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See detailAnalytical model for the prediction of the plastic shear resistance of the panel zone in welded joints
Corman, Adrien ULiege; Demonceau, Jean-François ULiege; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULiege

Conference (in press)

This article addresses the problem of prediction of the plastic shear resistance of the panel zone (PZ) in welded steel beam-to-column joints under monotonic loading. Existing analytical models are first ... [more ▼]

This article addresses the problem of prediction of the plastic shear resistance of the panel zone (PZ) in welded steel beam-to-column joints under monotonic loading. Existing analytical models are first critically reviewed through comparisons with available experimental data. These comparisons reveal that none of them is able to accurately capture all the complex phenomena governing the plastic shear resistance of the PZ. Therefore, a new analytical model is developed based on the extensive use of finite element (FE) analysis. This approach includes the development and validation of a FE model within the Abaqus environment and the use of the so-validated model in order to perform a parametric study on (non-)axially loaded (un-)stiffened interior and exterior joint configurations. This parametric study helps to gain a better understanding of the actual distributions of stresses within the PZ. Based on these observations, a new analytical model is proposed and validated against the numerical results. This model proves to work well and to outperform existing analytical models by providing a more coherent estimation of the plastic shear resistance of the PZ. [less ▲]

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See detailLes mosaïques de la Domus aux Bucranes à Ostie en contexte. Stratigraphie, chronologie et système décoratif
Morard, Thomas ULiege; Dienst, Simon; Girard, Thibault ULiege et al

Conference (2022, October 19)

Les fouilles menées sur la parcelle de la Schola del Traiano à Ostia Antica entre 2002 et 2010 ont mis au jour les vestiges d'une domus (maison à atrium), la Domus aux Bucranes. Cette dernière compte ... [more ▼]

Les fouilles menées sur la parcelle de la Schola del Traiano à Ostia Antica entre 2002 et 2010 ont mis au jour les vestiges d'une domus (maison à atrium), la Domus aux Bucranes. Cette dernière compte parmi les rares maisons du Latium dont le système décoratif complet (pavements, enduits peints, stucs, plafonds) nous est parvenu dans un état de conservation remarquable. C'est également la seule demeure aristocratique de cette époque à avoir été fouillée minutieusement à Ostie et, par conséquent, à livrer une séquence stratigraphique fine, dont la datation a été déterminée précisément par l'étude d'un riche mobilier archéologique. L'histoire de la Domus aux Bucranes peut être divisée en deux phases. La première phase correspond à la construction de la maison dans les années 60-50 av. J.-C. ; le décor alors déployé se compose de pavements de béton de tuileau décorés de motifs géométriques réalisés avec des tesselles et de peintures de IIème style. Des mosaïques semblent également avoir décorée certaines pièces mais seules les dalles de préparations ont été conservée, les tesselles ayant peut-être été remployées pour l'aménagement des mosaïques de la phase suivante. En effet, le système décoratif de deux pièces majeures subit une réfection importante dans les années 40-30 av. J.-C. : les murs de ces pièces furent recouverts de nouveaux enduits peints et de stucs relatifs à une phase successive du IIe style ; dans le même temps, les pavements furent refaits avec des tesselles polychromes et des plaquettes en marbre, technique suffisamment rare à Ostie à l'époque tardo-républicaine pour être soulignée ici. Si le bas des parois et les bordures des mosaïques ont été retrouvés in situ, les éléments centraux des pavements, le haut des parois et le plafond ne sont connus que par les fragments retrouvés dans l'important remblai, sous lequel fut enfouie la Domus aux Bucranes à la suite de sa destruction, lorsque fut élevée la Domus à Peristyle dans les années 30-20 av. J.-C. Toutefois, l'analyse minutieuse en dépôt a permis de reconstituer deux mosaïques, encore inédites aujourd'hui. De plus, l'analyse archéométrique des peintures retrouvés sur les tesselles livre des informations importantes sur les techniques employées à cette époque. A l'occasion de ce colloque, nous aimerions présenter l'ensemble de ces données, en axant notre propos sur les mosaïques tout en les insérant dans leur contexte chronostratigraphique ainsi qu'au sein du système décoratif général. Nous utiliserons également la documentation des fouilles anciennes, elle aussi inédite, pour replacer les mosaïques de notre maison dans son contexte local. A n'en pas douter, la Domus aux Bucranes est un futur cas d'école pour qui souhaite envisager les mosaïques en contexte, tel que ce colloque le définit. [less ▲]

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See detailDéconstruire le Moderne pour comprendre l’Antique. Ostie et l’invention de son paysage archéologique durant la première moitié du XXe siècle
Mainet, Grégory ULiege; Morard, Thomas ULiege

Conference (2022, May 13)

Voici quelques saisons, un touriste se foula la cheville alors qu’il déambulait le long des rues d’Ostie. Et pour cause ! De nombreux pavés avaient été déchaussés par les racines des pins plantés au ... [more ▼]

Voici quelques saisons, un touriste se foula la cheville alors qu’il déambulait le long des rues d’Ostie. Et pour cause ! De nombreux pavés avaient été déchaussés par les racines des pins plantés au lendemain des fouilles de 1938-39. La réaction des autorités du parc archéologique fut prompte et la chaussée des principales rues fut réhabilitée, afin d’éviter un nouvel accident. Ces travaux interpelleraient plus d’un archéologue, s’ils n’avaient pas été effectués sur des rues amplement restaurées au cours de la première moitié du XXe siècle, voire complètement reconstruites alors. Et elles ne furent pas les seules à subir un tel sort : l’ensemble du site archéologique subit de lourdes interventions à cette époque. Les responsables du site entreprirent de remodeler les vestiges exhumés pour créer un paysage archéologique didactique, qui répondait aux préoccupations du temps. Ces travaux s’appuyèrent en particulier sur les idées soutenues par G. Calza dans un article de 1916 portant sur la sistemazione di rovine, qui s’opposaient à la restauration scientifique défendue alors. Selon lui, les restaurations devaient expliciter les vestiges et faire voir la réalité antique. Mais quelle réalité ? Ces restaurations étaient empreintes de l’idéologie du temps – doit-on rappeler la place accordée à l’Antiquité romaine dans le discours impérialiste du royaume d’Italie ? – et les travaux entrepris alors cherchèrent à mettre en évidence l’apogée supposée du port de Rome, le siècle des Antonins, au détriment des siècles successifs. Ces restaurations font désormais partie intégrante de la biographie du site et requièrent l’attention des archéologues, qui doivent déchiffrer cette couche archéologique moderne avant d’étudier la cité antique. En effet, les niveaux tardo-antiques, considérés comme des témoins de la décadence de Rome, furent détruits afin de mettre en exergue le IIe siècle ap. J.-C. et les édifices qu’ils jugèrent les plus emblématiques de cette période, comme le théâtre (II, VII, 2) ou la Schola del Traiano (IV, V, 15), furent lourdement restaurés, de même que les rues transformées en parcours balisés pour les visiteurs. A partir du cas d’Ostie, cette communication réfléchira plus généralement sur les conséquences du regard des fouilleurs de la première moitié du XXe siècle sur les interprétations actuelles des grands sites d’Italie. Cet exposé méthodologique s’appuiera sur le dépouillement de la documentation conservée dans les archives du Parco Archeologico di Ostia Antica, ainsi qu’à l’Archivio Centrale dello Stato à Rome. [less ▲]

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See detailNarrer le prodigieux pour plaider le zèle. La production de canards durant les guerres de Rohan (1621-1629) et son instrumentalisation par les catholiques zélés
Goderniaux, Alexandre ULiege

Conference (2022, May)

Cette communication souhaite illustrer une méthode d’analyse spécifiquement conçue pour l’analyse d’imprimés éphémères, développée dans le cadre de notre thèse –entièrement consacrée à ce type de sources ... [more ▼]

Cette communication souhaite illustrer une méthode d’analyse spécifiquement conçue pour l’analyse d’imprimés éphémères, développée dans le cadre de notre thèse –entièrement consacrée à ce type de sources – : une lecture « au ras du texte » se focalisant sur les pratiques discursives, envisagées, à travers un jeu d’échelles, comme les indices des objectifs politiques de celles et ceux ayant produit ces textes. Le corpus de cette communication sera constitué de canards et récits prodigieux, imprimés éphémères particulièrement riches en pratiques discursives : étant donné qu’ils se basent souvent davantage sur l’imagination que sur la réalité, la seule sélection d’un motif narratif est un élément riche d’informations, et les dispositifs discursifs créés pour répondre à une intention d’édification y sont particulièrement visibles. Le cadre chronologique retenu est celui des guerres de Rohan, qui virent Louis XIII lutter contre des révoltes protestantes dans divers lieux de son royaume. Durant cette décennie, les canards, dont les pics de production sont traditionnellement situés au XVIe siècle, connaissent à nouveau une production abondante, qui n’a été que très peu, voire pas étudiée. Afin de déterminer les liens entre cette création massive et son contexte, cette communication se focalisera sur les imprimés produits par les catholiques zélés. En effet, durant les guerres de Rohan, ces derniers ont dû lutter contre la censure exercée par le pouvoir royal, qui cherchait à imposer une description purement politique du conflit, alors que les catholiques zélés souhaitaient en faire une guerre contre les protestants. Ainsi, cette communication montrera comment les catholiques zélés ont instrumentalisé des imprimés éphémères mettant en scène la colère de Dieu et appelant à l’action pour apaiser l’ire divine afin de défendre leur point de vue sur le conflit en cours. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailDéterritorialisation du corps genré dans l’œuvre de Monique Wittig
Franck, Thomas ULiege

Conference (2022, January)

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See detail"Als dann Sartre doch noch zu Worte kam". Montages franco-allemands (1974, 1979)
Cormann, Grégory ULiege; Hamers, Jérémy ULiege

Conference (2021, December 10)

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (14 ULiège)
See detail« Cette chose énigmatique » : Les Temps modernes (présentation du colloque)
Franck, Thomas ULiege; Demoulin, Esther; Louette, Jean-François et al

Conference (2021, December)

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See detailJouer avec les nombres sur les doigts pour améliorer les précurseurs aux mathématiques chez de jeunes enfants d'âge pré-scolaire
Rousselle, Laurence ULiege; Maillart, Christelle ULiege; Binamé, Florence ULiege et al

Conference (2021, December)

Introduction Dès l'école maternelle, les compétences numériques précoces varient considérablement d'un enfant à l'autre. Afin de réduire ces inégalités dès le plus jeune âge (Ramani & Siegler, 2008), les ... [more ▼]

Introduction Dès l'école maternelle, les compétences numériques précoces varient considérablement d'un enfant à l'autre. Afin de réduire ces inégalités dès le plus jeune âge (Ramani & Siegler, 2008), les apprentissages numériques font l'objet de réflexion approfondie dès la maternelle dans différents pays (Starkley, Klein & Wakely, 2004; Vilani, 2018). En effet, de nombreuses recherches ont démontré l'existence d'une relation forte entre les compétences numériques chez le jeune enfant d'âge pré-scolaire et les compétences mathématiques à l'école primaire et secondaire (Stevenson & Newman, 1986; Jordan, Kaplan, Ramineni & Locuniak, 2009; Geary, Hoard, Nugent & Bailey, 2013; Watts, Duncan, Siegler & Davis-Kean, 2014). De plus, il a été montré que les interventions précoces ciblant les forces et faiblesses individuelles permet de réduire des troubles d'apprentissage (Vellution & Scanlon, 2002). Methode Dans cette étude, 84 enfants d’âge préscolaire se situant entre 48 mois et 60 mois ont été répartis en 3 groupes pour participer à différents types d'intervention pédagogique : 27 enfants ont suivi un programme d'intervention numérique basé sur les jeux de doigts stimulant le développement de la compréhension de la cardinalité, 28 enfants ont suivi un programme de lecture partagée ciblant les précurseurs au langage écrit, et enfin 29 enfants ont suivi un programme ciblant la motricité globale. Les interventions pédagogiques ont été données en parallèle pendant dix semaines, trente minutes par jour, cinq fois par semaine. Resultats Les résultats montrent que les enfants qui ont participé au programme numérique ont davantage progressé dans la compréhension de la cardinalité que les enfants qui participaient aux autres interventions. Ils ont également montré une amélioration des compétences arithmétiques précoces (non entrainées dans le programme) que les autres groupes. Discussion Ces résultats montrent l'efficacité d'intervention précoce réalisée directement en milieu scolaire sur le développement des précurseurs aux compétences mathématiques. Mots clé : Intervention, cardinalité, précurseurs arithmétiques, prévention Praet M, & Desoete A. (2014) Enhancing young children’s arithmetic skills through non-intensive, computerised kindergarten interventions: A randomised controlled study. Teaching and Teacher Education, 39, 56–65. Wang, A. H., Firmender, J. M., Power, J. R., & Byrnes, J. P. (2016). Understanding the program effectiveness of early mathematics interventions for prekindergarten and kindergarten environments: A meta-analytic review. Early Education and Development, 27(5), 692–713. Lafay, A., Thevenot, C., Castel, C., & Fayol, M. (2013). The role of fingers in number processing in young children. Frontiers in psychology, 4, 488. Gracia-Bafalluy, M., & Noël, M.-P. (2008). Does finger training increase young children’s numerical performance? Cortex, 44(4), 368–375. Sella F, Tressoldi P, Lucangeli D, Zorzi M. (2016).Training numerical skills with the adaptive videogame “The Number Race”: A randomized controlled trial on preschoolers. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 5(1), 20–9. [less ▲]

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See detailProfanation ou consécration ? Art contemporain et lieux patrimoniaux
Bawin, Julie ULiege

Conference (2021, November 19)

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See detailLe case ad atrio di Ostia: tra archivio e nuovi scavi
Mainet, Grégory ULiege; Morard, Thomas ULiege

Conference (2021, November 11)

Ostia è conosciuta per le insule di età medio-imperiale e le case di età tardo-antica. Le case ad atrio invece sono poco note perché grande parte di esse fu sepolta sotto la città del II secolo d.C. Le ... [more ▼]

Ostia è conosciuta per le insule di età medio-imperiale e le case di età tardo-antica. Le case ad atrio invece sono poco note perché grande parte di esse fu sepolta sotto la città del II secolo d.C. Le prime case di questo tipo furono però scavate già nel 1919. Nuove furono scoperte durante gli scavi per l’EUR, ma la maggior parte di queste abitazioni che conosciamo furono scavate nel corso della campagna condotta dal Gismondi allo scopo di indagare le fasi di età repubblicana e primo-imperiale della città (1947-52). Di recente, gli scavi eseguiti sotto la Schola del Traiano hanno fornito nuovi dati stratigrafici e nuove datazioni basate sullo studio dei materiali. La conoscenza della Domus a Peristilio è stata accresciuta ed è stata portata alla luce una nuova casa con il suo sistema decorativo, la Domus dei Bucrani. In sintesi, conosciamo una quindicina di case ad atrio, ma nessuno ha proposto uno studio complessivo su questo tipo abitativo. I nuovi dati di scavo e una indagine nell’archivio ostiense hanno gettato una nuova luce sulle case ad atrio a Ostia e sulla loro integrazione nel contesto urbano. La scoperta della Domus dei Bucrani e il riesame della Domus a Peristilio hanno sconvolto alcune certezze riguardo a Ostia repubblicana e augustea e hanno aperto nuove strade alla ricerca. In previsione della loro pubblicazione, vorremmo proporre una sintesi su aspetti poco conosciuti, basandoci sui risultati delle recenti ricerche. Affronteremo l’organizzazione spaziale di questa forma dell’abitare e la sua evoluzione nel tempo. In primo luogo, cercheremo di definire quali edifici sono case ad atrio. Infatti, tutti gli edifici ritenuti case ad atrio non lo sono, come risulta dall’esame della documentazione di scavo conservata presso gli archivi del PAOst. Poi, ci interesseremo alla continuità della pianta di questa forma repubblicana dell’abitare fino all’inizio del II secolo d.C. Mostreremo che parecchie case furono in parte distrutte e ricostruite secondo la stessa pianta nella prima età imperiale. Infine, rifletteremo sui cambiamenti dell’organizzazione interna delle case ad atrio dopo il Bauboom del II secolo. [less ▲]

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See detailLe système décoratif de la Domus aux Bucranes à Ostia Antica
Morard, Thomas ULiege

Conference (2021, October 19)

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See detailErasurist Poetics and Politics in North-America: 1998-2016
Delville, Michel ULiege

Conference (2021, October 15)

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See detailGiovenale a Bisanzio
Rochette, Bruno ULiege

Conference (2021, October 14)

Après une période d’oubli relatif, Juvénal redevient à la mode à partir du IVe s. Ce sont surtout les auteurs chrétiens qui le citent pour illustrer et critiquer les travers moraux de la société romaine ... [more ▼]

Après une période d’oubli relatif, Juvénal redevient à la mode à partir du IVe s. Ce sont surtout les auteurs chrétiens qui le citent pour illustrer et critiquer les travers moraux de la société romaine. Le succès de Juvénal fut très important entre la fin du IVe et le VIe siècle. Il est lu en Italie, Gaule, Espagne et Afrique. Son succès n’est pas moindre en Orient. Juvénal est très présent chez Jean le Lydien, préfet du prétoire d’Orient sous Justinien, qui le cite dans son traité De magistratibus. Jean Malalas, qui étudia le droit à Antioche, parle de l’exil de Juvénal, qui aurait été puni pour avoir attaqué le danseur Paris, amant de Domitien. On trouve aussi des traces de connaissance du Juvénal dans le traité περὶ πολιτικῆς ἐπιστήμης connu par un palimpseste du Vatican (Vat. Gr. 1298) et attribué à Menas Patricius, magister officiorum de Justinien. Cet auteur attribue faussement à Juvénal un vers de Perse, ce qui montre que les deux poètes circulaient conjointement en Orient comme en Occident. On observe une présence très forte de Juvénal dans l’Ars de Priscien, professeur de latin à Constantinople. Les vers de Juvénal lui servent à illustrer des règles grammaticales au même titre que des passages d’auteurs plus classiques comme Virgile, Salluste, Cicéron et Térence. L’influence de Juvénal se fait aussi sentir sur des auteurs d’origine grecque écrivant en latin. Claudien d’Alexandrie trouve en Juvénal un modèle pour les invectives qu’il écrit contre Eutrope. L’africain Corippe, qui vint à Constantinople à la fin du règne de Justinien, se souvient régulièrement de Juvénal dans son épopée intitulée Ioannis (De bellis Libycis) célèbre la conquête byzantine de l’Afrique vandale. La preuve la plus tangible de la présence de Juvénal en Orient et de son étude dans les milieux hellénophones vient du fragment d’Antinoë, publié par C.H. Roberts (1935). L’écriture utilisée est l’onciale juridique de type B-R, une écriture répandue dans les chancelleries pour la rédaction les manuscrits juridiques, spécialement durant le règne de Justinien. Le fragment d’Antinoë est un témoin direct de l’activité de copie et de commentaire de textes d’auteurs latins à Constantinople. Il présente des accents et des marques de quantité ajoutés par une seconde main ainsi que des annotations marginales et interlinéaires en grec et en latin dues à d’autres mains (Roberts distingue 5 mains différentes). Le fragment de Juvénal provenant d’Antinoopolis est représentatif d’un lectorat hellénophone intéressé par la littérature latine durant la période byzantine à un niveau avancé. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction à la journée "Empathies"
Englebert, Jérôme ULiege; Monville, François

Conference (2021, October 14)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailHeritagization and Endurance: False Friends? The Case of the ′′Industrial Abbeys′′ in Belgium.
Macaux, Mathilde; Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Conference (2021, October)

The rural landscape of Belgium abounds with ancient monasteries not far from which you can still sometimes perceive the silhouette of a smokestack or the shape of a saw-tooth roof. These remains are ... [more ▼]

The rural landscape of Belgium abounds with ancient monasteries not far from which you can still sometimes perceive the silhouette of a smokestack or the shape of a saw-tooth roof. These remains are witnesses of the industrial fate that many rural monastic sites knew from the 19th century onwards. Sold as Biens Nationaux, as a consequence of the French Revolution (1796-1813), they took part in the early industrialization of Wallonia, second industrial power of the world in the 19th century after the United Kingdom. Coveted for their many assets (hydraulic energy, vast and robust buildings, significant land heritage), these secularized monastic estates were particularly conducive to the establishment of industrial complexes whose activities continued, for the most remarkable, until the second half of the 20th century. During the last decades of the 20th century, many of these sites entered the heritage corpus, as former monastic ensembles. The industrial phases were considered as inappropriate interventions, insensitive to the cultural values of the buildings. Thus many valorisation projects included heavy and costly restorations or evocations of the monastic phases at the expense of later transformations. Today, at a time when heritage can less and less claim an exceptional status, escaping the global effort to save material and financial resources, these pragmatic appropriations, which in spite of everything have enabled these sites to survive the centuries, appear to us in a different light. Among these reused sites, the abbey of Saint-Denis-en-Brocqueroie, used as a cotton spinning mill from 1803 to 1957, is an exception. Here, no major restoration programme with a colossal budget, but rather occasional renovation and restoration works, in constant evolution, undertaken with little means by about thirty families who have been working together for forty years to keep the site alive. Rather than denying the complex evolution of the site, with its ups and downs, the approach is part of the gradual construction of a palimpsest. It significantly contributes to the persistence of the site’s genius loci through different cultural and economic contexts. Unlike many other comparable sites, the heritagization of this abbey has not introduced a break, or even a step backwards, in its history. The site has adapted, almost "naturally", to successive reuse phases and is therefore a model of endurance. Through this counter-current example, set in relation to contemporary cases, we aim to highlight the possible contradictions between the consequences of heritagization and the notion of endurance. In today’s society, is it not sometimes preferable to draw inspiration from the pragmatic and spontaneous approaches of the 19th century industrial reuses, rather than risk freezing the sites in artificial states through restoration, breaking with the "natural" capacity of buildings to adapt to the successive contexts and their constraints? [less ▲]

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See detailLearning from the Abode of Chaos: institutions, stakeholders and contemporary challenges of conservation doctrine
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Conference (2021, September)

The Abode of Chaos is a complex site located in Saint-Romain-au-Mont-d’Or, a village ten kilometers North of Lyon, France (https://www.demeureduchaos.com). Dating back to the 17th century, the site hosts ... [more ▼]

The Abode of Chaos is a complex site located in Saint-Romain-au-Mont-d’Or, a village ten kilometers North of Lyon, France (https://www.demeureduchaos.com). Dating back to the 17th century, the site hosts the remains of a Protestant temple as well as vernacular buildings integrated into a total work of art created since 1999 by thierry Ehrmann, artist and businessman. The buildings as well as the site have become the support of more than 6500 artworks mostly made of recycled materials, echoing the often dark news of the last 20 years: climate change, the consequences of globalized trade, the exhaustion of resources, terrorism, war, intolerance, are embodied there without concession. This aspect runs through all the components of the site, materializing in the murals, the inscriptions, the monumental sculptures, the wounds inflicted on the vernacular buildings, the recycled materials and the obsolete objects diverted and reused. This living, evolving site has welcomed more than 2,000,000 free visitors from all over the world since 2006. Since 2005, however, it has been threatened with disappearance following the demand of the municipal authorities to bring it into conformity with town planning and heritage regulations. Indeed, the ongoing creative process involving the site does not fall under the classical approaches of conservation-restoration, as enshrined in doctrinal documents. But at the same time, since 2006, not less than 770 000 signatures have been collected in favor of the preservation of the site. A selection of comments posted by signatories have been gathered in a book which is a wonderful source allowing to perceive the cultural significance granted to the site by its various stakeholders (Honte à vous 2018). If we accept that cultural significance is a social construction emanating not only from experts carrying an "authorized heritage discourse » (Smith 2006), validated by scientific arguments, but also from multiple users, asserting a sensory and emotional expertise, the Abode of Chaos should undoubtedly join the multiform corpus of heritage. But if it finally does, what questions will it pose to our doctrinal principles, and what will it bring to their development? The Abode of Chaos is of course an “extreme specimen”. But that makes it a particularly thought-provoking expression of the current questioning of European heritage practices inherited from the 19th and 20th centuries. It becomes more and more clear that these practices alone are no longer sustainable in the face of current challenges related to climate change, economic crises, and the diversification of actors involved in the making of projects. The transmission process of an increasingly diversified heritage, now encompassing a large part of the environment, far from the selective inventories of the mid-20th century, cannot be thought with the only concepts from the past. Through the emerging concepts of “post-preservation” (DeSilvey 2017), “experimental preservation” (Otero-Pailos e.a. 2016), “counterpreservation” (Sandler 2016) or “hardcore heritage approach” (Rietveld & Rietveld 2017), the world of heritage is progressively opening up to new open-ended perspectives, respectful of the diversity of the narratives carried by the buildings or sites and the way in which they are experienced and interpreted by their current users according to their contemporary questioning. In this sense, the Abode of Chaos shakes up reference points and principles and questions the way in which our relation to the past and to memory is materialized in our choices of intervention on the existing heritage, in the context of the current crises. So, as surprising as it may seem, it can probably help us rethink our principles and even question their relevance and usefulness in the contemporary world. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the identification of axial force in stay cables anchored to flexible supports
Foti, Francesco ULiege; Geuzaine, Margaux ULiege; Denoël, Vincent ULiege

Conference (2021, September)

Identification of the axial force in stay cables is of paramount importance for health moni- toring and safety assessment purposes. Vibration based testing techniques provide the ground for quick and ... [more ▼]

Identification of the axial force in stay cables is of paramount importance for health moni- toring and safety assessment purposes. Vibration based testing techniques provide the ground for quick and cheap identification strategies, based on the knowledge of (a) a set of identified natural frequencies, and (b) a structural model that relates natural frequencies to the axial force value. Reliability of results, hence, is inherently related to the predictive capabilities of the underlying structural model. Errors may arise, in particular, from the modeling of boundary conditions. Ideal boundary conditions are often introduced, in the form of either perfectly hinged or perfectly clamped cable end sections, to simplify the analytical treatment of the problem. As a first step towards a quantitative assessment of the effect of unknown boundary conditions on the modal properties of stay cables, the present paper focuses on a taut cable with small bending stiffness anchored to flexible supports. Asymptotically accurate closed form equations for the natural frequencies of the cable are firstly obtained, generalizing a well-known result of the literature valid in the particular case of perfectly clamped end sections (Morse and Ingard, 1968; Caetano, 2007). Starting from the theoretical results obtained on this archetypal structural model, a simple but effective procedure to simultaneously identify the axial force,the bending stiffness and a support flexibility parameter of the stay cable is presented and validated through numerical testing. Parametric analyses are then carried out to assess the effects of uncertainties in the definition of the degree-of-fixity of the cable restraints on the accuracy of the identified axial force in the case of frequencies contaminated by measurement errors. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction to the workshop ‘What counts as an alternation in usage-based construction grammar?’
Pijpops, Dirk ULiege; Franco, Karlien; Speelman, Dirk et al

Conference (2021, August 19)

An important part of the empirical foundations of construction grammar is formed by alternation studies. In alternation studies, both within and outside the framework of construction grammar, researchers ... [more ▼]

An important part of the empirical foundations of construction grammar is formed by alternation studies. In alternation studies, both within and outside the framework of construction grammar, researchers investigate the choice between two or more linguistic variants (e.g. Grondelaers 2000; Colleman 2009; Szmrecsanyi et al. 2016; Perek and Goldberg 2017). However, these studies only rarely explicate their view of what exactly constitutes an alternation. In Labovian sociolinguistics, alternations were originally defined as ‘alternate ways of saying the same thing’ (Labov 1972: 188). This definition is hardly tenable for alternation studies in construction grammar, however, as much of the relevant research, including our own work, has focused on discovering meaning differences between the variants, i.e. has shown that the alternating constructions are not saying the same thing (e.g. Levshina, Geeraerts and Speelman 2013; Perek 2015; Krawczak and Glynn 2015). There are then several possible ways to redefine an alternation: for instance, (i) as a practical research setup created by the researcher to test more general hypotheses (Arppe et al. 2010: 13–15); (ii) as two or more forms that compete for the same function in a community of language users (Van de Velde 2014, 2017); (iii) as a choice point of the individual language user (Bresnan et al. 2007); or (iv) as various constructions that have a special relation to one another in the constructicon, e.g. as allostructions (Cappelle 2006; Perek 2012). This choice of definition has direct practical consequences when carrying out an alternation study. The present workshop is intended to discuss such issues, some of which are listed below, as well as their wider theoretical implications. • What are the variants of the alternation? Psych verbs exhibit variation in argument structure in various languages, including Dutch (Pijpops and Speelman 2017). Here, psych verbs can be used in a transitive construction, e.g. dat interesseert mij ‘that interests me’, or a reflexive construction, as in ik interesseer me daarvoor, lit: ‘I interest me for that’. Of course, these two variants are not the only ways of expressing the same proposition: other options include dat is interessant voor mij ‘that’s interesting for me’, dat vind ik interesssant ‘I find that interesting’, ik ben daarin geïnteresseerd ‘I’m interested in that’, etc. What criteria should we use to determine which constructions to consider as variants in an alternation study: should this be determined by the hypothesis at issue? Should we look at the function that each construction fulfills in the community of language users? Or should we rather look at the individual language user, and whether each construction presents an option for them? Or, finally, should the variants have some paradigmatic link to one another? • Which instances should be taken up in an alternation study? Alternation studies often restrict themselves to instances that are deemed interchangeable. Is this a valid choice, and if so, what constitutes interchangeability? This question has mostly been discussed with reference to semantic factors and has been dubbed the problem of semantic equivalence (Lavandera 1978; Geeraerts, Kristiansen and Peirsman 2010: 7–9). This problem asks whether we should allow differences in terms of construal or even referential meaning into our dataset, such as the English conative alternation displays in e.g. she struck her legs vs. she struck at her legs (Perek 2015: 92–93). Or what about lexical senses that only seem to be expressed by one of the variants: should their instances be excluded a priori? The question not only arises with regard to semantic factors, though, but also with regard to processing effects and lectal differences. For example, an important predictor in the alternation between regular and irregular Germanic past tense forms, e.g. sneaked vs. snuck, is the token frequency of the verb: more frequent verbs are more often conjugated irregularly. As such, extremely frequent verbs invariably exhibit the irregular inflection. But where to draw the line between verbs that rarely exhibit the regular inflection and those that categorically do not? Many verbs that were originally thought to be conjugated in a categorical fashion, have in fact been observed to show occasional variation (van Santen 1997; Knooihuizen and Strik 2014). As for lectal factors, the verb maken ‘make’ is invariably conjugated with a suffix in standard Dutch, as maakte ‘made’. In some dialects, however, it can also employ a vowel change, as miek ‘made’. But how to distinguish between speakers or contexts where miek ‘made’ is improbable and those where it is impossible? • What is the relative status of lectal, semantic, lexical and processing-related alternation factors? Do lectal factors correspond to differences between grammars, with e.g. the grammar of one variety functioning differently than the grammar of another (Szmrecsanyi et al. 2016), or are they part of grammar itself (Geeraerts 2010; Höder 2014)? Are lexical biases mostly caused by differences in meaning (Gries and Stefanowitsch 2004), processing pressures (De Smet and Van de Velde 2019), or lectal distinctions (Pijpops and Van de Velde 2018), or can they randomly arise? What is the role of semantic and processing-related factors in not only explaining, but also causing variation (Franco 2017)? On a practical level, how should we deal with these various types of independent variables? Should we build separate models for separate varieties, or take up lectal factors as predictors in a unified model? Can lexemes be implemented as random effects in mixed models, even though their preferences may be structured? • Are alternation factors cognitively real? Alternation studies typically rely on offline corpus evidence and as a result, we only have indirect access to the cognitive processes of language users. Can we then assume that alternation factors are represented in the minds of language users (Divjak, Dąbrowska and Arppe 2016; Klavan and Divjak 2016)? Does corpus evidence suffice, or is it high time to invest in multi-methodological research (e.g. Grondelaers et al. 2009)? [less ▲]

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See detailThe Rhetorics and Narratologies of the Sublime in Contemporary American Memoir: Mountains, Alaska, and the Farm
Lombard, David ULiege

Conference (2021, August 03)

Traditional theories of the sublime center on a fraught and unsettling experience of overpowering natural phenomena. Such an approach seems difficult to reconcile with theories of the Anthropocene, which ... [more ▼]

Traditional theories of the sublime center on a fraught and unsettling experience of overpowering natural phenomena. Such an approach seems difficult to reconcile with theories of the Anthropocene, which generally tend to question the nature/culture divide. From Longinus to Addison, natural landscapes were deemed sublime because of their overwhelming size and ethereality, which were commonly associated with the divine or sacred. Burke later theorized the sublime as provoking feelings of “awe” and “horror” while Kant claimed that mountains symbolized the “infinite”, “inaccessible” and “unknowable”. Contemporary avatars like the “stuplime” (Ngai 2005) and “haptic sublime” (McNee 2016) have more recently repositioned the sublime into an embodied and more participative relationship with non-human otherness. The memoir is a privileged genre to explore reappropriations of the sublime and related affects: the genre deploys a range of imaginative, rhetorical and narratological techniques in an inevitably human-centered approach, which allows it to dramatize the senses of excess, overwhelm, and disorientation (Purdy 2015, 421) as components of human life whereas they typically characterize the classical sublime’s transcendent realms and the Anthropocene. This paper examines three sublime sites as they figure in three memoirs: mountains in Jon Krakauer’s Into Thin Air (1997), Alaska in Ernestine Hayes’s Blonde Indian (2006), and the farm in Kristin Kimball’s The Dirty Life (2010). In different but related ways, these memoirs help us to assess the affordances and limits of using recent notions of the sublime to represent so-called “wilderness” landscapes as well as Anthropocene entanglements. [less ▲]

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See detailSediment management throughout the Meuse river
Barneveld, Hermjan J.; Frings, Roy M.; Dewals, Benjamin ULiege et al

Conference (2021, August)

The catchment of the Meuse River measures 34,347 km2 and is shared by France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Germany. The main river is 905 km long and flows from France through Belgium and the ... [more ▼]

The catchment of the Meuse River measures 34,347 km2 and is shared by France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Germany. The main river is 905 km long and flows from France through Belgium and the Netherlands towards the North Sea. Since the 19th century large engineering works have been carried out to serve navigation, power generation and flood safety. The International Meuse Commission (IMC) was established in 2002 with the signing of the Meuse Treaty (Ghent Convention). The treaty aims at achieving sustainable and integrated water management by addressing transboundary issues such as flood management, water quality and nature and water availability. In this way rules and requirements of the European Water Directive and the Floods Directive are implemented in a coordinated way. Although erosion and sedimentation processes are important for ecology as well as a potential threat for structures and navigation, the directives do not provide clear guidance for sediment management. In this research we made an inventory of sediment related problems in the countries and national sediment management strategies, which until now aim at safeguarding navigation and flood safety through maintenance dredging. However, national sediment research programs started recently including river system aspects and long-term effects of human interference and climate change. France started the program “Know the River” to understand the sediment loads, morphological development and impact of human activity and climate change. In the Netherlands the morphological system is assessed in the “Story of the Meuse”, the “Story of the Sediment” and the Integrated River Management program. In both countries the results will be used for improved management and planning new interventions. The national programs are not coordinated at this stage. This provides a challenge for international cooperation, aiming at understanding of basin wide sediment sources, sinks and fluxes and ultimately recommendations for transboundary sediment management. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of ORF9p in VZV-induced cell-cell fusion
Lebrun, Marielle ULiege; Lambert, Julien ULiege; Zhou, momei et al

Conference (2021, August)

VZV infection is characterized by the formation of syncytia resulting principally from the fusion of neighboring infected cells, more rarely from the fusion of infected cells with uninfected ones. One ... [more ▼]

VZV infection is characterized by the formation of syncytia resulting principally from the fusion of neighboring infected cells, more rarely from the fusion of infected cells with uninfected ones. One naturally occuring hyperfusogenic strain (VZV-MSP), discovered in the late nineties exhibits a single-point mutation on gE. Exaggerated cell-cell fusion is also observed with laboratory-engineered strains in which gH cytoplasmic strain is deleted or containing mutations within gB cytoplasmic domain. These VZV viral strains poorly replicates in skin models. On the other hand, to our knowledge, spontaneous non-fusogenic VZV strains are not described in the literature and the generation of gH mutant with cell fusion defect can lead to the appearance of compensatory mutations. Cell-cell fusion regulation seems then to be crucial to maintain viral fitness. We previously identified on ORF9p an acidic dileucine motif (E227GLNLI232) important for its interaction with the cellular adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1), an heterotetramer regulating the shuttling of cargo proteins between endosomes and the TGN. Disrupting ORF9p binding to AP-1 by mutating leucine 231 to alanine strongly impacts viral growth but also completely abolishes cell-cell fusion. Strikingly, after about 15-20 passages, the phenotype spontaneously reverts to an apparent WT cell-cell fusion efficiency. This prompted us to sequence the whole VZV genome of nine spontaneous revertants. Five had a point mutation introducing a stop codon within gH cytoplasmic tail, removing the last seven amino acids, the region already known to regulate cell fusion. Two had a two distinct point mutation on gE, one in the extracellular domain (D436H) and one on the cytoplasmic tail (D620Y). The last two revertants had both the gHΔcyt and the gE-D620Y mutations. We now are trying to understand the role of ORF9p in the maintenance of the gB/gH/gL complex and the role of the gE/gI complex in the regulation of cell-cell fusion. [less ▲]

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See detailSuppression of Varicella Zoster Virus Spread by Macrophages in a hiPSC-derived Neuro-Immune Cell Culture Model.
Buyle-Huybrechts, Tamariche; Boeren, Marlies; Van Breedam, Elise et al

Conference (2021, August)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (4 ULiège)
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See detailTHE POTENTIAL OF SOFT IONIZATIONS FOR ANALYZING CHLORINATED PARAFFINS
Zou, Yun ULiege; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULiege; Focant, Jean-François ULiege

Conference (2021, August)

Introduction Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are mixtures of polychlorinated n-alkanes containing over thousands of congeners and isomers. Due to the complexity of the composition, CPs are one of the most ... [more ▼]

Introduction Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are mixtures of polychlorinated n-alkanes containing over thousands of congeners and isomers. Due to the complexity of the composition, CPs are one of the most challenging chemicals for the analytical scientists. In the instrumental point of view, gas chromatography (GC) is widely employed to separate organochlorines from CPs, especially short-chain and medium-chain CPs (SCCPs and MCCPs)1. Liquid chromatography (LC) is also applied to determine CPs, especially long-chain CPs (LCCPs)1. In order to separate SCCPs from MCCPs, two-dimensional GC (GC×GC) is a promising tool because of its superior separation power and peak capacity2-3. Electron capture detector (ECD), flame ionization detector (FID), and mass spectrometry (MS) are used as detectors in the CP analysis. MS is the most acceptable detector for CPs. Various ionization sources have been tested. They include electron ionization (EI), negative chemical ionization (NCI), electron capture negative ion (ECNI), Metastable atom bombardment (MAB) and positive chemical ionization (PCI) for GC-MS and GC×GC-MS, negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and negative electro spray ionization (ESI) for LC-MS1. The standard EI with electron possessing 70 eV of kinetic energy is the most common ion source for GC-MS. However, it can only provide the information of total CPs. The information of individual congeners is hindered due to the nonspecific fragmentation pattern caused by high energy. NCI and ECNI are widely applied in the studies of CPs. The intensity of fragment ions [M-Cl]-, which present the information of the precursor congeners, are highly enhanced by NCI and ECNI. However, the discrimination of lower chlorine number congeners (below 5) is the disadvantage of these ionization sources. In recent years, other soft ionizations such as cold EI, low energy EI, field ionization (FI) and photoionization (PI) showed their advantages in the isomeric identification of hydrocarbons. In this study, state-of-the-art GC×GC-time of flight (TOF) MS coupled to soft ionizations PI and low energy EI was applied to analyze SCCPs. We aimed to explore the potential of the soft ionizations besides NCI or ECNI in the area of CPs. Materials and methods A SCCP standard mixture with chlorine content of 55% was used to exam the performance of different ion sources. Hexane was used as dilution solvent. The analyses were conducted on a GC (7890B, Agilent Technologies, Wilmington, DE, U.S.A.) equipped with Zoex thermal modulator (Zoex Corporation, Houston, U.S.A.). A TOFMS with a PI-EI combined ion source (JMS-T200GC “AccuTOF GCx-plus”, JEOL Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was coupled to GC×GC. The PI, 15 eV, 20 eV, and 25 eV EI were employed in this study. A normal column set (non-polar as 1st dimension, polar as 2nd dimension) was used. The instrument condition was described in our previous work3. Data acquisition was controlled on msAxel ver. 2.1 (JEOL Ltd.). The data were processed using GC Image ver. 2.5 (Zoex Corporation, Houston, U.S.A.). Results and discussion The different dilutions of SCCP standard mixture were measured under the same GC×GC condition with PI, standard (70 eV) EI, and low energy (15 eV, 20 eV, 25 eV) EI, respectively. The chromatograms obtained with PI, 70 eV EI and 15 eV EI were shown in Fig. 1. The chromatograms of 15 eV, 20 eV, and 25 eV EI did not show significant difference. Therefore, they are not presented in Fig. 1. As can be seen from the chromatograms, standard EI has the highest sensitivity, while PI has the lowest sensitivity. In general, the sensitivity of standard EI and low energy EI are acceptable for the SCCPs in the environment samples. Besides the difference on sensitivity, the fragmentation pattern and the dominant fragment ions by PI and EI also show difference (Table 1). The dominant fragment ions in PI are [M-C5H9Cl3]. While the predominant fragment ions in 15 eV EI are [M-C5H9Cl4]. As seen from the mass spectrum of congener C11H17Cl7 (Fig. 1), the quantifier fragment ions m/z 185 in 15 eV EI is much enhanced than in the standard EI. While, the nonspecific fragments such as m/z 41 and 55 are much weakened in 15 eV EI. The mass spectrum of PI is the tidiest with significantly improved intensity of quantifier fragment ion m/z 220. Moreover, the fragment pattern can assist us to understand the fragmentation pathway and further predict the isomeric structures. Using the specific quantifiers of 24 congeners of SCCPs, the congener distribution is calculated. The congener patterns are constant among the low energy EI with different energies (Fig. 2). However, PI mode showed significantly different congener patterns compared with low energy EI. To be specific, PI overestimated the contribution of C10-11 - Cl5-7 congeners and underestimated C10-13 - Cl8-10 congeners. In general, PI had discrimination of longer carbon chains (C13) and highly chlorinated congeners (Cl9-10). This could be caused by the low sensitivity of PI. Since C13 and Cl9-10 congeners do not contribute much in SCCPs, their intensities are also much lower. In summary, although the current technique of PI cannot reach to the same sensitivity level as EI and low energy EI, the tidy and informative mass spectrum reveal the potential and benefit that PI can bring to the analysis of CPs and possibly to the other organochlorines. Low energy EI, compared to standard EI, presented the enhanced intensity of the fragment ions which represent the precursor structure. To increase the sensitivity of soft ionization sources by the instrument vendors will benefit the analysis of CPs. [less ▲]

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See detailInterferon-α limits varicella-zoster virus (VZV) spread in human iPSC-derived neuronal cultures upon axonal infection
Boeren, Marlies; Buyle-Huybrecht, Tamariche; Van Breedam, Elise et al

Conference (2021, August)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULiège)
See detailCharacterizing the olefin oligomerization products using two-dimensional gas chromatography-photoionization-time of flight mass spectrometry
Zou, Yun ULiege; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULiege; Maimone, Mariarosa et al

Conference (2021, August)

Commercial dodecenes are the products of light olefin oligomerization in the petrochemical industry. It is a complex mixture of C8-18 olefins with C12 olefins dominantly. The dodecene products may consist ... [more ▼]

Commercial dodecenes are the products of light olefin oligomerization in the petrochemical industry. It is a complex mixture of C8-18 olefins with C12 olefins dominantly. The dodecene products may consist of linear alkenes, branched alkenes, and cyclic hydrocarbons. The composition of the dodecene products and their properties are very different due to the different feedstocks and catalysts used in the production. Better understanding the composition of dodecene products can help tune the production process and select the appropriate products according to their end-use. In this study two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCGC) coupled photoionization (PI) - time of flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) was applied to characterize the dodecene products. A conventional column combination (non-polar column as 1st dimension and mid-polar column as 2nd dimension) was selected. The GC condition was optimized using fractional factorial experimental design (DoE). Olefin congeners according to carbon chain length and double bond equivalent (DBE) can be separated based on the enhanced intensity of molecular ions by PI-TOFMS. The structural subgroups of dodecenes, namely linear, mono-branched, di- and tri-branched isomers, were separated based on branching index (BI). The dodecene isomers were identified by retention indices (RI) and confirmed by PI mass spectra. The global information of dodecene products enabled the multimodal characterization with statistical tools. The difference among seventeen dodecene products by different catalysts, solid phosphoric acid (SPA) and zeolite, and different feedstocks, with C4 and without C4 olefins, is explained by principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (3 ULiège)
See detailThe frontier of simulation-based inference
Louppe, Gilles ULiege

Conference (2021, July 27)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULiège)
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See detailThe Famennian flora of Barraba, New South Wales, Australia.
Meyer-Berthaud, Brigitte; Decombeix, Anne-Laure; Girard, Catherine et al

Conference (2021, July 19)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (5 ULiège)
See detail"Global" as a 21st-century Keyword: A Call for Elucidating the Meaning of this Term in Today's English Linguistics and Anglophone Literary Studies
Gerday, Laura ULiege

Conference (2021, July 19)

The term "global", at first absent from Raymond Williams’s seminal Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society (1976), recently entered the updated list compiled by the members of "The Keywords Project ... [more ▼]

The term "global", at first absent from Raymond Williams’s seminal Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society (1976), recently entered the updated list compiled by the members of "The Keywords Project" (MacCabe and Yanacek 2018: 171-174). The latter collective defines a "keyword" as "a socially prominent word […] that is capable of bearing interlocking, yet sometimes contradictory and commonly contested contemporary meanings" (The Keywords Project 2016). In line with this description, the word "global" has "accreted meanings" over the past centuries: it initially denoted "a spherical shape", then came to signify "pertaining to the whole planet" before shifting from a "physical" to a "social" sphere, from "something found everywhere to something affecting everyone", and referring to, inter alia, "globalization" (MacCabe and Yanacek 2018: 171-172). This polysemous, all-pervasive and value-laden term has lately become part of a ubiquitous – yet under-theorised – paradigm in contemporary English linguistics and Anglophone literary studies (e.g. "Global English" and "Global South"). What "global" designates, entails, and stands for in these research areas, I will posit, has caused some confusion: as Williams observed in another context, scholars do not seem to "speak the same language" (1983: xxiii) nowadays when it comes to the word "global". In this paper, I propose to bring to the fore some of the ways in which "global" has variously been construed within the two spheres under discussion, that is, English linguistics and Anglophone literary studies. My endeavour is above all a modest attempt to raise awareness of the need for researchers to verbalise the content of this all too often un(der-)specified unit to avoid misapprehensions in academic circles. Hazy, deceptive, equivocal, the sign "global" requires formulation in limpid prose for one to disentangle its multiple seams of meaning and to be cognizant of the fact that behind an immutable six-letter word does not invariably lie a single, incontestable, value-free and unanimously agreed-upon acceptation. [less ▲]

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See detailSpell It Right! Use of grammar in corporate disclosures
Torsin, Wouter ULiege; Thewissen, James; Thewissen, Jennifer et al

Conference (2021, July 13)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULiège)
See detail‘National’ and ‘Ethnic’ Democracy: Ideal and Discursive Arguments in Right-Wing Populist Discourses
Debras, François ULiege

Conference (2021, July 12)

The literature considers that right-wing populism is opposed to democracy (against its institutions or values). Nevertheless, it seems undeniable to me that right-wing populist parties claim, in their ... [more ▼]

The literature considers that right-wing populism is opposed to democracy (against its institutions or values). Nevertheless, it seems undeniable to me that right-wing populist parties claim, in their speeches, the notion of "democracy". I propose to study its meaning and mobilization. In more detail, I believe that the definitions of the term "democracy" in the discourse of right-wing populist parties is mainly oriented around a nationalist and chauvinist ideology. Right-wing populist parties use the notion of democracy differently depending on the context of enunciation, i.e. according to types of production (speeches, press releases, interventions,…), audiences (journalists, voters, politicians,…) and periods (elections, Brexit, political scandals,...). I also observe that, in their speeches, the notion of democracy is ideologically structured. It is not neutral. It refers mainly to nationalism, chauvinism, inequality,... So I ask myself the following question: how does the nationalist ideology structure the notion of democracy in right-wing populist discourses? To answer this question, I propose to focus on the ideological production of 2 parties (RN, FPÖ) to analyse mainly their political programmes, speeches and press releases. Discourse is mobilized here as a tool, a way of accessing intentions, strategies, ideas, opinions or feelings. In other words, through different modes of communication, political actors build and/or mobilize ideologies, values, customs and positions that they promote or reject. Speeches are thus materials from which I aim to identify representations, values, intentions and even acts of social creation. For this research, I will combine a content analysis (co-occurrence of the term democracy and the national ideal) and a critical discourse analysis (how nationalism structures the representation and the mobilization of the notion of democracy). More generally, I will also explain to what extent nationalist ideology varies according to the parties (ethnic nationalism and state nationalism), against whom the notions of "national democracy" or "ethnic democracy" are mobilized (immigration, Islam, Europe,...), who they wishe to protect (a people specifically defines) and how the nationalist and ethnic rhetoric is structured (discursive elements, dichotomies, semantic environment,...). [less ▲]

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See detailA bi-objective model for the collaborative pickup anddelivery problem under time windows
Vidal, Laura ULiege; Limbourg, Sabine ULiege

Conference (2021, July 12)

Urban logistics faces challenges such as congestion and pollution, prompting innovative collaborative projects to emerge. With the growth of e-commerce, customers want faster and flexible service ... [more ▼]

Urban logistics faces challenges such as congestion and pollution, prompting innovative collaborative projects to emerge. With the growth of e-commerce, customers want faster and flexible service. Government incentives should, however, stress the need for a shift to greener delivery. In this sense, an intelligent platform for pooling and synchronizing urban logistics players’ activities is under development in Wallonia. This research focuses on a Collaborative Pickup and Delivery Problem under Time Windows through a bi-objective of minimizing total transportation cost and environmental impact associated with each transport mode. The model is tested on a real case within Wallonia (Belgium). A profit distribution model should also be set to share the gains among the logistics operators who collaborated equitably. This project should make it possible to prioritize the use of electric vehicles such as cargo bicycles in city centres, but also to consolidate inter-urban deliveries in order to maximize the use of the vehicles on the road. Consolidation should thus maximize the loading of vehicles, hence reducing empty trips. [less ▲]

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See detailPasseur culturel en période de guerre froide. Frans Buyens et son film Allemagne Terminus Est au prisme des relations belgo-est-allemandes.
Briamont, Thomas ULiege

Conference (2021, July 09)

Longtemps laissée aux mains des spécialistes de l’histoire du cinéma ou de la télévision, la source audiovisuelle tend aujourd’hui à se démocratiser et à s’imposer comme une source complémentaire dans de ... [more ▼]

Longtemps laissée aux mains des spécialistes de l’histoire du cinéma ou de la télévision, la source audiovisuelle tend aujourd’hui à se démocratiser et à s’imposer comme une source complémentaire dans de nombreux domaines de recherche. Au cours de cette présentation, nous proposons de montrer l’intérêt que présente cette source pour l’histoire des relations internationales. L’objet de notre communication est le film documentaire Allemagne Terminus Est réalisé en 1964 par le Belge Frans Buyens pour le compte de la DEFA (Deutsche Film Aktiengesellschaft, soit les studios d’État de la RDA). Ce film présentant une image globalement positive de la RDA devait être présenté au festival du film documentaire de Leipzig en novembre 1964, mais il a été retiré du programme au dernier moment avant d’être censuré. Cette présentation entend appréhender la source audiovisuelle de deux manières. Notre intérêt se porte, d’une part, sur le contenu visuel et narratif, et, d’autre part, sur la dimension matérielle du film qui, en tant qu’objet culturel, a la capacité de circuler par-delà les frontières. Cette double approche fait écho à la thématique du passage qui est au cœur de ces journées doctorales. La première approche renvoie à la question du passage de la réalité de la vie en RDA à une réalité audiovisuelle, celle du documentaire, inévitablement tributaire des choix du réalisateur. La seconde pose la question de la diffusion et de la réception du film de l’autre côté du Rideau de fer, en Belgique plus particulièrement, pays d’origine de Frans Buyens. Allemagne Terminus Est est présenté comme un des films les plus importants de ce qu’on appelle alors le « cinéma vérité ». Cette appellation apparue au début des années 60, à un moment où des progrès techniques importants sont réalisés dans le monde du cinéma, est utilisée pour caractériser des films qui se réclament d’une proximité immédiate et exclusive avec la réalité filmée. Si elle a suscité de nombreuses discussions, certains lui préférant le terme « cinéma direct », cette appellation a le mérite de poser la question du rapport entre l’œuvre cinématographique et la réalité filmée. Car si le film documentaire a la capacité d’enregistrer des faits, on ne peut pour autant lui attribuer le caractère d’objectivité. Le film présenté dans cette communication en offre un exemple éloquent. En effet, si Frans Buyens annonce vouloir propager la vérité grâce à son film, il concède lui-même ne pas croire en « la vérité objective ». Par conséquent, la vérité n’est pas à chercher dans le contenu visuel et narratif du film, mais plutôt dans les intentions du réalisateur qui offre ici son expérience et sa vision de la RDA. Ensuite, la diffusion de ce film de l’autre côté du Rideau de fer, plus spécifiquement en Belgique, permet d’appréhender les relations belgo-est-allemandes sous un angle autre que politique ou diplomatique. C’est ici la question de la porosité du Rideau de fer qui se pose. Les récentes recherches menées sur les relations culturelles entre l’Est et l’Ouest ont développé une vision plus nuancée de la division de l’Europe pendant la guerre froide, montrant que les échanges se sont poursuivis entre les deux blocs. Sans nier les réalités de la division du continent en deux sphères idéologiques, cette présentation s’inscrit dans la continuité de ces récents travaux en s’interrogeant sur la diplomatie culturelle est-allemande – le film ayant été commandé par les autorités est-allemandes dans le but, entre autres, de diffuser une image positive de la RDA à l’étranger – et sur le rôle de passeur culturel joué par Frans Buyens, celui-ci ayant œuvré à la diffusion de son film en Belgique après la censure de son film en RDA. [less ▲]

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See detail“Conférence des martyrs” et “conférence des hérésies” dans les traités réformés autour de l’affaire Servet (1553-1554)
Bourgaux, Aurélien ULiege

Conference (2021, July 09)

Au début de la décennie 1550, les bûchers de protestants réformés se multiplient dans le royaume de France et stimulent la production de récits de martyres. Parallèlement, l’affaire Servet fin 1553 avive ... [more ▼]

Au début de la décennie 1550, les bûchers de protestants réformés se multiplient dans le royaume de France et stimulent la production de récits de martyres. Parallèlement, l’affaire Servet fin 1553 avive les tensions entre réformés « orthodoxes » et réformés « radicaux » sur l’enjeu du martyre. Afin de se distinguer de l’Église romaine qui les persécute et des réformés radicaux qu’ils persécutent eux-mêmes, les auteurs réformés effectuent plusieurs mouvements de retour vers les premiers temps du christianisme : la « conférence des martyrs », la « conférence des hérésies » et la « conférence des anti-martyrs ». Ces passerelles temporelles servent tour à tour à valoriser les réformés et à discréditer leurs adversaires. Si les deux premiers mouvements sont relativement bien connus de l’historiographie, ces trois « passages » gagneraient à être mis en lien et leurs usages clairement identifiés. À cette fin, cette communication s’appuiera sur un échantillon d’extraits traitant du martyre et de l’hérésie dans des textes de Jean Calvin, Théodore de Bèze, Pierre Viret et Jean Crespin parus au cours de la période retenue. [less ▲]

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See detailHérodote : passeur de connaissances et de valeurs
Amilien, Arnaud ULiege

Conference (2021, July 09)

When talking about "transmitter" and "transmission", it is impossible not to think about Herodotus, "the father of history". This famous author conveys to his public not only a lot of information about ... [more ▼]

When talking about "transmitter" and "transmission", it is impossible not to think about Herodotus, "the father of history". This famous author conveys to his public not only a lot of information about the barbarian people he discovered while travelling, but also a modernized form of homeric narrative and ethics. [less ▲]

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See detailStrategic Public Management and Covid-19: How does digitalization support local public administration resilience?
Clement, Jessica ULiege; Esposito, Giovanni ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2021, July 09)

This paper aims to understand how technology enables the resilience of local governments and supports the continuation of public services during moments of crisis or exogenous shocks, specifically ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to understand how technology enables the resilience of local governments and supports the continuation of public services during moments of crisis or exogenous shocks, specifically focusing on the Covid-19 pandemic. We adopt strategic public management literature and follow a contingency approach to frame how local administrations responded to the Covid-19 crisis. Through survey responses from local administrations in Wallonia, Belgium, we consider how varied contexts led to different strategic pathways. We highlight the role of digital solutions that supported resilience across the different pathways, paying attention to solutions affecting public services going beyond the Covid-19 crisis. [less ▲]

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See detailUnscrambling the "Grammar of Violence": Sexual Assault in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's Americanah
Tunca, Daria ULiege

Conference (2021, July 09)

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel Americanah (2013) features several episodes of violence against women. One such scene, involving a sexual assault on the Nigerian protagonist, Ifemelu, by a white man in ... [more ▼]

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel Americanah (2013) features several episodes of violence against women. One such scene, involving a sexual assault on the Nigerian protagonist, Ifemelu, by a white man in the USA, has given rise to conflicting interpretations, due to critics' diverging opinions on whether Ifemelu – who is the main focalizer of the third-person narrative – consents to the sexual act. Some commentators have labelled the incident "prostitution," because the protagonist seemingly deliberately goes to the house of the man after he has advertised for a female personal assistant to perform a "massage" on him; other critics have taken a radically different view and highlighted the coercive nature of the episode. This paper argues that such incompatible critical responses are prompted by the novel's subtle "grammar of violence," a textual elusiveness that need to be unscrambled. Using a combination of sociological and linguistic studies about rape (respectively by Sharon Marcus and by Susan Ehrlich), the paper proposes a stylistic reading of the assault scene, emphasizing how the assailant enacts a predictable "rape script" precisely by denying that it is at play. Examining linguistic features such as modality, the paper further argues that Ifemelu's seemingly "weak" opposition to the act is in fact congruent with real-life responses expressing absence of consent, which are often influenced by fear, social conditioning, gender imbalance and, in cases such as those presented in Americanah, power dynamics linked to race and citizenship status. [less ▲]

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See detailAnticipating ageing: interviews on home experiences in Belgium
Schaff, Gwendoline ULiege; Elsen, Catherine ULiege; Petermans, Ann et al

Conference (2021, July 08)

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See detailEtudier l'ineffable. Âmes, esprits et autres fantômes d'un hôpital abandonné
Kunysz, Pavel ULiege

Conference (2021, July 08)

Au travers d'un travail visuel d'évocation des imaginaires de l'hôpital abandonné de Bavière (Liège), cette présentation explore quelques réinterprétations successives et glissements socio-sémantiques ... [more ▼]

Au travers d'un travail visuel d'évocation des imaginaires de l'hôpital abandonné de Bavière (Liège), cette présentation explore quelques réinterprétations successives et glissements socio-sémantiques dont est vectrice la matière architecturale dans ses déprises et reprises. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanical contribution of the fibula to torsion stiffness and strength of the canine crus
Picavet, Pierre ULiege; Balligand, Marc ULiege

Conference (2021, July 08)

Introduction In humans, fibula was found to provide a small role in axial compression and torsion stability. To our knowledge, no experimental data are available regarding the mechanical contribution of ... [more ▼]

Introduction In humans, fibula was found to provide a small role in axial compression and torsion stability. To our knowledge, no experimental data are available regarding the mechanical contribution of the fibula to torsion stiffness and strength of the canine crus. Materials and Methods Thirteen specimens were divided in 2 groups and submitted to external torsional load until failure. • I: Phase 1: tibiae and fibulae intact. Phase 2: fibulae intact after tibiae had already fractured. • II: 1cm proximal ostectomy of the fibulae, with tibiae intact. Specimens were tested at a constant 0.2degree/second rate. Working length and diameter of bones were measured. Torque and twist angle at failure were reported. Twist angle relative to working length and torsional stiffness were calculated. A Wilcoxon test was used to compare group I to group II. A p-value<0.05 was considered significant. Results Torque at failure of the fibula represented 6% of the torque of tibiae and fibulae combined. No significant differences were found between group I and II for twist angle relative to working length, ultimate torsional strength, ultimate twist angle and torsional stiffness. Discussion / Conclusion The twist angle at failure of the tibia of all specimens was comparable to data already published. The twist angle at failure of the fibula was much higher than the values reported in the literature. In the canine crus, contribution of the fibula to torsional strength and stiffness does not seem to be significant. [less ▲]

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See detailThe misfortunes of artificial intelligence solutions for accounting firms: The forgotten role of distribution channels in the diffusion of innovations
Jemine, Grégory ULiege; Puyou, François-Régis; Dubois, Christophe ULiege

Conference (2021, July 08)

Accounting firms have increasingly been depicted as subject to disruptive technological innovations, such as continuous reporting and artificial intelligence, which would supposedly cause profound ... [more ▼]

Accounting firms have increasingly been depicted as subject to disruptive technological innovations, such as continuous reporting and artificial intelligence, which would supposedly cause profound transformations in accountants’ work practices. Yet, there appears to be a widening gap between a managerial, prospective, and prescriptive literature increasingly underlining the “need” for accounting firms to embrace these technologies and the extent to which they actually disseminate among accountants. By emphasizing a basic yet overlooked mechanism of diffusion – sales –, the paper explores the market mechanisms that regulate and temper the diffusion of innovative accounting technologies. Results show that well-established sales channels are largely controlled by reselling firms, who act as gatekeepers between innovators and accountants, filtering technologies depending on their own business interests. Moreover, accountants themselves do not perceive technological innovations as a high strategic priority. In this picture, innovators struggle to disseminate their products among accounting firms and the prophesied transformation of the accounting profession through technological disruption appears to be more myth than reality, as innovations are first and foremost pressuring the sales channels through which technological innovations are sold, rather than accounting firms themselves. [less ▲]

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See detailÉtat de droit et minorité en Afrique
Bouhon, Frédéric ULiege; Geron, Léna ULiege

Conference (2021, July 08)

Fondé en 1830-31, le Royaume de Belgique se trouve au carrefour des langues et des cultures romanes et germaniques. Sa gestion politique et administrative a longtemps été dominée par une élite francophone ... [more ▼]

Fondé en 1830-31, le Royaume de Belgique se trouve au carrefour des langues et des cultures romanes et germaniques. Sa gestion politique et administrative a longtemps été dominée par une élite francophone, alors que les classes populaires s’exprimaient dans des patois romans (au sud) et germaniques (au nord). Les tensions communautaires ont augmenté au fur et à mesure du XXe siècle et ont conduit, à partir des années 1970, à la transformation de l’État autrefois unitaire en une structure fédérale complexe composée d’entités autonomes à de nombreux égards. L’organisation du système fédéral dépend pour partie de considérations culturelles et linguistiques, puisque le pays se compose notamment de trois communautés : la Communauté flamande (dont la population est majoritaire), la Communauté française (qui rassemble environ 40 % de la population) et la Communauté germanophone (avec moins d’1 % de la population). On relève en outre que, dans certains lieux, et spécialement en région bruxelloise, les néerlandophones se trouvent minorisés. C’est au regard de cette perspective particulière que la question de la protection des minorités en droit constitutionnel belge sera examinée. Les grands traits qui caractérisent la situation belge seront d’abord exposés afin de décrire le contexte institutionnel (I). La contribution présentera ensuite les techniques juridiques qui visent à assurer la protection des minorités culturelles et linguistiques qui sont reconnues institutionnellement. L’accent sera mis non seulement sur les mécanismes politiques qui garantissent l’autonomie des communautés, mais aussi sur ceux qui empêchent la domination de la communauté majoritaire au sein des institutions fédérales (II). On abordera ensuite la question de la protection des minorités linguistiques sous l’angle des droits fondamentaux, pour constater que la Constitution belge n’offre pas de régime de protection spécifique à cet égard. Nous verrons aussi que le droit international public n’offre que des bases limitées pour une protection collective et que c’est l’approche individuelle des droits fondamentaux qui est privilégiée. Cette caractéristique sera mise en contraste avec le régime développé par la Charte africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples (III). [less ▲]

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See detailDefending the Church with Walls and Guns? Pontifical Cities in the 14th Century
Masson, Christophe ULiege

Conference (2021, July 07)

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See detailSemi-analytical Method for the Modeling of Thin Wires Taking Skin- and Proximity Effects into Account
Velasco, Jonathan ULiege; Henrotte, François ULiege; Geuzaine, Christophe ULiege

Conference (2021, July 06)

In this paper we present a hybrid method in which we combine the Finite-Element solution of the a−v formulation with the analytical solution of a single conductor in isolation, namely the Semi-Analytical ... [more ▼]

In this paper we present a hybrid method in which we combine the Finite-Element solution of the a−v formulation with the analytical solution of a single conductor in isolation, namely the Semi-Analytical method. This method exploits the properties of nodal basis functions substituting a fully discretized round conductor by a node in the mesh. This substitution requires the appropiate treatment in the weak formu- lation to obtain the background field solution (i.e. truncated field). The frequency- dependent distribution of the magnetic vector potential can be then reconstructed by adding up the analytical solution to the truncated-field solution in the finite-element model, naturally falling onto a one liner description: a = a^c - a^w + a_corr [less ▲]

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See detailAcoustic range of the biophony of a coral reef in the context of fishes larval recruitment
Raick, Xavier ULiege; Di Iorio, Lucia; Gervaise, Cédric et al

Conference (2021, July 06)

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See detailAn extension of CityJSON for the support of point clouds
Nys, Gilles-Antoine ULiege

Conference (2021, July 06)

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (3 ULiège)
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See detailData security vs National security – Reflections about encryption, cloud computing and (non) personal data.
Notermans, Pierre ULiege

Conference (2021, July 06)

The use of cloud computing services is still increasing. However, confidentiality issues are considered as the main obstacles for a wide adoption of cloud computing facilities. The objective of this ... [more ▼]

The use of cloud computing services is still increasing. However, confidentiality issues are considered as the main obstacles for a wide adoption of cloud computing facilities. The objective of this presentation is to expose the two competing interests at stake: data security and national security, and examine how both could be reconciled. The paper is structured in three distinct chapters where cloud computing services, encryption, and data protection will be adressed. A focus will also be drawn on EU Council proposal on encryption. Encryption techniques are an important tool that can guarantee data confidentiality, limiting the risk of data breaches, exposure of confidential data, and thus essential for customers, individuals or companies deploying cloud solutions at a large scale. As data security cannot be an excuse to form a threat to national security, the reverse should also be true: national security cannot be an excuse (and abused) in order to limit or circumvent data security. [less ▲]

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See detailDélaissés urbains réenchantés
Le Coguiec, Eric ULiege

Conference (2021, July 05)

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See detailAttraction through formal resemblance. Five case studies on constructional contamination
Pijpops, Dirk ULiege; De Smet, Isabeau; Van de Velde, Freek

Conference (2021, July 05)

Phonological resemblance can exert an influence on two constructions leading them to converge (see e.g. Van de Velde & Van der Horst 2013). In this talk we will look into one particular case of formal ... [more ▼]

Phonological resemblance can exert an influence on two constructions leading them to converge (see e.g. Van de Velde & Van der Horst 2013). In this talk we will look into one particular case of formal attraction, which we call ‘constructional contamination’ (see Pijpops & Van de Velde 2016; Pijpops, De Smet & Van de Velde 2018; Van de Velde & Pijpops 2018). More concretely, constructional contamination arises when a construction has two slightly different formal variants, like He liked to please/meet other people (…) vs. He liked pleasing/meeting other people, and the distribution of the variants is skewed as a result of formal resemblance with another construction. In the case at hand, we have an alternance between to-infinitives and -ing forms as complements of like, and constructional contamination with object-referring nominalizations or gerunds would boost the use of the -ing alternant. This effect would measurably show up if, controlling for (known) semantic-syntactic factors the skew was found to be larger for those verbs that are more likely to occur as -ing forms in other contexts: the fact that meeting has a lexicalized meaning, as opposed to pleasing, would lead us to expect that the distribution of like to INF and like V-ING would be more skewed towards the latter variant with meet than with please (provided pleasing is not more frequent than (to) please for other reasons). In essence, constructional contamination is the paradigmatic version of what in syntagmatic contexts has been referred to as β-persistence by Szmrecsanyi (2005), and is related to structural priming (Bock 1986). In this talk, we will argue that constructional contamination is ubiquitous. The reason is that language users sometimes employ shallow parsing (Ferreira, Bailey and Ferraro 2002; Ferreira and Patson 2007; Dąbrowska 2014). What is distinct for linguists need not be distinct for language users, who are more likely to be influenced by superficial phonetic resemblance. We will present five cases of constructional contamination, and show that the effect is statistically robust. [less ▲]

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See detailThe regulation processes of income generating activities in the transport sector in the digital age
Brassart, Chloé ULiege

Conference (2021, July 04)

In Brussels, the taxi industry is part of the urban transportation system. This sector has received a lot of attention in the literature since it is one of the most affected by the digital revolution, and ... [more ▼]

In Brussels, the taxi industry is part of the urban transportation system. This sector has received a lot of attention in the literature since it is one of the most affected by the digital revolution, and more particularly by the platform economy which challenges previous regulated systems. The companies, e.g. Uber, attract a lot of users because it offers many commercial advantages but also leads to claims from other stakeholders in the sector, e.g. taxi operators and companies, drivers, trade unions, collectives. Indeed, the sector suffers from an imbalance between a strict pre-existing legal framework and the emergence of new service offers with disruptive and highly competitive practices (Akbulaev, 2020; Dudley et al., 2017, Laurell & Sandström, 2016). Given a such controversy, the regulation is at the centre of discussion (Prassl & Risak, s. d.; Tzur, 2019). The taxi sector is currently the object of political reflection for a regulatory reform of the sector. Many years have passed without any decision being taken and we sought to understand the existing pressures within the sector. To do so, our research explores the following question: "How do the discourses of institutional stakeholders shape the emerging regulation of the taxi sector, beyond its formal structuration?", in a conventionalist perspective. First, three registers of convention, i.e. market, work and mobility consists of two opposing principles, each of which promote regulatory autonomy or heteronomy. This first stage of analysis gives a polarised vision of the content of the controversy. Furthermore, the second stage outlines a complexification of the conventions conveyed, through the processes of justification exposed [less ▲]

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See detailSchizophrénie, vécu corporel et subjectivité
Englebert, Jérôme ULiege

Conference (2021, July 03)

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See detailFlexibilization of Labour Law in Belgium: Analysis of a Short-Lived New Regime and its Downfall: The Case of Associative Work
Février, Vincent ULiege

Conference (2021, July 01)

Flexibility has become a key word in contemporary labour relationships. To which extend may the legislator modify Labour Law regulations or exclude their application when it perceives them as a burden on ... [more ▼]

Flexibility has become a key word in contemporary labour relationships. To which extend may the legislator modify Labour Law regulations or exclude their application when it perceives them as a burden on economic actors? The presentation will focus on a particularly far-reaching example. The Belgian legislator has adopted on 18 July 2018 a statute introducing a new legal figure, that of the associative work (verenigingswerk; travail associatif). This new figure covers various activities taking place within organizations from the associative sphere like sports coaches, guides for socio-cultural activities… The legislator considers that the services in question are highly valuable for the whole society and that this kind of associative work should be encouraged. Associative work differs from voluntary work because the co-contracting organization of an associative worker provides a (generally small) financial counterpart for the work provided. Therefore, associative workers in a link of subordination should normally be qualified as employees. Such requalification is seen as unsatisfactory. Following the preparatory notes on the statute, the sector is characterized by an important need for flexibility, and the application of Labour Law regulations, deemed too restrictive, would deter the organizations from resorting to those workers. Provided its conditions are met, the 2018 statute excludes associative work from the field of application of most of Labour Law. This includes notably the Labour Act, the Protection of Remuneration Act, the Collective Agreements Act and the Workplace Well-Being Act. This statute was annulled by a decision of the Constitutional Court on 23 April 2020. The creation of an ad hoc regime is a political choice and it is not for the Court to rule on it, unless there is a difference of treatment which is not justified or a disproportionate attempt on the workers and employers’ rights. The objective of simplification of administrative work by the actors does not justify a merely total exclusion of Labour Law regulations. A new legislative proposal has been introduced in order to save the regime. Despite the efforts made to meet the Court’s criticisms, the new statute, adopted on 24 december 2020, retains most of the exclusions provided for by the original, as pointed out in its Opinion by the Council of State. This study shows that if there is a room for flexibilization of Belgian labour law, it is not limitless. [less ▲]

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See detailIdiographic analyses of motivation and related processes in participants with schizophrenia following a therapeutic intervention for negative symptoms.
Thonon, Bénédicte ULiege; van Aubel, Evelyne; Lafit, Ginette et al

Conference (2021, July 01)

Background: Motivational negative symptoms hinder quality of life and daily functioning of individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A recently developed intervention, Switch, has shown promising ... [more ▼]

Background: Motivational negative symptoms hinder quality of life and daily functioning of individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A recently developed intervention, Switch, has shown promising effects on negative symptoms and functional outcomes. Switch targets multiple cognitive, emotional and behavioural processes associated with motivation and goal directed behaviours. We aimed to investigate its effects on motivation and associated processes in a naturalistic setting and using a blended-care approach with complementary ecological momentary intervention. Methods: We used a single case approach (n = 3), with a pre-post and follow-up assessment design, which also included ambulatory assessments (experience sampling method, ESM; and step count). We computed autoregressive lag 1 models to evaluate the effects of the intervention on daily motivation levels and related processes, descriptive pie-charts, and vector autoregressive modelling to reveal the dynamics of the processes over time. Results: The intervention was beneficial for each participant according to traditional evaluations of motivational negative symptoms, apathy, daily functioning and quality of life. The effects on the ESM variables revealed distinct outcomes for each individual. The dynamics between the various processes differed between participants, and fluctuated within participants (when comparing baseline, intervention phase, and follow-up). Conclusions: This study used an innovative approach to look at the effectiveness of an intervention. The intervention seems to lead to meaningful improvements in motivational negative symptoms and functional outcomes. The mechanisms of change need to be further investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailNew results from CHEOPS (invited talk)
Delrez, Laetitia ULiege

Conference (2021, July 01)

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See detailDiffusion Priors In Variational Autoencoders
Wehenkel, Antoine ULiege; Louppe, Gilles ULiege

Conference (2021, July)

Among likelihood-based approaches for deep generative modelling, variational autoencoders (VAEs) offer scalable amortized posterior inference and fast sampling. However, VAEs are also more and more ... [more ▼]

Among likelihood-based approaches for deep generative modelling, variational autoencoders (VAEs) offer scalable amortized posterior inference and fast sampling. However, VAEs are also more and more outperformed by competing models such as normalizing flows (NFs), deep-energy models, or the new denoising diffusion probabilistic models (DDPMs). In this preliminary work, we improve VAEs by demonstrating how DDPMs can be used for modelling the prior distribution of the latent variables. The diffusion prior model improves upon Gaussian priors of classical VAEs and is competitive with NF-based priors. Finally, we hypothesize that hierarchical VAEs could similarly benefit from the enhanced capacity of diffusion priors. [less ▲]

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See detailTesting the cellular nature of large (>10µm) spheroids in the ~3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation
Coutant, Maxime ULiege; Lepot, Kevin; Fadel, Alexandre et al

Conference (2021, July)

The oldest traces of life on Earth are still highly debated and both biotic and abiotic arguments are proposed for isotopic, mineral and morphological biosignatures1,2. The ca. 3.4 Strelley Pool Formation ... [more ▼]

The oldest traces of life on Earth are still highly debated and both biotic and abiotic arguments are proposed for isotopic, mineral and morphological biosignatures1,2. The ca. 3.4 Strelley Pool Formation (SPF), in Western Australia, is well-known for its stromatolites and for its diverse assemblages of carbonaceous microstructures. Some of these microstructures have been claimed as the oldest microfossils2,3,. The SPF lies in greenstone belts of the Pilbara craton, and comprises (volcano)clastic material, silicified sediments, dolomite (including stromatolites) and precipitated cherts (including stromatolites). Metamorphism grades from to greenschist to amphibolite facies and it is cut across by siliceous and siliceous-carbonaceous veins4. Such veins may have transported carbonaceous matter into hydrothermally-influenced sediments2,3. For example, microstructures in silicified volcanic clasts of the SPF exhibit morphologies resembling mineral textures associated with organic matter5, such as simple spheres or lenses. Here we rigorously describe unusual spherical microstructures which differ from the abundant, smaller (≤10 µm) spheres previously reported in cherts of the SPF3. These microstructures are imaged and analyzed through a combination of in situ techniques, including optical microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and transmitted electron microscopy (TEM) on ultrathin (focused ion beam) sections (FIB). This approach yields an effective visualization of carbonaceous microstructures and their relationships with quartz crystal grains down to the nanoscale. It revealed a wealth of textural features that allow us to classify the spheroids into three new types (+sub-types) and to discuss possible cellular origin versus mineral morphogenesis in presence of organic compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailRoom temperature sputtered p-type cuprous oxide thin films: The influence of oxygen addition
Sliti, Naama ULiege; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ULiege; Touihri, Saâd

Conference (2021, June 28)

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See detailDevelopment of Polyanionic Compounds for  Li-, Na-, and K-ion Batteries
Mahmoud, Abdelfattah ULiege

Conference (2021, June 26)

Energy storage and conversion systems are regarded as the most important technologies offering sustainable alternatives to address the immense and continuous increase in electrical energy consumption in ... [more ▼]

Energy storage and conversion systems are regarded as the most important technologies offering sustainable alternatives to address the immense and continuous increase in electrical energy consumption in world (1-3). Batteries are one of the most determining energy storage devices thanks to their wide range of possible applications such as portable devices, electric vehicles, grid storage, etc. The electrodes are the main and determinant units participating in the electrochemical reactions in a battery upon cycling. The performance of electrode materials in Li-ion, Na-ion and K-ion batteries depend not only on their chemical composition but also on their microstructure. Polyanionic compounds based cathode materials appear to constitute first-rank candidates for green and sustainable electrode materials for secondary batteries. Here, one-step synthesis route using spray is used to produce highly homogeneous, crystalline and impurity-free phosphate-carbon composite electrode materials for Li-ion, Na-ion and K-ion batteries. The electrochemical performance of electrode materials has been enhanced by the addition of the carbon sources/allotropes during the material preparation (3-7). References 1. A. Mahmoud, M. Al Daroukh, M. Lipinska-Chwalek, M. Luysberg, F. Tietz, R.P. Hermann, Solid State Ionics, 312 (2017), pp. 38-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2017.10.003 2. C.M. Berger, A. Mahmoud, R.P. Hermann, W. Braun, E. Yazhenskikh, Y.J. Sohn, N.H. Menzler, O. Guillon, M. Bram, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2016), https://doi.org/10.1111/jace.14439 3. B. Vertruyen, N.Eshraghi, C. Piffet, J. Bodart, A. Mahmoud, F. Boschini. Materials 11 (2018) 1076. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071076. 4. N. Eshraghi, S. Caes, A. Mahmoud, R. Cloots, B. Vertruyen, F. Boschini. Electrochimica Acta 228 (2017) 319–324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2017.01.026 5. J. Bodart, N. Eshraghi, T. Carabin, B. Vertruyen, R. Cloots, F. Boschini, A. Mahmoud. J. Power Sources 480 (2020) 22905. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2020.229057 6. A. Mahmoud, S. Caes, M. Brisbois, R. P. Hermann, L. Berardo, A. Schrijnemakers, C. Malherbe, G. Eppe, R. Cloots, B. Vertruyen, F. Boschin. J. Solid State Electrochemistry 22 (2018) 103-112. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-017-3717-x 7. M. Brisbois, S. Caes, M. T. Sougrati, B. Vertruyen, A. Schrijnemakers, R. Cloots, N. Eshraghi, R. P Hermann, A. Mahmoud, F. Boschini. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 148 (2016) 67–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2015.09.005 [less ▲]

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See detailTextures urbaines et énonciations pandémiques : vues liégeoises
Provenzano, François ULiege; Lansmans, Alexandre ULiege

Conference (2021, June 25)

Notre intervention cherchera d’abord à proposer un cadrage théorique de la notion d’« énonciation pandémique », en l’abordant plus précisément pour son lien avec les sites d’inscription urbaine. La ... [more ▼]

Notre intervention cherchera d’abord à proposer un cadrage théorique de la notion d’« énonciation pandémique », en l’abordant plus précisément pour son lien avec les sites d’inscription urbaine. La pandémie de Covid-19 a en effet donné lieu à une abondance d’écrits dans l’espace public urbain, qui méritent d’être interrogés d’un point de vue énonciatif : l’ancrage déictique, la construction identitaire d’instances plus ou moins instituées, mais aussi les rapports avec les matérialités et les gestes d’inscription. Ce cadrage théorique sera mis à l’épreuve d’un corpus précis d’inscriptions urbaines associées à la pandémie et collectées à Liège entre mars 2020 et avril 2021 (environ 250 écrits photographiés). Cette collecte s’inscrit dans le cadre d’un projet plus vaste de cartographie des écrits de rue, dont on explicitera la méthodologie et les enjeux généraux. Dans un premier temps, ce corpus sera abordé d’un point de vue quantitatif, qui permettra de pointer quelques grandes tendances (notamment liées à la géolocalisation des inscriptions), mais aussi de marquer les limites d’une approche qui, dans le cas des énonciations pandémiques, peut conduire à des résultats trop attendus : il est clair en effet que le contexte sanitaire a produit une hypertrophie des inscriptions injonctives, associées en particulier aux lieux où il s’agit de régir les comportements des usagers de l’espace public. Dès lors, notre intervention consistera ensuite à rendre compte, de manière plus qualitative, de la façon dont la pandémie a ouvert le champ du scriptible urbain et a donné lieu à une large gamme de variations rhétoriques. Ces variations permettront, en conclusion, d’interroger deux caractéristiques souvent associées aux écritures de rue : d’une part leur lien avec une événementialité identifiable et situable, d’autre part leur lien avec des identités énonciatives construites comme « délinquantes », « marginales » ou « contestataires ». En effet, d’une part les énonciations pandémiques, étalées sur plus d’un an de vie urbaine, sont désormais inscrites dans le tissu quotidien de nos expériences de la ville ; d’autre part elles donnent à voir des instances « citoyennes » ordinaires, qui sont généralement peu représentées en position d’énonciateur actif dans le discours urbain. [less ▲]

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See detailFaire tableau à la Révolution française. La peinture que personne n'a vue (Michelet, Michon)
Hagelstein, Maud ULiege

Conference (2021, June 25)

Dans son roman "Les Onze", Pierre Michon raconte les conditions très précises dans lesquelles le peintre François-Elie Corentin, aussi appelé le « Tiepolo de la Terreur », aurait reçu commande d’un ... [more ▼]

Dans son roman "Les Onze", Pierre Michon raconte les conditions très précises dans lesquelles le peintre François-Elie Corentin, aussi appelé le « Tiepolo de la Terreur », aurait reçu commande d’un tableau représentant le Comité de Salut Public qui instaura la politique de Grande Terreur – tableau monumental exposé dans les galeries du Louvre et présentant Saint-Just, Barère, Couthon et les autres, autour de Robespierre. Selon Michon, qui le répète au moins trente fois dans son récit (et cette rhétorique de la vision ou du regard me semble particulièrement déterminante), l’historien Jules Michelet (qui intègre donc le récit comme l’un de ses personnages principaux) aurait vu ce tableau, et y aurait consacré douze pages dans le chapitre II du Seizième livre de l’Histoire de la révolution française. Mais « en réalité » (avec les guillemets nécessaires à la formule), aucun tableau n’existe sous ce titre, ni au Louvre ni ailleurs, aucun peintre ne porte le nom de François-Elie Corentin, et (forcément) il n’y est fait mention nulle part dans l’œuvre de Michelet. Ni du peintre ni du tableau. Si certains parviennent à lire l’ouvrage sans se poser la question de savoir si son contenu correspond à quelque chose dans le réel, d’autres – dont je fais partie – auront éprouvé une pulsion de vérification plus impérieuse, et se seront précipités, soit en ligne, soit carrément au Louvre, pour y examiner le tableau mentionné par Michon, soit dans l’Histoire de la Révolution française pour relire les passages où Jules Michelet commente sa rencontre avec le tableau . À partir de là, je voudrais apporter une contribution à la réflexion collective sur les singularités de l’histoire en envisageant la capacité qu’aurait la littérature (ici via Michon) de se rapporter aux événements historiques, en particulier lorsqu’ils surviennent sur le mode de l’exceptionnel, de la rareté, de l’inattendu, de l’accident. Mais je partirai donc d’un cas marginal et limite : non pas une singularité de l’histoire prise ou ressaisie sous une « contrainte discursive plus large », non pas un micro-événement historique impulsant une construction narrative éventuellement alternative, mais plus radicalement un événement ou un élément – en fait ici un tableau – totalement inventé. Une découverte absolument (on pourrait dire « doublement ») surprenante. Bien sûr la littérature s’est souvent (et légitimement) autorisée quelques ajouts à l’Histoire, on peut retrouver le même type d’entourloupe chez Eric Vuillard par ex., mais (sinon ce constat risque de nous faire sombrer dans la plus grande banalité) je voudrais essayer de montrer que ces ajouts – qui relèvent de la fiction – produisent des effets de savoir réels, non-négligeables, et qu’ils instaurent un rapport particulier (décalé mais puissant) à la vérité. [less ▲]

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See detailLa réalité virtuelle : Un outil applicable en thérapie vocale
Remacle, Angélique ULiege; Morsomme, Dominique ULiege

Conference (2021, June 25)

Dans un premier temps, nous expliquerons ce qu’est la réalité virtuelle. Nous présenterons ses applications dans le domaine de la santé, et plus spécifiquement en orthophonie. Nous nous intéresserons ... [more ▼]

Dans un premier temps, nous expliquerons ce qu’est la réalité virtuelle. Nous présenterons ses applications dans le domaine de la santé, et plus spécifiquement en orthophonie. Nous nous intéresserons ensuite à l’apport de cette nouvelle technologie dans le domaine de la voix. Nous présenterons nos recherches sur une classe virtuelle destinée à l’entrainement des compétences de communication orale des enseignants. Nous exposerons la conception de l’outil, sa validation scientifique via la comparaison de l’usage vocal d’enseignants donnant une leçon dans leur classe réelle et dans la classe virtuelle [1], et son efficacité en tant qu’outil d’entrainement des compétences de communication en environnement bruyant [2]. Nous illustrerons l’utilisation de la réalité virtuelle lors de la thérapie vocale d’une enseignante dysphonique à l’aide d’une vidéo. Bibliographie : [1] Remacle, A., Bouchard, S., Etienne, A-M., Rivard, M-C., & Morsomme, D. (2021). A virtual classroom can elicit teachers' speech characteristics: Evidence from acoustic measurements during in vivo and in virtuo lessons, compared to a free speech control situation. Virtual Reality. DOI: 10.1007/s10055-020-00491-1 [2] Remacle, A. (2019, September 19). Virtual Reality in Teachers' Vocal Motor Behavior Acquisition (VirtuVox). ClinicalTrials.gov. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04096352?term=remacle&cond=Voice+Disorders&draw=2&rank=1 [less ▲]

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See detailInterest rate differentials and the dynamic asymmetry of exchange rates
Hambuckers, Julien ULiege; Ulm, Maren

Conference (2021, June 24)

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See detailÉbauche d’une politique de la traduction en Wallonie – Le Congrès wallon de 1905
Gonne, Maud ULiege

Conference (2021, June 24)

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See detailL'entrepreneuriat chez les personnes en situation de handicap: revue de littérature
Kyungu Tchikala, Daniel ULiege

Conference (2021, June 24)

Ce travail se réalise dans le cadre de mon projet de recherche doctorale dont le sujet porte sur l’insertion socioprofessionnelle des personnes en situation de handicap en République Démocratique du Congo ... [more ▼]

Ce travail se réalise dans le cadre de mon projet de recherche doctorale dont le sujet porte sur l’insertion socioprofessionnelle des personnes en situation de handicap en République Démocratique du Congo : diagnostic et pistes d’action. La finalité de ce projet de recherche est de contribuer à l’insertion socioprofessionnelle des personnes en situation de handicap en République Démocratique du Congo. Comme le démontre la littérature scientifique, l’entrepreneuriat des personnes en situation de handicap est une alternative à l’emploi salarié auquel accède difficilement cette catégorie de personnes. Ce document présente la synthèse des résultats d’une revue de littérature non exhaustive sur l’entrepreneuriat des personnes en situation de handicap en 4 points : 1. L’état actuel de la recherche sur l’entrepreneuriat des personnes en situation de handicap 2. Les raisons de l’entrepreneuriat des personnes en situation de handicap ; 3. Les obstacles à l’entrepreneuriat des personnes en situation de handicap ; 4. Les stratégies émergentes pour promouvoir l’entrepreneuriat des PSH [less ▲]

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See detailSharing blood (donation) : how affects and emotions of both donor and researcher shape the experience (Liège, Belgium) ?
Maréchal, Eloïse ULiege

Conference (2021, June 23)

Blood donation raises strong affects both for researcher and donnors. Sharing corporeal and affective experience of blood donation with actors allows a depper understanding of the topic and fielwork. Go ... [more ▼]

Blood donation raises strong affects both for researcher and donnors. Sharing corporeal and affective experience of blood donation with actors allows a depper understanding of the topic and fielwork. Go along interviews and videos are an attempt to report the affective part of blood donation. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon capture and re use: technological and other challenges
Léonard, Grégoire ULiege

Conference (2021, June 23)

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See detailNeural Ratio Estimation For Simulation-based Inference
Louppe, Gilles ULiege

Conference (2021, June 23)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailL'instauration du portrait
Belloi, Livio ULiege

Conference (2021, June 22)

Étude des conditions d'instauration du portrait peint dans le cinéma du début des années 10.

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See detailMethane paradox in tropical lakes? Sedimentary fluxes rather than pelagic production in oxic conditions sustain methanotrophy and emissions to the atmosphere
Morana, Cédric ULiege; Bouillon, S; Nolla-Ardèvol, V et al

Conference (2021, June 22)

Despite growing evidence that methane (CH4) formation could also occur in well-oxygenated surface freshwaters, its significance at the ecosystem scale is uncertain. Empirical models based on data gathered ... [more ▼]

Despite growing evidence that methane (CH4) formation could also occur in well-oxygenated surface freshwaters, its significance at the ecosystem scale is uncertain. Empirical models based on data gathered at high latitude predict that the contribution of oxic CH4 increases with lake size and should represent the majority of CH4 emissions in large lakes. However, such predictive models could not directly apply to tropical lakes which differ from their temperate counterparts in some fundamental characteristics, such as year-round elevated water temperature. We conducted stable isotope tracer experiments which revealed that oxic CH4 production is closely related to phytoplankton metabolism, and is a common feature in five contrasting African lakes. Nevertheless, methanotrophic activity in surface waters and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere were predominantly fuelled by CH4 generated in sediments and physically transported to the surface. Indeed, CH4 bubble dissolution flux and diffusive benthic CH4 flux were several orders of magnitude higher than CH4 production in surface waters. Microbial CH4 consumption dramatically decreased with increasing sunlight intensity, suggesting that the freshwater “CH4 paradox” might be also partly explained by photo-inhibition of CH4 oxidizers in the illuminated zone. Sunlight appeared as an overlooked but important factor determining the CH4 dynamics in surface waters, directly affecting its production by photoautotrophs and consumption by methanotrophs. [less ▲]

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See detailHow's Annie ? How's Audrey ?
Van Brabant, Louise ULiege

Conference (2021, June 20)

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See detailSlut shaming, sexism and cultural double standard in adolescence: How the “slut” stigma relates to victim blaming and rape myths
Goblet, Margot ULiege; Glowacz, Fabienne ULiege

Conference (2021, June 19)

Slut shaming is defined as the stigmatization of an individual because of his or her appearance, including clothing, hair or make-up, actual or perceived sexual availability and sexual behavior. This ... [more ▼]

Slut shaming is defined as the stigmatization of an individual because of his or her appearance, including clothing, hair or make-up, actual or perceived sexual availability and sexual behavior. This stigmatization is reflected in social and relational sanctions, such as rumors, ostracism or insults, such as "slut", "slang", "fag" (Armstrong, Hamilton, Armstrong & Seeley, 2014; Robinson, 2005). “Doing gender” is a learning process (West et Zimmerman, 1987) and slut shaming discourse is co-constructed in interaction with peers. Whereas participating in the adolescent gender fabric, slut shaming perpetuates stigma and sexist violence (Bamberg, 2004; Duru-Bellat, 2017). We conducted 8 mixt and non-mixt focus groups with adolescents aged 15 to 18 (N=43) addressing dating violence and sexist and sexual cyberviolences. Thematic analyses permitted to identify indicators of slut shaming discourse in adolescents’ gendered performance. Participants’ productions reactivate developmental and identary preoccupations, namely how to define and position oneself regarding gendered issues and traditional gender roles in post-modernist context, with regard to one’s own socio-cultural environment and school culture. Slut shaming is embedded of young girls’ daily lives as well as they may affix the “slut” stigma to other girls. Sexualized self-presentation is highly codified since adolescence and may be sanctioned, according to a double standard. In other words, what young people describe as “peer’s gaze” seems to participate to shape their masculinities and femininities in construction. Issues of victim blaming, reaffirmation of rape myth and sexism appear to be related to slut shaming discourse. [less ▲]

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See detailEDUC-SHARE - What do you have to know about "HR excellence in research" award?
Halleux, Isabelle ULiege

Conference (2021, June 18)

European University EDUC (European Digital UniverCity) is an alliance of 6 organisations aiming at reinforcing mobilities diversification and pedagogical innovation, both developed with the Information ... [more ▼]

European University EDUC (European Digital UniverCity) is an alliance of 6 organisations aiming at reinforcing mobilities diversification and pedagogical innovation, both developed with the Information and Communication technologies. Partners are Postdam University (DE), University of Rennes1 FR), University of Paris-Nanterre (FR), Mazaryk University (CZ), Iniversity of Cagliary (IT), University of Pécs (HU). The consortium benefits from EU funds (Erasmus+, SWAFS) for supporting in their common work. EDUC-SHARE is is focusing on (WP1) the implementation of a long term research and innovation agenda in order to answer the great societal challenges in the multidisciplinary approach; (WP2) the development and share of research Infrastructure; (WP3) the citizen implication in science and its role in society; (WP4) the reinforcement of regional ecosystems and their connection, (WP5) the share of continuous improvement processes in terms of human resources through the Human Resources Strategy for Researchers (HSR4R) procedure; (WP6) the development of soft skills training offers for researchers and administrators. [less ▲]

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See detailL'état d'exception dans le contexte sanitaire
Bouhon, Frédéric ULiege

Conference (2021, June 18)

La présentation visait à faire un bilan de quinze mois de gestion de la crise sanitaire sous l'angle du droit public et en particulier à travers la notion de d'état d'exception ou d'état d'urgence.

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See detailStrategy and Policy Implementation in Sustainable Smart City Transitions
Clement, Jessica ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2021, June 17)

This paper aims to understand the relationship between smart city strategies and policy consistency over time, and how this may affect smart city transitions. Using smart city strategy literature, and ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to understand the relationship between smart city strategies and policy consistency over time, and how this may affect smart city transitions. Using smart city strategy literature, and adopting strategic management and policy studies theory, it is suggested that smart city strategies guide policies at the local level, creating policy content consistency. In turn, this consistency supports the transition to a smart city. A dynamic topic modelling analysis focusing on two cities, London and Melbourne, provides evidence for this idea. Based on these findings, it is further suggested that embodying environmental or sustainability objectives in the smart city strategy can promote a sustainable smart city transition. Indeed, this paper reflects on the potential smart cities have to contribute to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11 on Sustainable Cities and Communities, as well as SDGs 9 and 13. [less ▲]

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