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In 14-day-old fetal thymuses, very scarce cells produce TNF-alpha mRNA ... [more ▼]We have used in situ hybridization to investigate the expression of TNF-alpha genes by thymic cells during fetal development in mice. In 14-day-old fetal thymuses, very scarce cells produce TNF-alpha mRNA. A second phase of cytokine gene expression starts on day 16. The density of positive cells progressively increases up to day 20. Thymuses at 15 days of gestation and after birth do not express detectable cytokine mRNA. In an attempt to identify the nature of the TNF-alpha mRNA-producing cells, acid phosphatase activity, which is characteristic of the macrophage lineage, was studied in the same thymuses. Acid phosphatase-positive cells only appear on day 15. Their frequency increases up to birth. However, no correlation can be established between acid phosphatase--and TNF alpha mRNA--positive cells. The results indicate that a small subset of thymic cells is responsible for TNF-alpha mRNA production during ontogeny: These cells are not yet identified. The possible role of TNF-alpha in thymic ontogeny is discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 ULiège) Analysis by in Situ Hybridization of Cytokine Mrna Expression in the Murine Developing ThymusDeman, J.; Humblet, Chantal ; Martin, M. T. et alin International Immunology (1994), 6(10), 1613-9We have used in situ hybridization to investigate the expression of IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IFN-gamma genes by thymic cells during fetal development in mice. Two waves of mRNAs were detected in thymic ... [more ▼]We have used in situ hybridization to investigate the expression of IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IFN-gamma genes by thymic cells during fetal development in mice. Two waves of mRNAs were detected in thymic cells for IL-1 at days 16 and 19 of gestation, for IL-2 at days 14 and 18, and for IL-4 at days 14 and 16. Three peaks for IL-6 were observed at days 13, 17 and around birth. Finally, only one peak of cells positive for IFN-gamma was detected. Whereas cells positive for IL-1 were generally grouped and more often localized in the external area of the thymus, the other positive cells were isolated and evenly distributed in the thymus. Our results illustrated the presence of cytokine transcripts in the developing thymus following a developmentally controlled sequence and support the hypothesis that cytokines could play a role in T cell development. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 ULiège) Analysis by in Situ Hybridization of Cytokine Mrnas Expression in Thymic Nurse CellsDeman, J.; Humblet, Chantal ; Martin, M. T. et alin Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (1994), 355Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULiège) Analysis et archè dans la philosophie grecque d’Aristote à ProclusDubouclez, Olivier Conference (2005)Detailed reference viewed: 45 (0 ULiège) Analysis methodology, experimental investigation and computer optimization of a passive solar commercial building in the Belgian climateAndre, Philippe ; Nicolas, Jacques ; Rivez, Jean-François et alin Solar Energy (1994), 52(1), 9-25The Fondation Universitaire Luxembourgeoise (FUL) building (completed in 1986) has been selected as a Belgian candidate for participation in the IEA (International Energy Agency) Task XI project devoted ... [more ▼]The Fondation Universitaire Luxembourgeoise (FUL) building (completed in 1986) has been selected as a Belgian candidate for participation in the IEA (International Energy Agency) Task XI project devoted to passive solar commercial buildings. Therefore, an evaluation methodology has been set up and a monitoring plan has been defined and performed. Together with this experimental investigation, intensive computer simulation work has defined an optimized design of the building. The main results show that the recorded performance can be improved to an extent of 15% energy savings, which yields a correct performance for a passive solar building in the temperate maritime Belgian climate. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 71 (7 ULiège) Analysis of $\alpha_s$ from the realization of quark-hadron dualityCourtoy, Aurore ; Liuti, Simonettain International Journal of Modern Physics Conference Series (2013)Detailed reference viewed: 13 (2 ULiège) Analysis of 13 Million Individual Patient Records Pertaining To Pap Smears, Colposcopies, Biopsies and Surgery on The Uterine Cervix (Belgium, 1996–2000)Arbyn, Marc; Simoens, C.; Van Oyen, H. et alin Preventive Medicine (2009)Objective Cervical cancer screening by surveys overestimate coverage because of selection and reporting biases. Methods The prepared Inter-Mutualistic Agency dataset has about 13 million records from Pap ... [more ▼]Objective Cervical cancer screening by surveys overestimate coverage because of selection and reporting biases. Methods The prepared Inter-Mutualistic Agency dataset has about 13 million records from Pap smears, colposcopies, cervical biopsies and surgery, performed in Belgium between 1996 and 2000. Cervical cancer screening coverage was defined as the proportion of the target population (women of 25–64 years) that has had a Pap smear taken within the last 3 years. Proportions and incidence rates were computed using official population data of the corresponding age group, area and calendar year. Results Cervical cancer screening coverage, in the period 1998–2000, was 59% at national level, for the target age group 25–64 years. Differences were small between the 3 regions. Variation ranged from 39% to 71%. Coverage was 64% for 25–29 year old women, 67% for those aged 30–39 years, 56% for those aged 50–54. The modal screening interval was 1 year. In the 3-year period 1998–2000, 3 million smears were taken from the 2.7 million women in the age group 25–64. Only 1.6 million women of the target group got one or more smears in that period and 1.1 million women had no smears, corresponding to an average of 1.88 smears per woman. Conclusion Coverage reached only 59%, but the number of smears used was sufficient to cover more than 100% of the target population. Structural reduction of overuse and extension of coverage is warranted. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 54 (2 ULiège) Analysis of 22 Elements in Milk, Feed, and Water of Dairy Cow, Goat, and Buffalo from Different Regions of ChinaZhou, Xuewei ; QU, XUEYIN; ZHAO, SHENGGUO et alin Biological Trace Element Research (2017), 176The objectives of this study were to measure the concentrations of elements in raw milk by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and evaluate differences in element concentrations among ... [more ▼]The objectives of this study were to measure the concentrations of elements in raw milk by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and evaluate differences in element concentrations among animal species and regions of China. Furthermore, drinking water and feed samples were analyzed to investigate whether the element concentrations in raw milk are correlated with those in water and feed. All samples were analyzed by ICP-MS following microwave assisted acid digestion. The mean recovery of the elements was 98.7 % from milk, 103.7 % from water, and 93.3 % from a certified reference material (cabbage). Principal component analysis results revealed that element concentrations differed among animal species and regions. Correlation analysis showed that trace elements Mn, Fe, Ni, Ga, Se, Sr, Cs, U in water and Co, Ni, Cu, Se, U in feed were significantly correlated with those in milk (p < 0.05). Toxic and potential toxic elements Cr, As, Cd, Tl, Pb in water and Al, Cr, As, Hg, Tl in feed were significantly correlated with those in milk (p < 0.05). Results of correlation analysis revealed that elements in water and feed might contribute to the elements in milk. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 51 (7 ULiège) Analysis of 3DTEM and SAXS of ordered mesoporous silica with the same stochastic morphological modelGommes, Cédric ; Friedrich, Heiner; Wolters, Mariska et alScientific conference (2008, May)Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 ULiège) Analysis of 4495 canine and feline uroliths in the Benelux. A retrospective study: 1994-2004.Picavet, Philippe; Detilleux, Johann ; Verschuren, Stephan et alin Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2007), 91(5-6), 247-51From 1994 to 2004, Hill's Pet Nutrition received 4495 canine (65%) and feline (35%) uroliths from Benelux veterinary practitioners. They were sent to the Minnesota Urolith Center, USA for analysis. In ... [more ▼]From 1994 to 2004, Hill's Pet Nutrition received 4495 canine (65%) and feline (35%) uroliths from Benelux veterinary practitioners. They were sent to the Minnesota Urolith Center, USA for analysis. In 1994, 110 uroliths were analysed - 85% from dogs - and in 2003, 1067 uroliths were analysed - 59% from dogs. During this period, substantial changes were observed in composition. In 1994, 77% of the cats had uroliths composed of struvite, and 12% had uroliths composed of calcium oxalate. In 2003, feline uroliths were composed of 32% struvite, and 61% calcium oxalate. The same evolution was observed in the dogs. In 1994, 51% of canine uroliths were composed of struvite, and 33% of calcium oxalate. In 2003, 40% had struvite uroliths, and 46% had calcium oxalate uroliths. A significant effect of the size, the breed, and the gender were noticed in the dogs. The mean age of uroliths appearance was 7.3 years in the dogs and 7.2 years in the cats. The findings are similar to those previously published in the USA. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 80 (11 ULiège) Analysis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in serum of healthy childrenOpladen, Thomas; Ramaekers, Vincent ; Heimann, Gerhard et alin Molecular Genetics and Metabolism (2006), 87(1), 61-55-Methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) is the active one-carbon donor and the principal circulating form of plasma folates. It is involved in a number of metabolic and neurodevelopmental processes and analysis ... [more ▼]5-Methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) is the active one-carbon donor and the principal circulating form of plasma folates. It is involved in a number of metabolic and neurodevelopmental processes and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5MTHF is of great importance in the diagnosis of cerebral folate deficiency (CFD). Serum 5MTHF levels and the 5MTHF serum/CSF ratio may be important additional parameters for the understanding of CFD. We developed a HPLC method for the measurement of 5MTHF in serum and established reference values for the pediatric population. Serum samples from 64 healthy children were extracted with Sep-Pak C18 cartridges and 5MTHF was separated by RP-HPLC and quantified by electrochemical detection. 5MTHF was separated from other folates and detected after 8.7 min with linearity of up to 1600 nmol/L. The detection limit was 4.5 nmol/L and recovery during solid-phase extraction for low and high concentrations of 5MTHF was 66 and 62%, respectively. Within-run imprecision (13.5%) was slightly higher than run-to-run imprecision (8.5%). 5MTHF levels in healthy children were found to be age-dependent, decreasing from 158.0 nmol/L in newborns to 60.1 nmol/L in children older than 16 years. The method we describe is sensitive, selective, and reliable for the analysis of 5MTHF from 400 microL of serum. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (3 ULiège) Analysis of 5-vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione in complex matrices at ppb levelMabon, N.; Wathelet, Jean-Paul ; Marlier, Michelin Talanta (1999), 49(1), 199-2065-Vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione (5-VOT) is a goitrogenic compound released by enzymatic degradation of progoitrin, the most important glucosinolate occurring in rapeseed meal. This paper describes an ... [more ▼]5-Vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione (5-VOT) is a goitrogenic compound released by enzymatic degradation of progoitrin, the most important glucosinolate occurring in rapeseed meal. This paper describes an analytical method for determining the 5-VOT in complex matrices. The method proposed by Quinsac et al. [J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 75(3) (1992) 529] has been improved by modification of the extraction conditions and the purification steps. The extraction of 5-VOT is performed with hot acid buffer. The first purification step is achieved by solid-phase chromatography (C-18). The second purification step of 5-VOT is carried out by complexation with phenyl mercury acetate in cyclohexane and, afterwards, by decomplexation using an aqueous solution of sodium thiosulfate. These reactions move 5-VOT from an aqueous to an organic medium, and then back again to the aqueous phase. This Procedure ensures a high purification efficiency. The precise quantification of 5-VOT is completed in 12 min by reverse-phase liquid chromatography (C18), using an isocratic elution with an ultraviolet detector and with synthetic 4,4-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione as internal standard. Using this modified method, 5-VOT can be determined in different matrices such as rapeseed meal, animal diets, muscle, several organs (thyroid, liver, kidney and lung) and biological fluids (plasma and milk). The quantification limit of 5-VOT in the sample is of 1 ppb (1 mu g kg(-1)), the recovery rate of 5-VOT is about 90% and the repeatability is over 97%. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (0 ULiège) ANALYSIS OF 5-VINYL-1,3-OXAZOLIDINE-2-THIONE IN COMPLEX MATRICESAT PPB LEVELMabon, N.; Wathelet, Jean-Paul ; Marlier, M.Conference (1998)Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULiège) Analysis of a concrete building exposed to natural fireSauca, Ana ; Gernay, Thomas ; Robert, Fabienne et alin Wald, F.; Burgess, I.; Jelcic Rukavina, M. (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the Int. Conf. ASFE in Dubrovnik, 15-16 October 2015 (2017)In this paper is presented the analysis of a concrete building exposed to OZone fire. The temperature development in the elements and the structural behaviour were calculated in SAFIR using beam elements ... [more ▼]In this paper is presented the analysis of a concrete building exposed to OZone fire. The temperature development in the elements and the structural behaviour were calculated in SAFIR using beam elements for the columns and beams and shell elements for the floor slabs. The first floor was modelled and the effects of action from the upper storeys are applied as external loads. It is shown how the numerical analysis allows understanding the behaviour of the structure when exposed to a natural fire until complete cooling by analysing the evolution of displacements, the distributions of bending moments in the beams, the membrane forces in the slab, and the stresses in the elements. All this detailed information would not be available from an experimental test. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 102 (25 ULiège) Analysis of a distal HER2 promoter activator in breast tumor cell linesDelacroix, Laurence ; Winkler, Rose Poster (2000, October)Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULiège) Analysis of a fatigue protocol for knee extensor and flexor muscle groupsCroisier, Jean-Louis ; Maquet, Didier ; Forthomme, Bénédicte et alin Isokinetics and Exercise Science (2007), 15Complementary to the muscle strength measurement, the isokinetic dynamometry offers the opportunity to investigate another essential variable: the fatigue which can be defined as a deterioration in ... [more ▼]Complementary to the muscle strength measurement, the isokinetic dynamometry offers the opportunity to investigate another essential variable: the fatigue which can be defined as a deterioration in maximum torque generating capacity. Many articles in the literature refer to isokinetic fatigue protocols, yet we may consider that there is a lack of consensus about testing modalities and methodological aspects. The overall aim of that preliminary study was to investigate concentric fatigue protocols in terms of contraction number, measurement reproducibility and appropriateness of parameters classically analysed. Twelve male subjects (23  2 years old; 71  3 kg) without history of lower limb injury were included in the study. After standardized warm-up and familiarization with the isokinetic exercise (Biodex 3 dynamometer), each subject performed a unilateral concentric testing on their dominant side knee flexors and extensors. The protocol consisted in 50 maximal contractions at 180°/s angular velocity along a constant 100° range of motion. The fatigue protocol was repeated at 3 different sessions, separated by one week, in the same standardized conditions. Measured and calculated parameters were analysed: maximal work (Wmax); total work (Wtot); cumulated work on 10-20-30-40-50 repetitions (W10-20-30-40-50); different fatigue indexes: mean on the 3 last reps/Wmax (W3L/Wmax), mean on the 5 last reps/Wmax (W5L/Wmax), W3L/mean on the 3 first reps (W3L/W3F), W5L / mean on the 5 first reps (W5L/W5F). These fatigue indexes were established from the 50 repetitions protocol but also calculated on the 30 and 40 first repetitions of the whole test. The heart rate (HR) throughout the fatigue protocol was recorded using a Polar cardiofrequencemeter. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was used for the statistical analysis of reproducibility. The cumulated work calculated on 20, 30, 40 or 50 repetitions was found to be reproducible for the Q muscle group. The same parameters calculated on the Fl muscle group showed a less satisfactory reproducibility. Among indexes of fatigue, the most reproducible were those using Wmax as denominator (by contrast with W3F or W5F as denominator), in particular the W5L/Wmax index for the Q. From 20 repetitions to the end of exercise, the fatigue indexes calculated on the Fl were significantly (p < 0.05) inferior to the indexes established for the Q, suggesting a more marked effect of fatigue on the Fl decrease of maximal strength production. With respect to the HR expressed in percentage of the theoretical maximal HR, the value averaged 53 % before exercise, 83 % after 20 reps and peaked at 87 % after 50 reps. After 2 minutes of recovery, the HR reached 58 % of the HR max. These findings must be taken into account when designing a fatigue isokinetic protocol, in terms of exercise duration and parameters to be analysed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 338 (14 ULiège) Analysis of a Permanent Magnet Generator With Dual Formulations Using Periodicity Conditions and Moving BandLuz, M V Ferreira da; Dular, Patrick ; Sadowski, N. et alin IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2002), 38(2), 961--964Detailed reference viewed: 659 (34 ULiège) Analysis of a Permanent Magnet Generator With Dual Formulations Using Periodicity Conditions and Moving BandFerreira da Luz, M. V.; Dular, Patrick ; Sadowski, N. et alin Proceedings of the 11th COMPUMAG Conference on the Computation of Electromagnetic Fields (2001)Detailed reference viewed: 57 (6 ULiège) Analysis of a progrssive development policy of intermodal transport systems using the rivers (Araguaya, Rio das Mortes) and harbours potential (Belem, Sao Luiz).Marchal, Jean Report (1996)Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULiège)