomic and biophysics approaches
Gain, Gwenaëlle ULiege; Berne, Nicolas ULiege; Corato, Amélie ULiege et al

Conference (2021, April 08)

The glycolysis associated with mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is the process by which the vast majority of eukaryotes produces ATP from sugar. Under hypoxic or anoxic conditions, fermentation ... [more ▼]

The glycolysis associated with mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is the process by which the vast majority of eukaryotes produces ATP from sugar. Under hypoxic or anoxic conditions, fermentation pathways allow to maintain glycolytic activity by reducing alternative electron acceptors (other than O2) while generating various fermentation by-products. Anaerobic fermentation and photosynthesis coexist when organisms experience hypoxia or anoxia in their natural environment (e.g. marine sediments, eutrophic waters). In photosynthetic microeukaryotes, the detailed study of anaerobic metabolic pathways is limited to few freshwater model organisms such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (1). Based a previous genomic survey, Thalassiosira pseudonana, a centric marine diatom would contain a large variety of fermentation pathways (2). In our work, we studied the fermentation pathways and their interactions with photosynthesis in T. pseudonana. We first show that there are different waves of protein expression during the first 24 hours in anoxia in the dark. Several fermentative metabolites are also detected (H2, succinate), and our data suggest the existence of a bacterial fermentative pathway leading to butyrate production. The availability in photosynthetic electron acceptors is reduced but not null after 24h in anoxia. This suggests that at least one fermentative pathway is able to reoxidize photosynthetic electron acceptors, as it was previously shown for hydrogenase activity in C. reinhardtii (3). Finally, by comparing PSI and PSII activity, we evidence that a high and transient cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI is key to resume PSII electron transfer in anoxic condition. Overall, our results reveal regulatory mechanisms (CEF and fermentation pathways) that may help T. pseudonana cope with hypoxic or anoxic environments. References: (1) Muller, M. et al. (2012). Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 76, 444-495 (2) Atteia et al. (2013). Biochim Biophys Acta - Bioenerg 1827: 210–223 (3) Godaux et al. (2013). Int. J. Hydrog. Energy, 38: 1826-1836 [less ▲]

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See detailLa juridictionnalisation des controverses monétaires ou l’émergence du juge constitutionnel comme gardien de l’ordre de marché
Gregoire, Guillaume ULiege

Conference (2021, April 08)

L’ordonnancement des politiques monétaires, financières et budgétaires par le droit de l’Union économique et monétaire (UEM), pourtant constitutionnellement avalisé par la Cour constitutionnelle fédérale ... [more ▼]

L’ordonnancement des politiques monétaires, financières et budgétaires par le droit de l’Union économique et monétaire (UEM), pourtant constitutionnellement avalisé par la Cour constitutionnelle fédérale allemande à l’occasion de l’arrêt Maastricht du 12 octobre 1993, a donné lieu, suite à la crise des dettes souveraines, à un déplacement sur le terrain juridictionnel des contestations relatives à ces politiques économiques, amenant notamment les juges de Karlsruhe à s’opposer ouvertement à la doctrine monétaire du « whatever it takes » de la BCE, afin d’imposer au contraire leur Wirtschaftsanschauung, leur propre « vision du monde économique ». La crise des dettes souveraines a pu dès lors servir de catalyseur et de révélateur des référentiels économiques implicites de certaines juridictions suprêmes – et, en premier lieu, de ceux de la Cour constitutionnelle fédérale allemande et de la Cour de justice de l’Union européenne. Se dévoile toutefois, en creux, un certain paradoxe : l’affrontement juridictionnel s’est certes fait, selon Karlsruhe, au nom du principe constitutionnel de démocratie, mais les affaires en cause témoignent au contraire d’une montée en puissance des juridictions suprêmes comme gardien de l’ordre de marché et comme figure émergente d’une nouvelle « épistocratie » économique. [less ▲]

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See detailCopper-Based objects in the Jezireh during the Third Millennium BC; Types, Fabrication Techniques and origins
Razok, Souheb ULiege

Conference (2021, April 07)

Jezireh is a key area in the study of Near Eastern metallurgy. The metal industry was practiced there since the Chalcolithic age and attained a developed level during the third millennium BC when local ... [more ▼]

Jezireh is a key area in the study of Near Eastern metallurgy. The metal industry was practiced there since the Chalcolithic age and attained a developed level during the third millennium BC when local incipient societies discovered new techniques, like alloying, that contributed to making metal a common material used to fabricate new types of prestige and utilitarian objects. The different patterns of bronze and arsenical copper were the most used compositions in metal industry in the third millennium BC. Despite the plethora of Jezireh's metal artefacts which confirm the importance of this region in metal production development, the studies that have dealt with the numerous metallic collections coming from their archaeological sites are limited. There was no general studies that analysed different sites collections together, since the metallic repertory of each site was treated in an individual way in the archaeology literature. In addition, those studies focused on the typological aspect more than other aspects which could give us a rich information about objects history. Therefore, bringing together the widely scattered literature of fabricated objects from the most common metals in the third millennium BC and focussing on the technical, typological and archaeometric aspects of fabricated objects is very interesting. Hence, this paper could be complementary to our study that presented during BANNA 2019 international conference of Near Eastern archaeology at Liverpool University. Through two articles, we attempted to cover all aspects concerning a metal object. In this study, more than 1000 objects and fragments (with identified functions) of copper-based from various archaeological sites in the Jezireh region (important urban centres and rural ones), were studied and classified to achieve the following objectives: - To identify the objects types fabricated by using based-copper alloys and its chrono-typological distribution - To classify objects types according to their function in the following categories: Category A, the adornment of body and garment Category B, the arms Category C, the tools Category D, the vessels and utensils Category E, metal sheets -To contextualize the place of Jezireh region on the map of metal production in Near East. -To identify the fabrication techniques that were used to produce the different types of studied objects and to verify if there is a possible correlation between alloys types or patterns, objects types and some fabrication techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailHow do infill density and polymer composition of tablets produced by hotmelt extrusion coupled with Fused Deposition Modeling 3D printing influence the dissolution profile of a BCS II molecule ?
Parulski, Chloé ULiege; Gresse, Eva ULiege; Jennotte, Olivier ULiege et al

Conference (2021, April 06)

Introduction: During last years, the use of three-dimensional (3D) printing for drug manufacturing has considerably increased in the field of pharmaceutical research. The development of complex geometries ... [more ▼]

Introduction: During last years, the use of three-dimensional (3D) printing for drug manufacturing has considerably increased in the field of pharmaceutical research. The development of complex geometries leading to different drug release profiles is an application that make 3D printing and, more specifically, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) a promising tool. In fact, many active pharmaceutical ingredients are classified in the Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II (BCS II) since they are poorly soluble. Thus, the goal of this work is to enhance the solubility and the bioavaibilty of poorly soluble drugs by the use of hot-melt extrusion (HME) coupled with FDM to form of an amorphous solid dispersion. Method: The selected model drug was Itraconazole (ITZ), a BCS II active molecule. Hot-melt extrusion process was performed on three formulations containing 25% of ITZ and different proportions of Affinisol® 15LV (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose) and Kollidon® VA 64 (vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer). For each formulation, tablets with infill densities of 20%, 50% and 80% were printed (Figure 1). Results: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis shows that the three formulations contain ITZ in its amorphous form. The results of dissolution tests in 0.1 M HCl indicate that the dissolution profile of the drug is influenced by the polymer composition and the infill density of the tablets. Conclusions: In conclusion, for the three formulations, the lower the tablet infill is, the higher the porosity and the faster the dissolution rate are. A solubility profile similar to that of Sporanox® (the correspondent commercialized drug in Belgium) is even obtained with one of the tablet formulations with an infill density of 20%, which is highly encouraging for future experiments. [less ▲]

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See detail"National democracy": ideal and discursive arguments in right-wing populist discourses
Debras, François ULiege

Conference (2021, April 06)

The literature considers that right-wing populist parties (RWPP) are opposed to democracy (against institutions or values). Nevertheless, RWPP claim, in their speeches, the term "democracy". I propose to ... [more ▼]

The literature considers that right-wing populist parties (RWPP) are opposed to democracy (against institutions or values). Nevertheless, RWPP claim, in their speeches, the term "democracy". I propose to study its meaning and mobilization. RWPP use “democracy” differently depending on the context of enunciation (production, audiences and periods). I also observe that the term is ideologically structured. It refers mainly to nationalism, chauvinism and inequality. So I ask myself: how does the nationalist ideology structure the term “democracy” in these discourses? I propose to focus on the ideological production of three European parties (RN-France, FPÖ-Austria, AfD-Germany). Through different modes of communication, political actors build mobilize ideologies, values and positions that they promote or reject. Speeches are thus materials from which we aim to identify representations and acts of social creation. I will combine a content analysis (co-occurrence of the term “democracy”) and a critical discourse analysis (how nationalism structures the term “democracy”). More generally, I will also explain to what extent nationalist ideology varies according to parties (ethnic or state nationalism), against whom the term "democracy" is mobilized (immigration, Islam, Europe,...), who it wishes to protect (people specifically defines) and how it is structured (discursive elements, dichotomies, semantic environment). [less ▲]

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See detailAmphiphilic N-vinyl pyrrolidone-based polymers as PEG alternatives to avoid blood proteins adsorption around liposomes
Berger, Manon ULiege; Toussaint, François ULiege; Pairoux, Charlotte ULiege et al

Conference (2021, April 06)

Introduction: After a systemic administration, liposomes are quickly covered by proteins leading to the formation of a protein corona. This corona is responsible for a change of physicochemical properties ... [more ▼]

Introduction: After a systemic administration, liposomes are quickly covered by proteins leading to the formation of a protein corona. This corona is responsible for a change of physicochemical properties (as an increase of the size), pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, targeting ability, … [1]. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is generally grafted onto the liposomes surface to reduce these non-specific interactions with blood components [2]. Since PEG faces some issues [3], alternatives are searched which should optimally prevent the formation of this corona. The goal of this study is to evaluate the protein corona formation around cationic liposomes (DOTAP/Chol/DOPE 1/0.75/0.5 molar ratio) encapsulating a model siRNA. Method: Different formulations were tested: naked liposomes, PEGylated liposomes (15% molar ratio of total lipids) and liposomes grafted with the new synthetic amphiphilic N-vinyl pyrrolidone-based polymers. Liposomes were incubated in FBS for two hours and their sizes were compared before and after incubation. Measurements were performed by DLS and NTA. An increase in liposomes size is related to the adsorption of proteins around the particles. Results: Results show that 15% PEG allows to prevent a significant size increase. However, 15% amphiphilic N-vinyl pyrrolidone-based polymers are not able to prevent corona formation since both analyses revealed a huge increase of particles sizes. A higher concentration (40%) was necessary to hinder a significant size increase meaning probably that their insertion/coating into/onto lipoplexes is different compared to PEG. Conclusions: To conclude, we showed that new synthetic amphiphilic N-vinyl pyrrolidone-based polymers were able to prevent protein corona formation around lipoplexes. Further studies are ongoing in order to evaluate the transfection capacity of these coated-vectors carrying siRNA. [less ▲]

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