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See detailDélaissés urbains réenchantés
Le Coguiec, Eric ULiege

Conference (2021, July 05)

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See detailSchizophrénie, vécu corporel et subjectivité
Englebert, Jérôme ULiege

Conference (2021, July 03)

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (6 ULiège)
See detailà définir
Goderniaux, Alexandre ULiege

Conference (2021, May 28)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailLes Lemaire, des monuments au patrimoine: filiation, émancipation, rémanences
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Conference (2021, March 04)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (0 ULiège)
See detailQuels outils pour une pratique clinique inspirée par la phénoménologie ?
Englebert, Jérôme ULiege

Conference (2021, January 21)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailCité Miroir. Reflections on Disabled Persons’ Experience
Eisazadeh Otaghsaraei, Negin ULiege; Heylighen, Ann; Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Conference (2021)

Social and demographic changes in the 21st century turn an inclusive approach to built heritage into a necessity. Awareness is growing that human abilities and conditions are diverse, across both people ... [more ▼]

Social and demographic changes in the 21st century turn an inclusive approach to built heritage into a necessity. Awareness is growing that human abilities and conditions are diverse, across both people and the lifespan, while disability is increasingly understood as resulting from interaction with the designed environment. Acknowledging the challenges involved in reconnecting modern heritage with this contemporary reality, this paper focuses on the transformation of la Sauvenière, former public swimming pool and thermal baths, into Cité Miroir, a cultural space focusing on citizenship, memory, and dialogue. Located in the centre of Liège and registered as monument in Wallonia (Belgium), it is one of the sites featured in DOCOMOMO’s virtual exhibition of 19 “MoMo masterpieces” in Belgium. This building has been considered as one of the most important constructions of the interbellum modernist style and referred to as the “cathedral” of sports architecture in Wallonia. Designed in the Bauhaus style and inaugurated during the German occupation in 1942, it served as a public sports centre until being abandoned in 2000 due to non-compliance with safety standards. In 2014, after an extensive rehabilitation project, Cité Miroir was opened to public. Through conducting site visits with people living with diverse abilities and/or conditions, we build upon their unique expertise-by-experience to highlight spatial qualities that typically remain unobserved. By reporting on the preliminary findings of these field studies, we shift attention from the standardized human body as the source of proportion and measures for architecture to the human experience of space. [less ▲]

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See detailLa prière de l'initié : du papyrus Mimaut à l'Asclépius
Rochette, Bruno ULiege

Conference (2020, December 17)

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See detailLe jeu vidéo en amateur : la création comme dégustation, le ludème comme prise vidéoludique
Hurel, Pierre-Yves ULiege

Conference (2020, November 28)

Les études consacrées aux pratiques de création de jeux vidéo en dehors des circuits commerciaux, de plus en plus nombreuses, peuvent être synthétisées selon trois grandes catégories : il s’agit soit ... [more ▼]

Les études consacrées aux pratiques de création de jeux vidéo en dehors des circuits commerciaux, de plus en plus nombreuses, peuvent être synthétisées selon trois grandes catégories : il s’agit soit d’adapter la conception de jeux vidéo aux milieux éducatifs (Gee et Tran 2016), soit d’étudier les rapports entretenus entre ces créateurs et l’industrie – qu’il s’agisse de célébrer la convergence du public et des consommateurs (Postigo 2007), de la dénoncer (Hong et Chen 2013), ou encore d’y voir des formes de résistances à l’hégémonie de l’industrie (Vanderhoef 2016) – ou enfin d’affirmer le caractère culturel de ces pratiques créatives et leurs bienfaits pour la démocratie culturelle (Sihvonen 2011). La plupart de ces études, selon nous, souffrent de deux limites. La première est qu’elles prennent très souvent pour point de départ une technique particulière et cherchent à définir le sens de la pratique depuis une spécificité locale (la nostalgie supposée des développeurs de homebrew, l’aspect piratage et de remix culturel du modding, etc.). Ce faisant, elles s’empêchent d’étudier ce qui fait le commun de toutes ces techniques : des personnes créent des (morceaux de) jeux vidéo, en dehors des circuits commerciaux. La deuxième limite réside dans leur propension à projeter des grilles de lecture externes sur les pratiques décrites, sans l’articuler au vécu des praticiens (qui sont tour à tour désignés comme apprenants, résistants, aliénés, etc.). Pour notre part, notre projet scientifique consiste à développer une approche compréhensive de ces pratiques, principalement à l’aide de 25 longs entretiens compréhensifs avec des modders, des utilisateurs de RPG Maker, des développeurs en homebrew, etc. Nous avons construit une théorie de l’acte créatif comme moyen pour nos informateurs de travailler leur goût pour le jeu vidéo, au sens de la sociologie pragmatique (Hennion 2003). Aussi, nous regroupons l’ensemble des pratiques mentionnées comme relevant de l’amateurisme, non pas seulement au sens où il s’agit d’amateurs par opposition aux professionnels, mais bien d’amateurs de jeux vidéo, qui agissent par passion, pour aimer. Pour travailler leur goût, les amateurs développent des prises (Bessy et Chateauraynaud 2014) qui sont en partie propres aux objets. Dans cette communication, nous montrerons que, pour nos informateurs, la prise vidéoludique par excellence consiste en une petite unité minimale vidéoludique, que nous appellerons ludème : nos informateurs développent leur goût depuis de petits points d’appui – nous prendrons bloc-à-pousser zeldaesque comme cas d’étude. C’est ensuite dans l’agencement de ces bouts d’objets-jeu qu’ils peuvent faire émerger du jouer (Henriot 1989). Nous entendrons ainsi apporter une contribution originale à la question de la création de mondes ludiques, en examinant la question depuis un niveau micro, tant sur le plan de la forme que de la pratique. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a framework integrating TEA and LCA : advances and challenges
Merlo, Antoine ULiege

Conference (2020, November 26)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULiège)
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See detailApports de la modélisation paramétrique dans le processus de conception architectural en agence
Maes, Antoine; Branders, Aline; Jancart, Sylvie ULiege et al

Conference (2020, November)

Pour se développer dans le monde évolutif d'aujourd'hui, les architectes doivent constamment réévaluer leurs stratégies et innover. Cet article met en avant l'intégration de la modélisation paramétrique ... [more ▼]

Pour se développer dans le monde évolutif d'aujourd'hui, les architectes doivent constamment réévaluer leurs stratégies et innover. Cet article met en avant l'intégration de la modélisation paramétrique au sein du processus de conception architectural en présentant un projet en particulier. Au travers de la conception paramétrique, il aborde plusieurs domaines désormais accessibles aux architectes évoluants dans des structures de petites et moyennes tailles. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (3 ULiège)
See detailStudy Club
Charavet, Carole ULiege

Conference (2020, November)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (2 ULiège)
See detailJovian auroral conductance from Juno-UVS: hemispheric asymmetry?
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULiege; Gkouvelis, Leonardos ULiege; Bonfond, Bertrand ULiege et al

Conference (2020, October 30)

Ionospheric conductance is important in controlling the electrical coupling between the Jovian planetary magnetosphere and its ionosphere. To some extent, it regulates the characteristics of the ... [more ▼]

Ionospheric conductance is important in controlling the electrical coupling between the Jovian planetary magnetosphere and its ionosphere. To some extent, it regulates the characteristics of the ionospheric current from above and the closure of the magnetosphere-ionosphere circuit in the ionosphere (Cowley&Bunce, 2001). Multi-spectral images collected with the UltraViolet Spectrograph (UVS) (Gladstone et al., 2017) on board Juno (Bagenal et al.,2017) have been analyzed to derive the spatial distribution of the auroral precipitation reaching the atmosphere (Bonfond et al., 2017). Electron energy flux and their characteristic energy have been used as inputs to an ionospheric model providing the production and loss rates of the main ion species, H3+, hydrocarbon ions and electrons (Gérard et al., 2020). Their steady state densities are calculated and used to determine the local distribution of the Pedersen electrical conductivity and its altitude integrated value for each UVS pixel. These values are displayed as H3+ density and Pedersen conductivity maps. We find that the main contribution to the Pedersen conductance corresponds to collisions of H3+ and hydrocarbon ions with H2. Analysis of the Birkeland current intensities based on the Juno magnetometers measurements (Kotsiaros et al. 2019) indicated that the observed current intensities are statistically larger in the south. They suggested that these differences are possibly due to a higher Pedersen conductance in this hemisphere. In order to verify this hypothesis, we calculate the conductance and H3+ density maps for perijoves 1 to 15 based on Juno-UVS spectral images. We compare the spatially integrated auroral conductance values of the two hemispheres for each orbit. The objective is to identify possible hemispheric asymmetries. [less ▲]

See detailMéthode indiciaire et cas limite : deux approches des sources de la première Modernité pour faire pièce à l’usage de la source comme exemple
Goderniaux, Alexandre ULiege; Regibeau, Julien ULiege

Conference (2020, October 29)

Cette proposition de communication à quatre mains part du refus conjoint d’envisager les sources qui composent nos corpus comme autant d’exemples de processus historiques qui les débordent et de notre ... [more ▼]

Cette proposition de communication à quatre mains part du refus conjoint d’envisager les sources qui composent nos corpus comme autant d’exemples de processus historiques qui les débordent et de notre souhait de les considérer plutôt comme les productrices des normes et des écarts qu’elles mettent en texte. Nous souhaiterions revenir sur ce parti-pris méthodologique désormais largement partagé dans la recherche historique afin de montrer, à travers nos deux recherches doctorales, qu’il suppose de chaque chercheur une réflexion personnalisée sur l’usage de la source comme preuve de ses hypothèses. Dans le sillage des travaux de C. Ginzburg, J. Revel ou encore B. Lepetit, nous voudrions mettre en évidence que chaque construction de la preuve découle d’un dialogue mené entre l’objet étudié, les hypothèses posées et les corpus rassemblés. De cet exercice pragmatique naissent alors deux méthodologies distinctes et ancrées qui sont le fruit du même type de postulats. En présentant nos recherches de manière combinée, nous aimerions précisément faire émerger à la fois une communauté d’approche épistémologique et les variétés de méthodologie, de sources et de résultat que celle-ci autorise. Julien Régibeau aimerait insister sur le rôle charnière joué par ses hypothèses et l’historiographie dans la construction d’une approche spécifique des sources et de leur usage. Dans sa thèse, il a étudié la reconfiguration du rôle politico-diplomatique de la papauté face à l’épreuve du congrès de paix de Westphalie (1639-1651). Son questionnement s’est construit contre, tout contre, une historiographie massive qui tendait, de manière répétée, à considérer la papauté comme la perdante de l’Europe nouvelle qui émergerait des traités signés en 1648. Émettant l’hypothèse que cette interprétation sans aspérité mériterait d’être complexifiée, il fonde sa méthodologie sur le dialogue avec les historiens qui l’ont précédé et sur la nécessité de sans cesse faire un pas de côté par rapport aux analyses existantes. Appliquant cette approche de l’écart à l’administration de la preuve, il a choisi de reprendre les corpus de ses devanciers – de la correspondance diplomatique – tout en donnant un nouveau statut à la source. Utilisant le moins possible l’exemplification, il exploite les documents sous la forme du cas ; que celui-ci soit paradigmatique ou limite dépend alors de son contenu propre et de l’écart qu’il s’agit de créer. Alexandre Goderniaux souhaiterait quant à lui évoquer la manière dont une lecture indiciaire de la polémique produite durant les guerres de Religion permet d’émettre des hypothèses inédites à partir de ces textes et de résoudre des problèmes que les différentes approches historiographiques (propagande, opinion publique, lecture anthropologique) par le prisme desquelles ces sources ont été étudiées au XXe siècle n’ont pu élucider. Une série d’études de cas identifiera les résultats d’une analyse fondée sur l’interprétation, au sein de micro-corpus cohérents, d’éléments précis d’argumentation ou de constructions discursives : pour le chercheur, leur répétition constitue l’indice du besoin de défense de l’assertion ainsi justifiée, et leur apparition ou leur disparition soudaines en fonction d’éléments contextuels ou des positions politiques défendues permet de déterminer les objectifs de la production des textes étudiés. Ainsi, cette lecture indiciaire, puisant ses outils tant dans l’histoire culturelle que dans la rhétorique ou l’analyse du discours, exploite des traces qui enrichissent notre connaissance du passé de manière indirecte : elle permet tout à la fois, par la déduction, de combler les lacunes (anonymat, nature implicite des intentions de publication) propres à la polémique produite durant les guerres de Religion et, par l’inscription de ces éléments inédits dans leur contexte, de proposer une relecture des enjeux et du déroulement précis des conflits qu’ils mettent en texte. [less ▲]

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See detailPhase-Field Simulations of Coarsening Kinetics of Si Precipitates in AlSi10Mg Processed by Selective Laser Melting
Delahaye, Jocelyn ULiege; Vertruyen, Bénédicte ULiege; Mertens, Anne ULiege et al

Conference (2020, October 28)

AlSi10Mg processed by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) exhibits fine microstructure due to the very high cooling rate reached during the process. The microstructure consists in submicron Al cells surrounded ... [more ▼]

AlSi10Mg processed by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) exhibits fine microstructure due to the very high cooling rate reached during the process. The microstructure consists in submicron Al cells surrounded by a tight Al-Si eutectic network. Due to the heat input accompanying the deposition of a new layer, the Si precipitates coarsen and the eutectic network loosen to form a Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) at the melt-pool boundary. During a tensile test, the rupture preferentially occurs in the HAZ by decohesion between coarse Si precipitates and the Al matrix [1]. Knowing the coarsening kinetic of the Si precipitates in the HAZ with respect to the process parameters is thus of great interest to improve the mechanical properties of AlSi10Mg SLM. With this aim in mind, the phase-field method is a powerful technique to model microstructural evolution [2]. The method describes concentrations and phases by a set of conserved and non-conserved fields with diffuse interfaces. Microstructural evolution is predicted by solving governing equations of the fields. We propose to study the coarsening kinetics of Si precipitates in the HAZ using phase-field simulations. In the model, the initial conditions i.e. Si precipitate size and spatial distribution as well as the Si concentration in the super-saturated Al matrix are set according to experimental observations performed by X-Ray and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. The thermal history in the HAZ with respect to the process parameters is obtained by a calibrated thermal finite element model. The size and the morphology of the heat affected zone observed by SEM is then compared with the ones given by the phase-field model. [1] J. Delahaye et al., Acta Mater. 175 (2019) 160–170. [2] I. Bellemans et al., Crit. Rev. Solid State 43 (2018) 417–454. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of failure criteria on risk-based inspection planning of offshore wind support structures
Hlaing, Nandar ULiege; Morato Dominguez, Pablo Gabriel ULiege; Rigo, Philippe ULiege et al

Conference (2020, October 27)

Offshore Wind Turbine (OWT) support structures are subjected to harsh deterioration mechanisms due to the combined action of wind loading, sea induced load actions and corrosive environment. Fatigue ... [more ▼]

Offshore Wind Turbine (OWT) support structures are subjected to harsh deterioration mechanisms due to the combined action of wind loading, sea induced load actions and corrosive environment. Fatigue failure becomes a key failure mode for offshore wind structures, as they experience considerable number of stress cycles (more than 10 million cycles per year). Fatigue failure can be assessed through fatigue assessment approaches. However, such assessments possess various uncertainties which may be quantified and updated through findings from in-service inspections. Since, offshore maintenance actions incur significant costs, an optimal maintenance strategy which balances the maintenance efforts against the risk of failure is desired. Based on pre-posterior decision theory, a risk-informed maintenance optimization can be performed to define the optimal maintenance strategy and support the decision maker(s).Within the risk maintenance optimization scheme, the probabilistic deterioration model is updated based on the inspection outcomes. Several fracture mechanics models have been used in the literature to estimate the deterioration of the structure containing flaws. Although, a through-thickness failure criterion is commonly used in the literature as the failure criteria, a Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) approach has been receiving increasingly attention, as well. This investigation examines the effect of the selected fracture mechanics models and failure criteria on the optimal maintenance strategy. Moreover, the obtained maintenance strategies corresponding to different fracture mechanics models are compared for a tubular joint case study structure. [less ▲]

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See detailGiovenale a Bisanzio
Rochette, Bruno ULiege

Conference (2020, October 19)

Après une période d’oubli relatif, Juvénal redevient à la mode à partir du IVe s. Ce sont surtout les auteurs chrétiens qui le citent pour illustrer et critiquer les travers moraux de la société romaine ... [more ▼]

Après une période d’oubli relatif, Juvénal redevient à la mode à partir du IVe s. Ce sont surtout les auteurs chrétiens qui le citent pour illustrer et critiquer les travers moraux de la société romaine. Le succès de Juvénal fut très important entre la fin du IVe et le VIe siècle. Il est lu en Italie, Gaule, Espagne et Afrique. Son succès n’est pas moindre en Orient. Juvénal est très présent chez Jean le Lydien, préfet du prétoire d’Orient sous Justinien, qui le cite dans son traité De magistratibus. Jean Malalas, qui étudia le droit à Antioche, parle de l’exil de Juvénal, qui aurait été puni pour avoir attaqué le danseur Paris, amant de Domitien. On trouve aussi des traces de connaissance du Juvénal dans le traité περὶ πολιτικῆς ἐπιστήμης connu par un palimpseste du Vatican (Vat. Gr. 1298) et attribué à Menas Patricius, magister officiorum de Justinien. Cet auteur attribue faussement à Juvénal un vers de Perse, ce qui montre que les deux poètes circulaient conjointement en Orient comme en Occident. On observe une présence très forte de Juvénal dans l’Ars de Priscien, professeur de latin à Constantinople. Les vers de Juvénal lui servent à illustrer des règles grammaticales au même titre que des passages d’auteurs plus classiques comme Virgile, Salluste, Cicéron et Térence. L’influence de Juvénal se fait aussi sentir sur des auteurs d’origine grecque écrivant en latin. Claudien d’Alexandrie trouve en Juvénal un modèle pour les invectives qu’il écrit contre Eutrope. L’africain Corippe, qui vint à Constantinople à la fin du règne de Justinien, se souvient régulièrement de Juvénal dans son épopée intitulée Ioannis (De bellis Libycis) célèbre la conquête byzantine de l’Afrique vandale. La preuve la plus tangible de la présence de Juvénal en Orient et de son étude dans les milieux hellénophones vient du fragment d’Antinoë, publié par C.H. Roberts (1935). L’écriture utilisée est l’onciale juridique de type B-R, une écriture répandue dans les chancelleries pour la rédaction les manuscrits juridiques, spécialement durant le règne de Justinien. Le fragment d’Antinoë est un témoin direct de l’activité de copie et de commentaire de textes d’auteurs latins à Constantinople. Il présente des accents et des marques de quantité ajoutés par une seconde main ainsi que des annotations marginales et interlinéaires en grec et en latin dues à d’autres mains (Roberts distingue 5 mains différentes). Le fragment de Juvénal provenant d’Antinoopolis est représentatif d’un lectorat hellénophone intéressé par la littérature latine durant la période byzantine à un niveau avancé. [less ▲]

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See detailRhythm and continuity in the intervention to reactivate vacant urban spaces. Recognize the stratification of places to engage an autonomous process of integration between the parts.
Caravello, Chiara; Baldin, Elisa ULiege

Conference (2020, October 16)

ssociating the architectural intervention of recovery - required to respond to urgent, necessarily impatient social questions - to the work on the landscape - educated to slowness and natural rhythms ... [more ▼]

ssociating the architectural intervention of recovery - required to respond to urgent, necessarily impatient social questions - to the work on the landscape - educated to slowness and natural rhythms - pushes us to contemplate the aleatory, the sense of uncertainty, imposing the respect for places and materials as much as for times, at the basis of a constantly evolving project. The landscape, as an "upstream condition" of human and natural actions (ELC,2000), requires recognition and intervention strategies with very high standards of flexibility, sized on relatively low financial resources and capable of covering an ever-widening multiplicity of needs, linked to a variety of identities that are now living together, with consequent need of integration, on the same territory. A vision must be retraced: to observe the landscape as the logical linking of places and signifiers, a stratification process already in progress as it is constantly changing (Besse, 2009). With this in mind, the adoption of an infiltration strategy, the grafting of an evolutionary new transformation process, is proposed. Through the study of a post-industrial recovery intervention case, located in the region of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, the value of defining a long-term intervention program capable of removing in the first instance the idea of degradation around the area, is recognized (Masboungi, 2002). It is a matter of engaging non-characterizing and non-limiting strategies, based on the non-definitive sense: a time of experimentation, the suggestion of reuse and regeneration-in-progress hypotheses. The intervention develops by means of action, adopting a mélange of techniques as a complex tool for gradual resolution, with an increasing economic capacity, thanks to targeted investments and reduced timing. The identification of a new function, capable of improving the value of the existent by revealing the hidden potential, being useful for its purpose and lasting over time, is therefore associated with the grafting of a design seed, an action on an indefinite time. [less ▲]

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See detailA study on the relationship between microstructure and electrochemical performance of the phosphate electrode materials for Li-, Na-, and K-ion batteries
Mahmoud, Abdelfattah ULiege

Conference (2020, October 16)

One of the main challenges of energy storage devices is the development of cheap and eco-friendly battery systems with high safety and high energy density. Battery is the best choice to store electricity ... [more ▼]

One of the main challenges of energy storage devices is the development of cheap and eco-friendly battery systems with high safety and high energy density. Battery is the best choice to store electricity in the form of chemical energy when considering the flexibility and constitute the limiting components in shift from petrol powered to electric vehicles, while also the use of the more renewable energy on the grid. Since the nineties, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have become one of the dominant technologies, however, lithium ion batteries cannot stand alone to fulfill future needs. Due to the high abundance of sodium and potassium, Na-ion batteries and K-ion batteries have recently emerged as highly promising candidates. Electrode materials present the key component for the development for the new generation of the rechargeable batteries. This seminar will focus on the design, synthesis and characterization of high capacity phosphate electrode materials for Alkali-ion batteries with special attention paid to the control of microstructure as a tool to optimize their electrochemical properties. The materials have been prepared using facile, inexpensive and suitable synthesis methods (hydrothermal and spray drying) for powders with high homogeneity, leading to excellent electrochemical properties (1-6). References: 1.J. Bodart, N. Eshraghi, T. Carabin, B. Vertruyen, R. Cloots, F. Boschini and A. Mahmoud. Journal of Power sources (2020). 2- N. Eshraghi, S. Caes, A. Mahmoud, R. Cloots, B. Vertruyen, F. Boschini, Electrochimica Acta, 228 (2017) 319–324. 3- C. Karegeya, A. Mahmoud, R. Cloots, B. Vertruyen, F. Boschini, Electrochimica Acta 250 (2017) 49–58. 4. C. Karegeya, A. Mahmoud, F. Hatert, B. Vertruyen, R. Cloots, P-E. Lippens, F. Boschini. J. Power Sources 388 (2018) 57-64. 5. A. Mahmoud, C. Karegeya, M. T. Sougrati, J. Bodart, B. Vertruyen, R. Cloots, P-E. Lippens, F. Boschini. ACS Applied Materials and interfaces 10 (40) (2018), 34202-34211. 6. A. Mahmoud, S. Caes, M. Brisbois, R. P. Hermann, L. Berardo, A. Schrijnemakers, C. Malherbe, G. Eppe, R. Cloots, B. Vertruyen, F. Boschin J Solid State Electrochem. 22 (2018) 103-112. [less ▲]

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See detailDevenir un "Zot-héros". Enjeux et bonnes pratiques de gestion bibliographique
Bourgaux, Aurélien ULiege

Conference (2020, October 15)

"Panoramic" introduction of the bibliographic management software Zotero. The goals are to raise awareness among the young PhD students, at the dawn of their doctoral research, of the ethical stakes in ... [more ▼]

"Panoramic" introduction of the bibliographic management software Zotero. The goals are to raise awareness among the young PhD students, at the dawn of their doctoral research, of the ethical stakes in the choice of its tools, as well as the usefulness of a software such as Zotero. Rather than a basic guide, it consists in an overview of the scope of possibilities, by identifying some "tips and tricks" that ordinary users of Zotero sometimes ignore. [less ▲]

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See detailTactical sciences for plant viruses to foster food security: the potato case
Massart, Sébastien ULiege; De Jonghe, Kris

Conference (2020, October 15)

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See detailObserved and simulated atmospheric inorganic fluorine: short term and long term trends related to circulation changes
Prignon, Maxime ULiege; Bernath, P. F.; Chabrillat, S. et al

Conference (2020, October 15)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULiège)
See detailDéveloppement de l’intelligence artificielle : Quels ajustements dans l’offre de formation en Belgique Francophone ?
Wuidar, Simon ULiege

Conference (2020, October 15)

L’impact de la digitalisation, et en particulier de l’intelligence artificielle (IA), sur l’emploi fait l’objet d’un nombre croissant de publications ces dernières années. Alors que la majeure partie de ... [more ▼]

L’impact de la digitalisation, et en particulier de l’intelligence artificielle (IA), sur l’emploi fait l’objet d’un nombre croissant de publications ces dernières années. Alors que la majeure partie de ces publications expriment quantitativement des perspectives défaitistes ou optimistes relatives aux volumes d’emplois – potentiellement – affectés par l’essor des technologies digitales, nous positionnons notre réflexion dans une perspective plus nuancée de transformation des métiers existants, en questionnant plus spécifiquement l’évolution des compétences attendues en lien avec l’essor de l’intelligence artificielle. Plus précisément, cet article a pour objectif d’analyser comment l’offre de formation répond à l’anticipation des besoins en compétences spécifiques liées au développement de l’IA et à la transformation des métiers qui en découle. Pour répondre à cette question, nous avons dressé le panorama de plus de 30 programmes de formation intégrant l’IA dans leur cursus en Belgique Francophone. Ces programmes sont issus des trois acteurs principaux de la formation : les acteurs académiques (établissements d’enseignement supérieur universitaires et non universitaires), les centres de formation professionnelle et les acteurs privés de la formation (ici qualifiés de formations « alternatives ») en matière d’IA. Ce panorama, confronté à une revue de la littérature sur l’anticipation de l’évolution des compétences, nous permet de dresser une série de constats concernant l’adaptation du système de formation à l’arrivée de l’IA dans les sphères professionnelles. Ces constats mettent notamment en évidence deux risques importants associés au développement actuel des programmes de formation en lien avec l’essor de l’IA. Tout d’abord, celui d’une polarisation dans les métiers du développement IA, entre métiers hautement qualifiés et les autres. Ensuite, celui d’une absence d’intégration, dans les programmes de formations pour les métiers amenés à utiliser l’IA, de modules permettant d’acquérir une littéracie digitale à propos de l’IA. [less ▲]

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See detailHow are quiz scores related to students' performance in blended-learning?
Sacre, Margault ULiege; Lafontaine, Dominique ULiege; Toczek, Marie-Christine

Conference (2020, October 15)

The popularity of blended learning is growing at the university, especially because it allows greater flexibility and autonomy for students. However, this way of teaching does not necessarily ensure ... [more ▼]

The popularity of blended learning is growing at the university, especially because it allows greater flexibility and autonomy for students. However, this way of teaching does not necessarily ensure student success and strategies need to be put in place. Research shows a large positive effect of testing on students’ performances [1]. Indeed, studies reveal a link between quiz participation and performances in many contexts, including blended-learning [2]. Through two studies that took place at a French university, our research aims to test whether, above participation, quiz scores have an effect on performances. Moreover, our paper will try to test if this effect differs depending on whether the students are low, medium or high achievers. Data from 80 nursing students (study 1) and 46 computer science students (study 2) was gathered, including several quiz scores and a performance pre- and post-tests. Study 1. Results from multiple regression analyses show a significant effect of quiz scores on performances, while taking into account the pretest scores. Study 2. Longitudinal data also shows a significant link between quiz scores and students’ performances. Furthermore, low achievers quiz scores and performances increased greatly through time until they catch up with medium achievers. Both studies show that quiz scores are strongly positively related to student performance, regardless of their pretested performances, especially for low-achievers who really benefits from this activity. We learn that, at least in blended-learning, students need to achieve success in quiz to obtain great performances. An intuitive explanation would be that students who are ready for the quiz will also be ready for the evaluation. Another explanation would be that the easier the quiz, the greater the performances. Further research should explore those two tracks. [1] Roediger & Karpicke, 2006. [2] Agarwal, Karpicke, Kang, Roediger, & McDermott, 2008; Einig, 2013. [less ▲]

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See detailL’action politique culturelle de la France en Belgique à la Libération
Lanneau, Catherine ULiege

Conference (2020, October 10)

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See detailMédias, Émotions et Politiques (conclusion)
Debras, François ULiege; Nossent, Jérôme ULiege

Conference (2020, October 09)

Dans le cadre de leur 13e édition, les Après-midi de Recherche du Département de Science politique se joignent au Département de Médias, Culture et Communication de l’Université de Liège pour ... [more ▼]

Dans le cadre de leur 13e édition, les Après-midi de Recherche du Département de Science politique se joignent au Département de Médias, Culture et Communication de l’Université de Liège pour l’organisation d’un colloque ayant pour thème : « Médias, émotions et politiques ». Les rapports étroits entre médias et politiques connaissent de multiples configurations et les exemples ne manquent pas : considérons le rôle joué par la médiatisation d’un problème social, et ainsi à son inscription à l’agenda politique. Pensons aux liaisons, maintes fois exposées, entretenues par certains groupes ou hommes politiques avec les médias, ou à l’action politique de certains médias notamment dans la dénonciation de scandales à portée politique, voire à l’engagement en politique de nombreux journalistes, comme candidat ou membre d’un cabinet en qualité de professionnel de la communication. Les médias, comme l’indique leur étymologie, font office d’intermédiaires entre les citoyens, les collectifs et les dirigeants. Ils relayent les actions, positions et revendications de chacun. Les liens entre médias et politiques sont ainsi des objets d’étude de longue date (Emeri 1976, Wolton 1989). Un tiers élément peut être ajouté à ce binôme : le rôle joué par les émotions. Chaque partie en est à la fois dépendant, mais également utilisateur. Le recours aux émotions, tant par le politique que par les médias a toujours été présent, de même que l’influence que celles-ci sont susceptibles de jouer sur leur action. Les prédictions apocalyptiques ou les promesses de rédemption auxquelles nous sommes confrontés depuis plusieurs décennies en donnent de multiples exemples tels que le changement climatique, disparitions des espèces animales et donc de l’humanité, mais aussi crise économique, faillite du système financier et mort de la démocratie. Tout débat semble désormais frappé du sceau de l’« émocratie ». Figurant parmi l’arsenal de l’orateur, selon Aristote, le recours aux émotions (pathos) est une des trois « preuves inhérentes au discours » (avec le logos et l’ethos). Pourtant, les questions émotionnelles ne suscitèrent pas un intérêt systématique selon les époques et les disciplines. Les émotions furent ainsi longtemps considérées comme irrationnelles (Weber 1978) et marginalisées par les études classiques de Science Politique, jusqu’à un passé récent. Le rôle accordé aux émotions croît depuis ainsi plusieurs années en sciences humaines et sociales. Le « tournant émotionnel » désigne ainsi le regain d’intérêt pour l’étude des émotions tant comme réponses à des évènements externes qu’en tant que sources de changements (Clément & Sagar 2018, Rosenwein 2002). Afin de mieux comprendre les relations qui s’établissent entre « Médias, émotions et politiques », dans le cadre de leur treizième édition, les Après-midi de Recherche du Département de Science politique s’associent au Département de Médias, Culture, Communication de l’Université de Liège pour l'organisation d'un colloque international, aux contributions tant théoriques qu’empiriques, sur la thématique « Médias, émotions et politiques », le tout marqué du sceau de l’interdisciplinarité. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of new antimalarial agents inspired by a common polyphenol, ellagic acid
Degotte, Gilles ULiege

Conference (2020, October 09)

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See detail« Cette chose énigmatique » : Les Temps modernes (présentation du colloque)
Franck, Thomas ULiege; Demoulin, Esther; Louette, Jean-François et al

Conference (2020, October 09)

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (5 ULiège)
See detailDes visages enfermés… Des visages libres
Englebert, Jérôme ULiege

Conference (2020, October 09)

D’un point de vue phénoménologique, parler du corps c’est déjà ne plus être dans le corps, mais bien dans la représentation que l’on se fait de celui-ci. Il nous faut donc trouver des stratégies pour ... [more ▼]

D’un point de vue phénoménologique, parler du corps c’est déjà ne plus être dans le corps, mais bien dans la représentation que l’on se fait de celui-ci. Il nous faut donc trouver des stratégies pour contourner cet obstacle épistémologique. Dans ce contexte, je propose de discuter de la problématique des visages en situation d’enfermement, du sort qui leur est réservé, et de leurs possibilités d’expérimenter la liberté. Je m’appuierai sur différentes situations cliniques, j’aurai recours à des œuvres d’art, et discuterai également des apports d’auteurs comme Sartre et Sami-Ali. Le temps (la permanence du changement) sera le fil conducteur de mon propos. [less ▲]

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See detailLa construction de la peur dans les médias : une analyse des processus de sécurisation à l’œuvre dans la presse belge
Wintgens, Caroline ULiege

Conference (2020, October 09)

À partir des résultats d'une recherche exploratoire menée dans 4 médias belges en janvier 2019, cette communication propose d'étudier les définitions de l'(in)sécurité qui circulent dans la presse dans ... [more ▼]

À partir des résultats d'une recherche exploratoire menée dans 4 médias belges en janvier 2019, cette communication propose d'étudier les définitions de l'(in)sécurité qui circulent dans la presse dans leur diversité, afin de rendre compte des conflits de définitions autour de la signification de l'(in)sécurité en cours dans l'espace public médiatique. Il s'agit ensuite d'interroger le type de collectifs et d'identités mis en jeu par ces définitions. [less ▲]

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See detailGoede praktijken voor zonwering en EPB-berekening
Attia, Shady ULiege

Conference (2020, October 08)

De gevolgen van klimaatverandering leiden tot een toename van de frequentie en intensiteit van hittegolven tijdens de zomer en de transformatie van een bewolkte hemel naar een turbulente heldere hemel met ... [more ▼]

De gevolgen van klimaatverandering leiden tot een toename van de frequentie en intensiteit van hittegolven tijdens de zomer en de transformatie van een bewolkte hemel naar een turbulente heldere hemel met toenemende uren zonnestraling. De impact hiervan is opmerkelijk voor het thermische comfort en welzijn van de bewoners in gebouwen. In deze presentatie zullen we die implicaties voor bestaande en nieuwe gebouwen onderzoeken in relatie met de comfortbehoeften van de bewoners/gebruikers. Als onderdeel van de activiteiten van Annex 80 van het Internationaal Agentschap (Resilient Cooling for Buildings), zal de presentatie zich richten op het potentieel van zonwering en het delen van goede praktijken over de integratie van zonwering tijdens het ontwerp- en bouwproces. Ten slotte wordt het belang besproken van de interactie van de bewoners/gebruikers en de essentie van zonweringoplossingen in relatie met thermische comfortvereisten. De presentatie zal zich toespitsen op berekeningsmethodes voor oververhitting die in de EPB van België en vergeleken met de andere Europese landen worden gebruikt. [less ▲]

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See detailLe recouvrement forcé des aliments en 2020 - Powerpoint de l'intervention orale
Lemaire, Anne-Sophie ULiege

Conference (2020, October 07)

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See detailMartian visible and ultraviolet dayglow: altitude, latitudinal and seasonal variations observed with NOMAD/TGO
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULiege; Aoki, Shohei ULiege; Gkouvelis, Leonardos ULiege et al

Conference (2020, October 02)

The OI 557.7 nm green line has been measured in the Martian dayglow for the first time with the UVIS visible-ultraviolet spectrograph on board ESA’s Trace Gas Orbiter (Gérard et al., 2020). The first ... [more ▼]

The OI 557.7 nm green line has been measured in the Martian dayglow for the first time with the UVIS visible-ultraviolet spectrograph on board ESA’s Trace Gas Orbiter (Gérard et al., 2020). The first observations started in April 2019 in a special mode where the spacecraft is tilted to observe the limb with the UVIS nadir channel (Vandaele et al., 2015, Patel et al., 2017). The instrument detected the presence of bright green dayglow emission on every of those observations. The main peak altitude is located near 80 km, and its intensity varies as a result of the changing distance from sun, the local time and latitude of the observations. A second, less pronounced, emission peak is observed near 110 km. Photochemical model simulations (Gkouvelis et al., 2018) used the MCD density distribution (Forget et al., 1999) have been made to understand the sources of this airglow emission. It is able to reproduce the altitude and the brightness of the airglow layer. It indicates that the green line dayglow on Mars is essentially produced by photodissociation of CO2 molecules by solar far ultraviolet radiation (Fox & Dalgarno, 1979). A fraction of the oxygen atoms is formed in the 1S metastable state that produces the green emission. In this presentation, we describe additional dayside observations obtained since December 2019. For this purpose, the spacecraft has been used in a special mode where it is re-oriented so that the UVIS channel observed the sunlit limb (Lopez-Valverde et al., 2018). We analyse the observed limb profile variations and the changing altitude of the peak emission resulting from the variations of the pressure levels in the mesosphere (Gkouvelis et al., 2020). The measured intensities are compared with model calculations of the O(1S) density in the conditions of the observations. The ratio of ultraviolet spectral features relative to the oxygen emission also observed with UVIS will also be analysed. [less ▲]

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See detailLa "co-conception" en architecture domiciliaire: analyse des pratiques et résistances praticiennes
Mertens, Audrey ULiege; Yonder, Cigdem ULiege; Hamarat, Yaprak ULiege et al

Conference (2020, October)

Le projet de recherche INTER'ACT s’attèle au défi sociétal et professionnel encore sous- exploré de l’insatisfaction et du manque d’investissement des usagers, encore largement absents au sein des ... [more ▼]

Le projet de recherche INTER'ACT s’attèle au défi sociétal et professionnel encore sous- exploré de l’insatisfaction et du manque d’investissement des usagers, encore largement absents au sein des processus de conception architecturale [1], en particulier dans le domaine de la conception domiciliaire [2 - 6]. Partant de l’hypothèse que certaines frustrations pourraient être résolues dès les phases amont du processus, l’objectif du projet est de renouveler et développer modèles, méthodes et outils dédicacés d’interaction de manière à poursuivre un effort déjà entamé par certaines communautés (scientifiques, professionnelles), soit aider les usagers désireux à maximiser leur investissement [7 - 9] et aider les architectes à combler le fossé qui les sépare encore de leurs clients et usagers finaux [10]. Le projet se construit autour de deux axes principaux : (i) s’enquérir de l’existant, soit identifier les interactions, attentes et les modalités actuelles d’investissement de ces usagers, et (ii) s’enquérir d’autres modèles envisageables, en examinant les bonnes pratiques des disciplines cousines de la conception (qui font preuve d’une tradition plus ancrée en matière d’approches centrées et « dirigées » par les usagers), et les adapter de manière à mobiliser les attentes, expériences et volontés d’investissement des usagers au profit du processus de conception. Ces deux axes seront eux-mêmes soutenus par deux piliers méthodologiques: (i) des études de cas in situ et rétrospectives qui outilleront la compréhension fine de la nature et des déterminants des (in)satisfactions et interactions actuelles et (ii) des ateliers participatifs pour développer et tester des protocoles prospectifs d’interaction qui mettront au défi les freins relevés sur le terrain. A ce stade du projet (débuté en juin 2020), nous proposons de communiquer essentiellement quelques-uns des résultats préliminaires obtenus grâce à une enquête large spectre diffusée en ligne à l’ensemble des architectes inscrits à l’Ordre national des Architectes Francophones et Germanophones belge, et qui a recueilli 604 réponses jugées valides. Ces résultats portent essentiellement sur l’importance qu’ont, aux yeux des architectes, les premiers pas de la relation avec le client-habitant, en particulier en matière de modalités d’interaction, d’échanges et de (co-)construction du projet. Les niveaux d’implication actuels des clients- habitants, tels que recensés et/ou perçus par leurs architectes, seront également discutés en regard des souhaits exprimés à cet égard par les architectes. En effet, seuls 30% des architectes interrogés expriment l’envie que leurs clients s’investissent davantage au fil du projet, tous les autres se contentant du statu quo d’une interaction essentiellement discursive, préférant informer et consulter les clients-habitants plutôt que d’envisager les bénéfices du co-concevoir. Notre espoir est de mieux saisir les raisons qui justifient une telle réticence ; travailler avec les architectes à l’évolution de ces résistances pour in fine atteindre la « capacitation » pérenne tant des usagers que des architectes, de manière à atteindre des niveaux d’interaction, de satisfaction et d’acceptabilité durables, cruciaux au vu des nombreux défis auxquels l’architecture sera confrontée ces prochaines décennies. [less ▲]

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See detailL’affaire Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen (1903) : un cas d’intoxication littéraire ?
Lansmans, Alexandre ULiege

Conference (2020, October)

Considérant l’affaire Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen (1903) à travers les articles de presse de l’époque, en particulier deux articles de Jean Lorrain, nous examinons la façon dont l’argument de la corruption ... [more ▼]

Considérant l’affaire Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen (1903) à travers les articles de presse de l’époque, en particulier deux articles de Jean Lorrain, nous examinons la façon dont l’argument de la corruption littéraire, soit l’hypothèse selon laquelle l’accusé aurait été influencé par ses lectures « malsaines », a fonctionné comme un authentique système de défense permettant de le déresponsabiliser. Dans un second temps, nous envisageons la représentation du corrupteur dans le roman de Fersen Messes noires. Lord Lyllian (1905) avant de proposer que la scénographie de la corruption peut constituer une stratégie de positionnement dans le champ littéraire. [less ▲]

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See detailMay digital reconstruction tools help preserving the material and evocative value of fragments? The case of Victor Horta’s Hôtel Aubecq in Brussels.
Houbart, Claudine ULiege; Hallot, Pierre ULiege

Conference (2020, October)

Built between 1900 and 1904 along the avenue Louise in Brussels, the hôtel Aubecq is considered one of the masterpieces of Art Nouveau architect Victor Horta. But it was also one of the first victims of ... [more ▼]

Built between 1900 and 1904 along the avenue Louise in Brussels, the hôtel Aubecq is considered one of the masterpieces of Art Nouveau architect Victor Horta. But it was also one of the first victims of the disaffection from which this ephemeral artistic movement suffered and of the real estate speculation that led, in the post-World War II period, to the disappearance of many historical buildings in favour of more profitable ones. In 1948, the building is sold by the descendants of Gustave Aubecq, and two years later, demolished and replaced by apartment buildings. Only a few people protest against this demolition : as illustrated by the demolition of the Maison du Peuple more than 15 years later, it will still take time for Art Nouveau to regain public interest. But on the initiative of Horta’s widow together with one of the architect’s latest collaborators, Jean Delhaye, the dismantling of the main façade of the building is funded by the Ministry of Public works. During the next half century, the fragments of the façade (composed of around 600 stones as well as window frames and metalworks), which are the property of Belgian State, are moved several times from one site to another. Discussions and projects periodically arise, all of them considering the rebuilding of the façade : the debates are limited to the question whether it should be reused in the construction of a building, or whether it should be rebuilt in a museum context. In 2000, the fragments are handed in by the State to the Brussels Region, right at the moment when four of the main creations of the architect, all situated in Brussels, are inscribed on the World Heritage List, and Art Nouveau architecture becomes one of the main touristic assets of the capital. In that context, a study and thorough digital survey of the fragments is commissioned1, leading to a horizontal anastylosis of the façade, made public by an exhibition in 20112. But this initiative didn’t lead to any concrete long-term projects, and the stone fragments, which have remained in the warehouse where the exhibition took place, have been vandalised while the window frames have been partially burned and the metalworks, probably sold for the price of the metal. In consequence, the Brussels Region has decided to store the fragments in containers, and to ask the architects in charge of the new KANAL Contemporary Art Centre, to valorise them in collaboration with the CIVA (Centre international pour Ville, l’Architecture et le Paysage) inside the new complex. During the last year, and exhibition of a few stones and further debates have been organised inside the future museum.3 This exhibition is an invitation to broaden the range of possibilities for the fragments valorization: 16 stones, positioned on an orthogonal grid on te ground, are presented as separate art objects. Our research on this very stimulating issue started with a workshop we organised with students of the University of Liège, in collaboration with the institutions, architects and administrations involved in March 2019. This lead us to consider the opportunities and limits of the use of the available digital survey of the fragments for the valorisation projet. As to the opportunities, it appears that the existence of a digital clone may help develop two opposed valorisation choices at the same time: reconstruction, and preservation of the fragmentary state. As shown by the guestbook of the 2011 exhibition, a large part of the public would like the façade to be rebuilt, in order to recover or at least be able to perceive a part of the lost masterpiece. The fact that the digitisation took place before the disappearance or degradation of some elements makes it possible to virtually rebuilt the whole façade. But at the same time, the fragments in themselves bear very strong scientific and evocative values: the perception of their scale, texture and details delivers important information on construction history, as well as a powerful evocation of the fragility of heritage in the face of fluctuating value judgments through time, a value that would disappear with a material reconstruction. As to the limits, we have to bear in mind that the fragments have been digitised more than ten years ago, with technologies that have continued to evolve in terms of completeness and accuracy (to include, i.a. information on texture, colour, etc). The fragments storage environment makes it impossible to scan anew: so besides the reflection on valorisation options, the research also aims to study how, starting from a mesh acquisition resulting from a white light scanner, we can propose a digital reconstruction of the facade considering the difficulties of the old acquisition’s use and the inadequacy between the current representation objectives and the initial documentation criteria’s. [less ▲]

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See detailA preliminary study of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere coupling key parameters at Jupiter Based on Juno multi-instrument data and modelling tools
Blanc, M.; Wang, Y.; André, N. et al

Conference (2020, September 30)

Ionospheric conductance is important in controlling the electrical coupling between the Jovian planetary magnetosphere and its ionosphere. To some extent, it regulates the characteristics of the ... [more ▼]

Ionospheric conductance is important in controlling the electrical coupling between the Jovian planetary magnetosphere and its ionosphere. To some extent, it regulates the characteristics of the ionospheric current from above and the closure of the magnetosphere-ionosphere circuit in the ionosphere (Cowley&Bunce, 2001). Multi-spectral images collected with the UltraViolet Spectrograph (UVS) (Gladstone et al., 2017) on board Juno (Bagenal et al.,2017) have been analyzed to derive the spatial distribution of the auroral precipitation reaching the atmosphere (Bonfond et al., 2017). Electron energy flux and their characteristic energy have been used as inputs to an ionospheric model providing the production and loss rates of the main ion species, H3+, hydrocarbon ions and electrons (Gérard et al., 2020). Their steady state densities are calculated and used to determine the local distribution of the Pedersen electrical conductivity and its altitude integrated value for each UVS pixel. These values are displayed as H3+ density and Pedersen conductivity maps. We find that the main contribution to the Pedersen conductance corresponds to collisions of H3+ and hydrocarbon ions with H2. Analysis of the Birkeland current intensities based on the Juno magnetometers measurements (Kotsiaros et al. 2019) indicated that the observed current intensities are statistically larger in the south. They suggested that these differences are possibly due to a higher Pedersen conductance in this hemisphere. In order to verify this hypothesis, we calculate the conductance and H3+ density maps for perijoves 1 to 15 based on Juno-UVS spectral images. We compare the spatially integrated auroral conductance values of the two hemispheres for each orbit. The objective is to identify possible hemispheric asymmetries. [less ▲]

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See detailDiabète: Bénéfice(s) cardiovasculaire(s) des nouvelles molécules
RADERMECKER, Régis ULiege

Conference (2020, September 26)

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See detailInsight about magnetron sputtering using Life Cycle Assessment
Merlo, Antoine ULiege

Conference (2020, September 24)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (1 ULiège)
Peer Reviewed
See detailSleep slow waves generation and medial prefrontal microstructure in healthy older individuals
Van Egroo, Maxime ULiege; Chylinski, Daphné ULiege; Narbutas, Justinas ULiege et al

Conference (2020, September 22)

Introduction. Aging is associated with alterations in sleep-wake regulation that have been associated with changes in brain structural integrity. In particular, the ability to generate slow oscillations ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Aging is associated with alterations in sleep-wake regulation that have been associated with changes in brain structural integrity. In particular, the ability to generate slow oscillations during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep decreases as early as in the 5th decade of life, predominantly over frontal regions. While previous investigations have identified macrostructural brain correlates of the age-related decrement in sleep slow waves generation, their relationships with brain tissue microstructure remain poorly understood. Methods. We recorded sleep under electroencephalography in 99 healthy older individuals (mean age = 59.6 ± 5.2 years; 66 women), and we quantified slow waves generation using the overnight cumulated power density in the delta band (0.5-4 Hz) during NREM sleep over the frontal Fz derivation. All participants also underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to investigate tissue myelin content based on quantitative magnetization transfer (MT) saturation mapping, as well as diffusion-based metrics derived from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) model. A region of interest covering bilateral medial prefrontal cortices was used to extract regional grey matter values. Results. We first observed that MT signal in the medial prefrontal cortex was positively associated with higher neurite orientation dispersion (r = .30, p = .003) and density (r = .22, p = .03), supposedly reflecting preserved microstructural integrity. Crucially, overnight NREM sleep slow waves generation was significantly related to higher prefrontal MT signal (r = .22, p = .03), but not to NODDI metrics (dispersion: r = .02, p = .85; density: r = .09, p = .36). Generalized linear mixed models adjusted for demographics and total sleep time confirmed these relationships, although as a statistical trend for MT signal (F1,93 = 3.64, p = .06). Discussion. Our findings suggest a positive association between tissue myelin content within medial prefrontal grey matter and generation of slow waves during NREM sleep in aging. Preserved prefrontal myelination may facilitate neuronal synchronization through enhanced cortico-cortical connections, resulting in higher power density in the slower frequency band. Given the existing link between sleep characteristics and age-related cognitive decline, these results may have implications for successful cognitive aging. Support: FNRS, ULiège, ARC17/21-09, FEDER, WBI, Clerdent Foundation, Leon Frédéricq Foundation [less ▲]

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See detailThe Politics of Citizens’ Assemblies: Why political leaders establish participatory and deliberative institutions
Macq, Hadrien ULiege; Jacquet, Vincent

Conference (2020, September 21)

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See detailLes suites de la pandémie du coronavirus : fonctionnement virtuel des Parlements belges et immunités parlementaires
Jousten, Andy ULiege

Conference (2020, September 18)

The different Belgian parliaments have not escaped the coronavirus crisis. Faced with the need to restrict physical presence in parliament - to limit the spread of the virus - while ensuring continuity in ... [more ▼]

The different Belgian parliaments have not escaped the coronavirus crisis. Faced with the need to restrict physical presence in parliament - to limit the spread of the virus - while ensuring continuity in parliamentary functioning, the practice of the various parliaments had to be changed. These changes include the introduction of "new technologies" such as videoconferencing and electronic voting applications. The purpose of the conference is to answer four different questions: (1) how these new technological means have been incorporated into parliamentary practice; (2) what are the conditions for applying the new virtual procedures; (3) what was the extent of recourse to these procedures, especially at the beginning of the crisis; (4) what practical arrangements have been adopted in the various parliaments. Seemingly simple, these four questions conceal fundamental issues relating to the deliberative capacity of assemblies, the authentification of participation in debates and votes, but also the legal regime applicable to opinions and votes of the representatives. Because of the latter, there is a potential interaction between parliamentary immunities and the new virtual procedures in the Belgian assemblies. [less ▲]

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See detailEmpirical investigation of indexical externalism about “social-kind” terms
De Brabanter, Philippe; Leclercq, Bruno ULiege

Conference (2020, September 15)

Are there “social kinds” the way there are “natural kinds”? Are social sciences likely to hit upon “essences” the way natural sciences (seem to) do? Or are all social phenomena purely theoretical ... [more ▼]

Are there “social kinds” the way there are “natural kinds”? Are social sciences likely to hit upon “essences” the way natural sciences (seem to) do? Or are all social phenomena purely theoretical constructs? Questions about whether there are natural kinds, what exactly they are and which kinds of phenomena they cover have been the object of heated epistemological and metaphysical debates (e.g. Schwarz 1983). We think the issues can be clarified within the limits of the philosophy of language: by looking into what ranges of general terms are perceived by speakers as rigid designators of natural kinds. The first step to take is to ground the various kinds of semantic externalism in distinct brands of semantic deference. This we define as speakers’ being disposed to use words in line with the norms of their linguistic community and as consenting to being corrected when it is manifest that their use and understanding of a word does not match common practice (and caused the falsity of some of their previous statements, which they are retrospectively willing to acknowledge). When those dispositions are present, speakers defer semantically to something beyond themselves. Our focus is on spotting the words for which speakers would defer not (just) to the current usage of the word in the linguistic community, nor to the current experts of the field to which the word pertains, but ultimately to the very nature of the referent of the term. When speakers’ deference conforms to that pattern, we argue, that is evidence that indexical externalism (à la Kripke or Putnam) provides the right metasemantic account of how the meaning of the word is determined; the word is treated like a natural-kind term. But how can patterns of deference be measured? In an ongoing survey, which shows a kinship with work by Braisby et al. (1996), Jylkkä et al. (2009), and Genone & Lombrozo (2012), we confront participants with conditions that may prompt them to revise certain classificatory statements, e.g. An emu is a bird; Touching a stranger’s breast without their consent is rape. Each condition makes salient one of the targets we have identified for deference: the community usage, the experts, the ‘world as it is’. In the condition that seeks to tap into the latter kind of deference, participants are presented with a scenario in which future scientific discoveries result in excluding from the extension of a term certain members currently thought to fall under that extension. Our reasoning is that, if participants significantly modify their statements in the light of that scenario, they can be taken to ‘defer’ to the nature of the referent, thus vindicating indexical externalism. We test if words not normally assumed to be naturalkind terms, including terms for social phenomena, exhibit patterns of deference similar to those for natural-kind terms. If so, speakers have something like realist intuitions with respect to words whose meaning is usually taken to be purely conventional or polemical, and there’s therefore a case for an extension of indexical externalism beyond its usual boundaries. Braisby, N., Franks, B. & Hampton, J. 1996. Essentialism, word use, and concepts. Cognition 59, 247-74./Genone, J. & Lombrozo, T. 2012. Concept possession, experimental semantics, and hybrid theories of reference. Philosophical Psychology 25, 717-742./Häggqvist, S. & Wikforss, Å. 2015. Experimental semantics: the case of natural kind terms, in J. Haukioja (ed), Experimental Philosophy of Language, London, Bloomsbury./Jylkkä, J., Railo, H. & Haukioja, J. 2009. Psychological essentialism and semantic externalism: Evidence for externalism in lay speakers’ language use. Philosophical Psychology 22, 37-60./Mallon, R., Machery, E., Nichols, S. & Stich, S. 2009. Against arguments from reference, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79, 332-356./ Marconi, D. 1997. Language, Speech, and Communication. Lexical Competence. Cambridge (Mass.): MIT Press./Moravcsik, J. 2016. Meaning, Creativity, and the Partial Inscrutability of the Human Mind, 2nd ed. Stanford: CSLI./Schroeter, L. & Schroeter, F. 2014. Normative concepts: a connectedness model. Philosophers’ Imprint 14, 1-26./Schwarz, S. 1983. Reply to Kornblith and Nelson. The Southern Journal of Philosophy 21, 475-481./Wikforss, Å. 2010. Are natural kind terms special?, in H. Beebee and N. Sabbarton-Leary (eds), The Semantics and Metaphysics of Natural Kinds, New York, Routledge, 64-83. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean or Not? The Commission’s Discourse on the States’ Europeanness in the Framework of EU Accession
Niessen, Annie ULiege

Conference (2020, September 09)

According to Article 49 of the Treaty on the European Union, a state has to be “European” in order to be considered eligible to EU membership. Yet, this qualifier has not been clearly and precisely ... [more ▼]

According to Article 49 of the Treaty on the European Union, a state has to be “European” in order to be considered eligible to EU membership. Yet, this qualifier has not been clearly and precisely defined in EU law although it can take on various meanings and dimensions. There exists indeed many representations of Europe and European identity that have been promoted by various actors in the public space, some representations being well established and others coming close to being myths. The EU institutions are one of these actors since they have had to pronounce themselves on what is a “European State” when they received membership requests and when they considered enlargement opportunities. In this process of assessing a state’s Europeanness, the Commission especially plays an important role by delivering opinions to the Council and by communicating on the requesting state’s eligibility. Building on discourse analysis, this paper first presents the dimensions of the states’ Europeanness that have been provided in the Commission’s discourse on EU accession. The corpus is made up of public documents (opinions, communications and speeches delivered by Presidents of the Commission) that have been drafted within the framework of membership requests and enlargements since the inception of European political integration. Then, the distribution and evolution of the various dimensions are analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The paper eventually discusses how the Commission relies on existing representations of Europe and European identity to shape and promote an institutional discourse on which states are European or not, as well as how the latter takes part in (re)shaping the notions of Europe and European identity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Sirens’ Song: When Right-Wing Populism Deals with “Democracy”. The Case of the RN in France and FPÖ in Austria
Debras, François ULiege

Conference (2020, September 09)

A significant part of the literature considers that right-wing populist parties are anti-democratic. According to some authors, these parties are opposed to democratic institutions. And for other authors ... [more ▼]

A significant part of the literature considers that right-wing populist parties are anti-democratic. According to some authors, these parties are opposed to democratic institutions. And for other authors, right-wing populism respects electoral rules, respects the institutional game but is opposed to the values of democracy. On the other hand, in the political field, right-wing populist parties consider themselves to be democratic parties. They present themselves as the defenders of the people, the promoters of a true democracy. Against the European Union, against other political parties, against immigration, against Islam etc I therefore think it could be interesting to ask the following questions: 1) How does right-wing populism define democracy? 2) Why does right-wing populism mobilize democracy in its speeches? [less ▲]

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See detailFour levels of intervention to structure physical education teachers’ action as physical activity promotors
Cloes, Marc ULiege

Conference (2020, September 08)

Since the beginning of the 21st century, physical education (PE) teachers have been increasingly seen as the cornerstone of promoting a healthy and active lifestyle at school. Worldwide, researchers and ... [more ▼]

Since the beginning of the 21st century, physical education (PE) teachers have been increasingly seen as the cornerstone of promoting a healthy and active lifestyle at school. Worldwide, researchers and practitioners have implemented and tested a wide range of projects aimed at responding to the recommendations of public authorities in this area (European Commission, 2015; UNESCO, 2017). Current school and PE programs more clearly integrate health requirements. The aim of the presentation will be to describe a four levels integrative model aiming to highlight how to increase PE teachers’ chances of 'changing the life' of their students. PE teachers could consider their action in their courses but also within the school community. Based on the literature, the first level concerns the main dimensions to be considered in school life and emphasizes the potential role of the physical educators. The second level is based on an original concentric model linking several concepts used over the past decade: from physical literacy to inclusive quality physical education. In a third step, the PAMIA principles (Cloes, 2017) and their implications are described, while the last level starts from a personal reflection based on field observation: “3P questions and loops”. The whole model should guide PE teachers in their daily work and could also serve as a frame of reference in PE teacher education as well as in the field of sport pedagogy. [less ▲]

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See detailLong terme responses of crop yield, soils and nitrate losses to best agricultural practices at the catchment scale
Beaudoin, Nicolas; Venet, Eric; Vandenberghe, Christophe ULiege et al

Conference (2020, September 02)

Facing the nitrate pollution problem, the European Union has encouraged a code of "Good Agricultural Practices" (GAPs) in order to recover a good biochemical and ecological status of waterbodies. However ... [more ▼]

Facing the nitrate pollution problem, the European Union has encouraged a code of "Good Agricultural Practices" (GAPs) in order to recover a good biochemical and ecological status of waterbodies. However, the efficiency of GAPs application remains greatly unknown on the long term and at a large spatial scale. In this work, we studied the water and nitrogen fluxes in a small (187 ha) agricultural catchment during 22 years after GAPs implementation (Beaudoin et al., submitted, J. of Environ. management). This prevention action relied on the hypothesis that a systematical GAPS application would allow nitrate at the outlet to meet the US standard (50 mg NO3 L-1). GAPs consisted in adjusting N fertilization rates, establishing catch crops and converting two fields into grassland. The aquifer outlet is a set of water springs which were monitored for water flow and nitrate concentration. The water (RN) and solute (RS) renewal times in the catchment were assessed by three methods. RS was estimated at 13-25 years and RN was 14-74 years, all indicating a strong inertia of the hydrological system. Soil water and mineral N were measured two or three times per year on 36 permanent sites representative of soil and crop variability. These data were used to initialize the STICS model which predicted water drainage and N leaching. At field scale, without integrating set-aside fields, drained water below rooting depth was on average 179 mm yr-1, N leached 19 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and nitrate concentration 44 mg NO3 L-1. Nitrate concentration decreased with soil water retention capacity. Nitrate concentration in the main water spring began to decline 11 years after GAP implementation and levelled off to 49 mg NO3 L-1. The STICS-MODCOU agro-hydrogeological modelling chain satisfactorily predicted water flow and nitrate concentration of the springs but overestimated the response time. Observations and modelling proved the positive impact of GAPs which appear economically competitive, as compared to the curative water treatment, but require long term management. The role of set-aside was here marginal and with higher costly/efficiency ratio than GAPs. A more flexible land occupation could combine land sparing and land sharing. GAPs are expected to be components of the transition towards agro-ecological systems within a loop of progress. [less ▲]

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See detailIs inhibition in working memory domain-general? A study of age-related decline in cross-domain inhibitory abilities
Gregoire, Coline ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Conference (2020, September 02)

The unitary versus non-unitary nature of inhibitory control in working memory remains an open question: does inhibitory control deficit (i.e. to inhibit irrelevant information) appearing during aging ... [more ▼]

The unitary versus non-unitary nature of inhibitory control in working memory remains an open question: does inhibitory control deficit (i.e. to inhibit irrelevant information) appearing during aging concern all domains (language or visual information, etc.) or are they more important in certain areas (language) than others (visual information)? This study examines the specificity of inhibitory control by investigating the age-related decline in inhibitory abilities across several domains (visual, phonological and semantic) in an immediate target-probe matching task. 129 young adults (20-40 years old) and 130 elderly adults (60-80 years old) where presented two target stimuli and two probe stimuli (visual symbols, words or nonwords); they had to select the probe stimulus that was the most similar to both target stimuli based on visual, semantic or phonological similarity. In the inhibition condition, the wrong probe stimulus was pre-activated via a prime stimulus briefly occurring before the presentation of the target stimuli and thus had to be inhibited for correct response selection; in the facilitation condition, the correct probe stimulus was preactivated. An interference score was calculated by subtracting performance between the two conditions, for each stimulus domain. We observed that interference effects were overall larger in the elderly adults as compared to the young adult group. At the same time, there was decisive Bayesian evidence for an interaction between age group and stimulus domain, with particularly increased interference effects in the elderly group for the semantic and visual conditions. These results suggest domain general inhibition impairment at least for semantic and visual conditions in healthy aging. Differences in task sensitivity may account for the lesser inhibition impairment in the phonological domain. [less ▲]

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See detailMARKER-LESS MOBILE AUGMENTED REALITY APPLICATION FOR MASSIVE 3D POINT CLOUDS AND SEMANTICS
Kharroubi, Abderrazzaq ULiege

Conference (2020, September 01)

Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) attracts significant research and development efforts from both the industry and academia, but rarely integrate massive 3D dataset’s interactions. The emergence of dedicated ... [more ▼]

Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) attracts significant research and development efforts from both the industry and academia, but rarely integrate massive 3D dataset’s interactions. The emergence of dedicated AR devices and powerful Software Development Kit (ARCore for android and ARKit for iOS) improves performance on mobile devices (Smartphones and tablets). This is aided by new sensor integration and advances in computer vision that fuels the development of MAR. In this paper, we propose a direct integration of massive 3D point clouds with semantics in a web-based marker-less mobile Augmented Reality (AR) application for real-time visualization. We specifically investigate challenges linked to point cloud data structure and semantic injection. Our solution consolidates some of the overarching principles of AR, of which pose estimation, registration and 3D tracking. The developed AR system is tested on mobile phones web-browsers providing clear insights on the performance of the system. Promising results highlight a number of frame per second varying between 27 and 60 for a real-time point budget of 4.3 million points. The point cloud tested is composed of 29 million points and shows how our indexation strategy permits the integration of massive point clouds aiming at the point budget. The results also gives research directions concerning the dependence and delay related to the quality of the network connection, and the battery consumption since portable sensors are used all the time. [less ▲]

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See detailIntentio operis From the “enclosed garden” to the open work
Verbeeck, Muriel ULiege

Conference (2020, September)

The typology of intentions as defined by Umberto Eco and, in particular, what he calls the "Intentio operis", helps to highlight one of the specificities of the conservator. His/her special knowledge of ... [more ▼]

The typology of intentions as defined by Umberto Eco and, in particular, what he calls the "Intentio operis", helps to highlight one of the specificities of the conservator. His/her special knowledge of the materiality of a work helps him/her to grasp its "aesthetic potential": that is what it offers , intrinsically, for experience, regardless of the artist's intentions or the spectator's interpretations. Should acknowledgment of both issues be necessary, it is the physical consistency of the work that must first guide the conservator in restoration interventions. Restoring the work of art preserves its physical consistency, so that it remains as the support of an experience that may be different in the future. This poses the question: What methodology should be adopted to avoid both the pitfalls of historical restoration and those of creative restoration? [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of statistical approaches for measuring completion and/or duration of the PhD track
Klenkenberg, Sophie ULiege

Conference (2020, September)

A comprehensive review of the most common statistical techniques used in the literature in order to study the PhD outcomes is presented with an emphasis on their advantages and defaults. These techniques ... [more ▼]

A comprehensive review of the most common statistical techniques used in the literature in order to study the PhD outcomes is presented with an emphasis on their advantages and defaults. These techniques are also compared based on simulations, in order to control the parameters of interest. [less ▲]

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See detailMinimal dendric subshifts
Leroy, Julien ULiege

Conference (2020, September)

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See detailNombres irrationnels: représentations périodiques et géométriques
Leroy, Julien ULiege

Conference (2020, September)

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See detailWhat are continuously differentiable functions on compact sets?
Loosveldt, Laurent ULiege

Conference (2020, August 31)

We consider the space C_1(K) of real-valued continuously differentiable functions on a compact set K included in R^d. We characterize the completeness of this space and prove that the restriction space C ... [more ▼]

We consider the space C_1(K) of real-valued continuously differentiable functions on a compact set K included in R^d. We characterize the completeness of this space and prove that the restriction space C_1(R^d|K) = {f|K : f in C_1(R^d)} is always dense in C_1(K). The space C_1(K) is then compared with other spaces of differentiable functions on compact sets. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial prefixes as applicatives in Harakmbut
Van linden, An ULiege

Conference (2020, August 29)

This paper, based on first-hand data recorded in the field, focuses on a set of spatial verbal prefixes in the underdescribed language Harakmbut, more specifically the Arakmbut (Amarakaeri) dialect ... [more ▼]

This paper, based on first-hand data recorded in the field, focuses on a set of spatial verbal prefixes in the underdescribed language Harakmbut, more specifically the Arakmbut (Amarakaeri) dialect, spoken in the departamentos of Cuzco and Madre de Dios in Peru. Harakmbut is still considered as an unclassified (Amazonian) language (cf. Wise 1999: 307; WALS), although Adelaar (2000) has argued for a genetic link with the Brazilian Katukina family, which may be further linked to Macro-Jê. The spatial prefixes studied here specify locative or directional circumstances of (participants in) the event denoted by the verb. Examples include ti- (1), which indicates location high up, on-~n- (2), which signals the spatial relation of ‘in’, ‘to’ (Tripp 1976: 8) or ‘on’, and ok-~k- (3), which expresses ‘separation’ (Tripp 1995: 219). While ti- in (1) is valence-neutral, n- in (2) and ok- in (3) increase the valence of the verb. (1) ken on-ti-pok mboerek-ta then 3PL-SPAT:UP-pass man-ACC ‘Then they pass the man (who is high up, on a ladder).’ (Pear story) (2) o-wedn-ato ãnĩ bisikleta o-n-kot 3SG-lie-MOVE&DO FILLER bicycle 3SG-SPAT:ON-fall ‘He falls (literally: ‘moves and lies down’), eh, he falls on his bike.’ (Pear story) (3) wambo-ta i-mba-uk-i tareʔ men-ok-mbere-me-niŋ-ta boy-ACC 1SG-VPL-search-1.IND manioc 3PL>1SG-SEPARATION-steal-REC.PST-REL-ACC ‘I am looking for the boys that stole manioc from me.’ (elicitation) In (1), ti- does not introduce an applied phrase, but specifies the location of the object participant (mboerek-ta). In (2), n- introduces an applied phrase for the intransitive verb root kot ‘fall’ (bisikleta), which is zero-marked, as typical for inanimate object participants of transitive verbs. In (3), finally, ok- promotes the person from whom the boys stole manioc to a core argument registered on the verb (resulting in a portmanteau person prefix, indexing both agent and applied object participant), and thus turns a transitive verb into a three-place predicate (note that ok-~k- does not serve as a general malefactive applicative in Arakmbut). As in (2) and (3) the spatial prefixes introduce a non-actor argument into a main clause, they can be analysed as applicative morphemes (cf. Peterson 2007). In (1), however, the function of the spatial prefix is non-syntactic; it characterizes the object participant in terms of location, just like verbal classifiers – also present in the language – characterize object participants (or subject participants in the case of intransitive verbs) in terms of shape or substance. This paper aims to determine the conditions for valence-neutral versus valence-changing behaviour of this as yet poorly understood category of spatial prefixes, as well as the range of syntactic and non-syntactic functions associated with them. In the process, it will investigate whether constructions like (2) and (3) are obligatory or optional applicative constructions (cf. Mithun 2002), and it will compare spatial prefixes with non-spatial applicatives (e.g. benefactive and comitative applicatives). Finally, attention will be paid to cases in which (combinations of) spatial prefixes seem to have become fossilized, e.g. (4). (4) e-ma-ti-on-ka INF-VPL-SPAT:UP-SPAT:ON-do ‘hunt’ References Adelaar, Willem (2000), Propuesta de un nuevo vínculo genético entre dos grupos lingüísticos indígenas de la Amazonía occidental: Harakmbut y Katukina, in L. Miranda Esquerre (ed.), (2000), Actas del I Congreso de Lenguas Indígenas de Sudamérica, Lima: U. Ricardo Palma, vol. 2, 219-236. Mithun, Marianne (2002), Understanding and explaining applicatives, in M. Andronis, C. Ball, H. Elston & S. Neuvel (eds.), (2002), Proceedings of the Thirty-seventh Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society: Functionalism and formalism in linguistic theory, Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society, 73–98. Peterson, David A (2007), Applicative constructions, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Tripp, Robert (1976), Los verbos Amarakaeri: Datos Etno-Lingüísticos 33, Lima: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano. Tripp, Robert (1995), Diccionario amarakaeri-castellano, Yarinacocha: Min. de Educación & SIL. Wise, Mary (1999), Small language families and isolates in Peru, in W. Dixon & A. Aikhenvald (eds.), The Amazonian languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 307-340. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctions of the Word “Democracy” in Right-Wing Populist Discourses; the Case of the Rassemblement National in France
Debras, François ULiege

Conference (2020, August 28)

The Rassemblement National underlines that democracy is a fundamental principle of the French Republic. The literature argues that this is a symbolic discourse rooted in a strategy of “normalization”. I ... [more ▼]

The Rassemblement National underlines that democracy is a fundamental principle of the French Republic. The literature argues that this is a symbolic discourse rooted in a strategy of “normalization”. I aim to further revise this assumption by asking the question: is “democracy” only a symbolic term, a strategic argument or - and this is the hypothesis that I intend to demonstrate - is the word “democracy” also ideologically loaded? In other words, it be argued that “democracy”, in populist discourse, corresponds to a symbolic argument as well as a very specific ideological corpus? I will study the term “democracy” by carrying out a lexicometric analysis before combining it with a critical discourse analysis. I will then deal with different functions of the term “democracy” while highlighting some of the tensions in its rhetoric. [less ▲]

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See detailCirculation of Knowledge: Assessing Different Types of Interactions with Experts
Regnier, Cindy ULiege

Conference (2020, August 26)

Past studies have broadly analysed the role of external experts in shaping security policies by examining, for instance, how an assemblage of experts becomes highly relevant for a particular issue or by ... [more ▼]

Past studies have broadly analysed the role of external experts in shaping security policies by examining, for instance, how an assemblage of experts becomes highly relevant for a particular issue or by assessing the influence that such experts exercise on specific topics. Similarly, scholars have also explored different aspects regarding experts’ interactions with different types of practitioners, including bureaucrats, diplomats and militaries. Yet, despite this increasingly rich literature, no comprehensive research has been conducted with the explicit aim of comparing those interactions in a common context, for a common issue or for actors driven by overall common purposes. By building on the literature on sociology of expertise, this paper intends to fill this gap by exploring the interactions between think tanks and NATO, focusing separately on the bureaucratic, the diplomatic and the military part of the alliance. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean or Not? The Representations of the States’ Europeanness and Europe in the EU Institutions’ Discourse
Niessen, Annie ULiege

Conference (2020, August)

According to Article 49 of the Treaty on the European Union, a state has to be “European” in order to be considered eligible to EU membership. Yet, this qualifier has not been clearly and precisely ... [more ▼]

According to Article 49 of the Treaty on the European Union, a state has to be “European” in order to be considered eligible to EU membership. Yet, this qualifier has not been clearly and precisely defined in EU law although it can take on various meanings. There exist indeed in the public space many narratives of the notion of Europe, and of related notions such as Europeanness, that have been built by various actors. The EU political institutions are part of these actors since they have had to pronounce themselves on what is a “European State”, especially in the framework of EU accession when they dealt with membership requests and enlargement opportunities. By relying on a corpus made up of various institutional documents (opinions, speeches, communications, reports, …), this paper first explains the representations of the states’ Europeanness and, by extension, of Europe that has been found out in the EU institutions’ discourse since the inception of the European integration process. Then, it analyses the distribution and evolution of the various representations per institution and per period. The paper eventually discusses how the EU institutions relies on existing narratives of the notions Europe and European identity to assess the states’ Europeanness, which (re)shapes a new discourse on Europe and European identity. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentity Crisis and Cultural Tools: Comparing Flanders, Brussels and Wallonia through a Museal Approach
Counet, Maxime ULiege

Conference (2020, July 27)

As other countries’, the Belgian political landscape is marked by a series of “crisis” – starting with a now traditional “governmental formation crisis” after each general election. Although urgency is ... [more ▼]

As other countries’, the Belgian political landscape is marked by a series of “crisis” – starting with a now traditional “governmental formation crisis” after each general election. Although urgency is normalized in a large array of policy management, party programs and publications shows that a portion of the political force is mobilized towards the longer-term effort of building identities. Interestingly enough, identity processes have been rather contrasted since Belgium’s independence: most Flemish parties were created (or obtained their independence from national-wide parties) in order to gain more sovereignty for the Flemish nation whereas most French-speaking representative only started to work on subnational identities in reaction to Flemish claims. Therefore, Flemish nationalist movements were morphed into state-governing parties whilst French-speaking representatives are – still – periodically testing for identity policies – whether based and Wallonia and Brussels’ region or other the whole French-speaking community. In this communication, we will raise a question about a scarcely discussed tool in the hands of the communities: how does museums contribute to the construction of majority nationalism in Belgium and therefore intend to tackle identity crisis? Following Antichan (2016), we believe that museums and commemorations are social venues and may constitute a precious way to obtain material on identity processes in Belgium. Namely, the visit and interviews of curators in a Flemish nationalist gathering in Diksmuide commemorating the French-speaking domination during World War I ; a royal museum in Brussels and a industrial history museum of Wallonia in Liège will other comparative insights of a portion of identity-making policies in Flanders, Brussels and Wallonia. [less ▲]

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See detailEmpirical investigation of indexical externalism about “social-kind” terms
De Brabanter, Philippe; Leclercq, Bruno ULiege

Conference (2020, July 18)

Are there “social kinds” the way there are “natural kinds”? Are social sciences likely to hit upon “essences” the way natural sciences (seem to) do? Or are all social phenomena purely theoretical ... [more ▼]

Are there “social kinds” the way there are “natural kinds”? Are social sciences likely to hit upon “essences” the way natural sciences (seem to) do? Or are all social phenomena purely theoretical constructs? Questions about whether there are natural kinds, what exactly they are and which kinds of phenomena they cover have been the object of heated epistemological and metaphysical debates (e.g. Schwarz 1983). We think the issues can be clarified within the limits of the philosophy of language: by looking into what ranges of general terms are perceived by speakers as rigid designators of natural kinds. The first step to take is to ground the various kinds of semantic externalism in distinct brands of semantic deference. Our focus is on spotting the words for which speakers would defer not (just) to the current usage of the word in the linguistic community, nor to the current experts of the field to which the word pertains, but ultimately to the very nature of the referent of the term. When speakers’ deference conforms to that pattern, we argue, that is evidence that indexical externalism (à la Kripke or Putnam) provides the right metasemantic account of how the meaning of the word is determined; the word is treated like a natural-kind term. But how can patterns of deference be measured? In an ongoing survey, which shows a kinship with work by Braisby et al. (1996), Jylkkä et al. (2009), and Genone & Lombrozo (2012), we confront participants with conditions that may prompt them to revise certain classificatory statements. Each condition makes salient one of the targets we have identified for deference: the community usage, the experts, the ‘world as it is’. In the condition that seeks to tap into the latter kind of deference, participants are presented with a scenario in which future scientific discoveries result in excluding from the extension of a term certain members currently thought to fall under that extension. Our reasoning is that, if participants significantly modify their statements in the light of that scenario, they can be taken to ‘defer’ to the nature of the referent, thus vindicating indexical externalism. We test if words not normally assumed to be natural-kind terms, including terms for social phenomena, exhibit patterns of deference similar to those for natural-kind terms. If so, speakers have something like realist intuitions with respect to words whose meaning is usually taken to be purely conventional or polemical, and there’s therefore a case for an extension of indexical externalism beyond its usual boundaries. Braisby, N., Franks, B. & Hampton, J. 1996. Essentialism, word use, and concepts. Cognition 59, 247-74./Genone, J. & Lombrozo, T. 2012. Concept possession, experimental semantics, and hybrid theories of reference. Philosophical Psychology 25, 717-742./Jylkkä, J., Railo, H. & Haukioja, J. 2009. Psychological essentialism and semantic externalism: Evidence for externalism in lay speakers’ language use. Philosophical Psychology 22, 37-60./Schwarz, S. 1983. Reply to Kornblith and Nelson. The Southern Journal of Philosophy 21, 475-481. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing semantic deference to test an extension of indexical externalism beyond natural-kind terms
De Brabanter, Philippe; Leclercq, Bruno ULiege

Conference (2020, July 17)

Since Kripke and Putnam, there is a widespread assumption that natural-kind terms function just like proper names: they designate their referents directly and they are rigid designators: their reference ... [more ▼]

Since Kripke and Putnam, there is a widespread assumption that natural-kind terms function just like proper names: they designate their referents directly and they are rigid designators: their reference is unchanged even in worlds in which the referent lacks some or all the properties associated with it in the actual world. There have, however, been heated debates about what should be taken as a natural-kind term. These often take on a strong epistemological or metaphysical dimension. We think the issues can be clarified within the limits of the philosophy of language: by looking into what ranges of general terms are perceived by speakers as rigid designators of natural kinds. The first step to take is to ground the various kinds of semantic externalism in distinct brands of semantic deference. Our focus is on spotting the words for which speakers would defer not (just) to the current usage of the word in the linguistic community, nor to the current experts of the field to which the word pertains, but ultimately to the very nature of the referent of the term. When speakers’ deference conforms to that pattern, we argue, that is evidence that indexical externalism (à la Kripke or Putnam) provides the right metasemantic account of how the meaning of the word is determined; the word is treated like a natural-kind term. But how can patterns of deference be measured? In an ongoing survey, we confront participants with conditions that may prompt them to revise certain classificatory statements. Each condition makes salient one of the targets we have identified for deference: the community usage, the experts, the ‘world as it is’. In the condition that seeks to tap into the latter kind of deference, participants are presented with a scenario in which future scientific discoveries result in excluding from the extension of a term certain members currently thought to fall under that extension Our reasoning is that, if participants significantly modify their statements in the light of that scenario, they can be taken to ‘defer’ to the nature of the referent, thus vindicating indexical externalism. We test if words not normally assumed to be natural-kind terms exhibit patterns of deference similar to those for natural-kind terms. If so, speakers have something like realist intuitions with respect to words whose meaning is usually taken to be purely conventional or polemical, and there’s therefore a case for an extension of indexical externalism beyond the usual set of terms. We believe our results will enrich the conclusions from previous empirical studies (Braisby et al. 1996, Jylkkä et al. 2009, Genone & Lombrozo 2012). Braisby, N., Franks, B. & Hampton, J. 1996. Essentialism, word use, and concepts. Cognition 59, 247-74./Genone, J. & Lombrozo, T. 2012. Concept possession, experimental semantics, and hybrid theories of reference. Philosophical Psychology 25, 717-742./Jylkkä, J., Railo, H. & Haukioja, J. 2009. Psychological essentialism and semantic externalism: Evidence for externalism in lay speakers’ language use. Philosophical Psychology 22, 37-60 [less ▲]

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See detailYou say Normalizing Flows I see Bayesian Networks
Wehenkel, Antoine ULiege; Louppe, Gilles ULiege

Conference (2020, July 10)

Normalizing flows have emerged as an important family of deep neural networks for modelling complex probability distributions. In this note, we revisit their coupling and autoregressive transformation ... [more ▼]

Normalizing flows have emerged as an important family of deep neural networks for modelling complex probability distributions. In this note, we revisit their coupling and autoregressive transformation layers as probabilistic graphical models and show that they reduce to Bayesian networks with a pre-defined topology and a learnable density at each node. From this new perspective, we provide three results. First, we show that stacking multiple transformations in a normalizing flow relaxes independence assumptions and entangles the model distribution. Second, we show that a fundamental leap of capacity emerges when the depth of affine flows exceeds 3 transformation layers. Third, we prove the non-universality of the affine normalizing flow, regardless of its depth. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Expert Touch: Feeling Substances in Holy Anatomies
Von Hoffmann, Viktoria ULiege

Conference (2020, July 10)

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See detailAnalyse des difficultés liées à la compréhension de textes numériques : Que nous apprennent les réponses erronées des élèves aux questions issues d’une unité libérée de PISA 2018 ?
Joris, Noémie ULiege; Lafontaine, Dominique ULiege

Conference (2020, July 08)

L’analyse des erreurs des élèves à une évaluation peut informer sur le niveau de développement d’une compétence et, ainsi, avoir une portée diagnostique favorisant la mise en place de dispositifs ... [more ▼]

L’analyse des erreurs des élèves à une évaluation peut informer sur le niveau de développement d’une compétence et, ainsi, avoir une portée diagnostique favorisant la mise en place de dispositifs d’enseignement-apprentissage adaptés aux obstacles cognitifs rencontrés par les élèves (Vantourout & Goasdoué, 2014). Si, en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles, les élèves sont rarement, voire jamais, évalués sur les compétences en lecture numérique, nous disposons néanmoins d’une base de données riche sur le sujet grâce au Programme International pour le Suivi des Acquis des élèves (PISA). En effet, depuis 2009, la FW-B participe aux enquêtes à large échelle visant, entre autres, à évaluer les compétences en lecture électronique des élèves de 15 ans. En 2018, l’OCDÉ a révisé de façon substantielle le cadre de référence sur lequel se base ces enquêtes en accordant une place centrale à la lecture numérique (Lafontaine, Bricteux, Hyndryckx, Matoul & Quittre, 2019). En 2018, 3221 élèves de la FW-B ont participé à cette enquête. Les résultats en lecture indiquent que le score moyen des élèves de 15 ans est de 481 points, score significativement inférieur à la moyenne des pays participants (487). C’est dans les compétences « évaluer et réfléchir » et « comprendre » que les élèves semblent avoir plus de difficultés (FWB : 481 et 478 points ; OCDÉ : 489 et 487). Par contre, ils réussissent mieux les questions ciblées sur des tâches de lecture numérique (sources multiples) (FW-B : 489 points ; OCDÉ : 490) que celles relatives à des textes plus traditionnels (sources simples) (474 ; OCDÉ – 485) (Lafontaine et al., 2019). Ce dernier résultat se révèle assez positif compte tenu de l’absence d’enseignement officiel de la lecture numérique dans nos écoles. Si ces résultats nous donnent une première information sur les difficultés en lecture numérique des élèves de 15 ans, celle-ci reste générale et nous renseigne peu sur les obstacles spécifiques qu’ils ont rencontrés en réalisant les tâches. Une analyse qualitative des réponses et surtout des erreurs à la fois en tant qu’écart à la norme et en tant que moyen mis en œuvre pour atteindre le but visé (Leplat, 2011) devrait nous permettre de mieux appréhender les difficultés des élèves et, de ce fait, mieux y remédier. Dans cette perspective, nous proposons d’analyser les réponses des élèves de la FW-B à deux questions d’une unité libérée de PISA 2018 intitulées L’île de Pâques. Celles-ci nécessitent d’aller chercher des informations dans plusieurs sources et de les intégrer ou les combiner. Il s’agit d’une tâche spécifique à la lecture numérique car elle requiert la navigation entre plusieurs textes. Après avoir porté un regard général sur le pourcentage de réussite à ces questions, nous analyserons les réponses produites par les élèves. Au travers de la description de la tâche et des réponses des élèves, nous proposons une analyse des erreurs en deux temps. Dans un premier temps, nous analyserons l’erreur comme un écart à l’attendu en calculant le pourcentage de réponses considérées comme correctes et incorrectes par les évaluateurs experts. Dans un second temps, nous analyserons l’erreur comme une trace d’un processus mis en œuvre pour atteindre l’attendu en catégorisant les réponses incorrectes produites par les élèves. Ainsi un élève ayant répondu « les rats » ne semble pas avoir commis le même type d’erreur qu’un élève ayant fourni comme réponse « je crois que l’article 3 est une source fiable, car la description est réelle et plusieurs noms de scientifiques connus sont cités». Les types d’erreurs liés, d’une part, aux nombres de sources citées et, d’autre part, à l’argumentation fournie permettent d’appréhender les difficultés des élèves et les processus cognitifs qu’ils ont mis en œuvre pour répondre à la question. [less ▲]

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See detailConscientisation d’une communauté éducative d’enseignement supérieur aux difficultés rencontrées par les étudiants sportifs
Bonni, Jérémy ULiege; Sapta, Luca; Denis, Brigitte ULiege et al

Conference (2020, July 08)

1. Introduction et objectifs L’intérêt de mener de front des études supérieures et un sport de haut niveau est désormais bien admis (Capranica & Guidotti, 2016 ; Semiz, 2018). De nombreuses difficultés ... [more ▼]

1. Introduction et objectifs L’intérêt de mener de front des études supérieures et un sport de haut niveau est désormais bien admis (Capranica & Guidotti, 2016 ; Semiz, 2018). De nombreuses difficultés inhérentes à cette double carrière sont néanmoins présentes (Gomez, Bradley, & Conway, 2018) ; comme l’atteste une étude finalisée à l’Université de Liège en 2019 qui met en évidence trois principales difficultés rencontrées par les étudiants sportifs ULiège (statut institutionnel officiel) : des difficultés organisationnelles, les absences aux cours et la charge de travail (Bonni, Denis, & Cloes, 2019). Pour tenter de surmonter ces difficultés, les établissements d’enseignement supérieur (Hautes Écoles et Universités) proposent différents avantages et aménagements à ces étudiants. À l’ULiège, une analyse des besoins a d’ailleurs été réalisée auprès des étudiants sportifs ULiège pour tenter d’améliorer encore les aides proposées ; et ce, en tentant de rencontrer plus adéquatement les attentes spécifiques de ce public d’étudiants. Outre l’attente d’une adaptation des pratiques pédagogiques de leurs enseignants, cette étude met en évidence qu’ils attendent également que leurs enseignants soient davantage conscientisés à leurs difficultés. La valorisation de leur double carrière au sein de leur institution est par ailleurs également souhaitée (Bonni et al., 2019). Dans la continuité de cette précédente étude, la recherche sur laquelle porte la présente communication vise ainsi, dans un premier temps, à identifier le niveau de conscientisation de la communauté éducative de l’ULiège par rapport à la problématique du double projet mené par certains de leurs étudiants. Dans un second temps, cette étude ambitionne de trouver des pistes concrètes au niveau institutionnel visant à conscientiser ce public de professeurs/assistants à cette problématique afin de modifier positivement leurs représentations à ce sujet. L’adaptation de leur accompagnement pédagogique vis-à-vis de ces étudiants pourrait dans ce cas être envisagée. 2. Méthodologie 17 entretiens ont été réalisés d'octobre à décembre 2019 auprès de professeurs/assistants de l’ULiège (9) issus de différentes facultés, de cinq tuteurs académiques, de la coordinatrice du statut « étudiant sportif ULiège », de l’ancien Président de la Commission « étudiants sportifs ULiège » (de 2010 à septembre 2019) et de l’actuel. Suite à la retranscription de tous les entretiens, une analyse descriptive des verbatims sera réalisée à l’aide du logiciel d’analyse qualitative N’Vivo selon un codage axial. Chacune des catégories d’information identifiées fera ensuite l’objet d’une analyse interprétative (Touboul, 2012). 3. Résultats, discussion, conclusions et perspectives Les données récoltées au cours de ces entretiens seront analysées de janvier à mars 2020. Cette communication porte sur la présentation de ces résultats. Sur base de ces derniers, des pistes d’action visant à mieux informer et conscientiser la communauté éducative de l’ULiège aux difficultés rencontrées par ces étudiants pourront directement être proposées à la Commission « étudiants sportifs ULiège », en charge du suivi de ces étudiants. Des projets pilotes pourraient en découler et servir d’exemples de bonnes pratiques à disséminer dans d’autres institutions d’enseignement supérieur. De par cette conscientisation, de telles actions pourraient, éventuellement, motiver in fine les enseignants à adapter encore davantage leurs pratiques pédagogiques en vue de répondre plus adéquatement aux besoins spécifiques de ces étudiants. [less ▲]

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See detailRéguler un cours de jeu vidéo : Préparer le terrain pour un didactique du jeu vidéo dans l’enseignement supérieur
Dupont, Bruno ULiege

Conference (2020, July 07)

Cette communication revient sur la régulation d'un cours de jeu vidéo à l'Université de Liège. En repartant des notions de capital ludique et littératie vidéoludique, elle catégorise les dispositifs de ... [more ▼]

Cette communication revient sur la régulation d'un cours de jeu vidéo à l'Université de Liège. En repartant des notions de capital ludique et littératie vidéoludique, elle catégorise les dispositifs de jeu au sein du cours et formule des propositions pour une didactique du jeu vidéo. [less ▲]

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See detailQuand une identification superficielle des ressources mobilisées dans une tâche de communication complexe en langue moderne conduit à des obstacles d'apprentissage et à des risques d'inégalité.
Simons, Germain ULiege; Segatto, Alain ULiege; Van Hoof, Florence ULiege et al

Conference (2020, July 07)

Selon notre expérience en tant que formateurs d’enseignants de langues modernes et d’après une enquête réalisée auprès de nos étudiants, les tâches de communication complexes (TCC) proposées par les ... [more ▼]

Selon notre expérience en tant que formateurs d’enseignants de langues modernes et d’après une enquête réalisée auprès de nos étudiants, les tâches de communication complexes (TCC) proposées par les enseignants novices en langues modernes mobilisent des ressources qu’ils n’ont pas toujours identifiées (clairement), et donc expliquées et exercées en amont dans la séquence didactique. Si les enseignants novices ont une idée relativement précise de la/des compétence(s) à exercer (compréhensions à l’audition et à la lecture, expressions orale et écrite, interactions orale et écrite), du champ lexical à maîtriser et du point de grammaire principal mobilisé dans la TCC, ils omettent plus souvent les fonctions langagières, l’aspect générique et la dimension stratégique de la TCC. Cette identification partielle des ressources mobilisées dans la TCC entraîne logiquement le non-enseignement de certaines ressources, ce qui constitue un obstacle majeur à l’apprentissage de la TCC et ce qui conduit à des risques d’inégalité de traitement entre les apprenants. Cette communication sera articulée autour des quatre grands axes suivants : 1. Le cadrage théorique dans lequel nous reviendrons brièvement sur les notions de tâche complexe et de famille de tâches, mais aussi sur les différences entre l’approche communicative, la perspective actionnelle et l’entre-deux que représente l’approche « communicationnelle » préconisée aujourd’hui dans les nouveaux programmes de langues modernes en Belgique francophone. 2. La présentation du corpus. Il s’agit ici d’une cinquantaine d’étudiants de l’ULiège inscrits en 2019-20 à l’AESS ou au master à finalité didactique en langues modernes, auxquels nous avons administré un questionnaire portant sur leur première expérience de stage. Plus précisément, il s’agit de vérifier l’hypothèse selon laquelle les enseignants novices peineraient à identifier, avec précision, toutes les ressources mobilisées dans les TCC qu’ils proposent aux élèves en fin de séquence. 3. La discussion des résultats de cette enquête et de ces observations constituera le cœur de la communication. 4. Des pistes de solution seront ensuite proposées. [less ▲]

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See detailLes différents obstacles liés à l’apprentissage des genres textuels en classe de langues étrangères
Renson, Audrey ULiege

Conference (2020, July 07)

Présentation et discussion des différents obstacles liés à l’apprentissage des genres textuels en classe de langues étrangères. 1) Cadrage théorique sur les notions de genre textuel et de débat de société ... [more ▼]

Présentation et discussion des différents obstacles liés à l’apprentissage des genres textuels en classe de langues étrangères. 1) Cadrage théorique sur les notions de genre textuel et de débat de société public régulé ainsi que sur les intérêts de son enseignement. 2) Présentation des résultats obtenu par une enquête en ligne: identification et analyse des différents obstacles rencontrés par les enseignants de LE concernant l’enseignement des genres textuels en général dans un premier temps et du débat de société public régulé dans un second temps. 3) Analyse des sources de ces différents obstacles. 4)Proposition de certaines pistes de solution. 5) Conclusions. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l'hélice à l'électron
BECKERS, Pablo ULiege

Conference (2020, July 03)

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See detailIntroduction to brain parcellation
Genon, Sarah ULiege

Conference (2020, July 03)

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