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See detailEconomic analysis of Stainless Steel- Reinforced Concrete members designed for a Fire Resistance of 2 hours
Gernay, Thomas ULiege; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege

Report (2011)

While Stainless steel is used primarily for its corrosion resistance, there is a growing interest in other properties, such as mechanical, high temperature resistance, aesthetics and others. The ... [more ▼]

While Stainless steel is used primarily for its corrosion resistance, there is a growing interest in other properties, such as mechanical, high temperature resistance, aesthetics and others. The properties at high temperatures (400 – 650°C ) of stainless steels are known and put to use in a number of applications such as steam turbines and equipment for the chemical industry. Some research on the fire resistance of stainless steels has been carried out for welded I beams and for concrete-filled tubes, with positive results. However, there are no published results on the behavior of concrete reinforced with stainless steel rebar. In a preliminary research program conducted by the University of Liege for ISSF, a preliminary assessment of the performance of stainless steel reinforced concrete has been carried out, using computer simulation methods. This preliminary study has shown that stainless steel reinforced concrete members can behave better than carbon steel reinforced concrete members in fire situation. However, an economic analysis is still needed to determine whether stainless steel reinforcement can be interesting for practical applications. This report is divided in two parts. The first part presents the assumptions and the results of the numerical simulations performed by University of Liege. The numerical simulations aim to design stainless and carbon steel -reinforced concrete members satisfying to a fire resistance of 2 hours (Standard fire conditions). The two structural members considered in this study are a reinforced concrete beam and a composite slab (with the so-called « membrane » behavior). The numerical simulations are performed with the SAFIR 20011.a.3 software developed in University of Liege. The second part presents the assumptions and the results of the economic analysis of the structural members designed in the first part. The stainless and carbon steel –reinforced solutions for a fire resistance of 2 hours are compared on an economic basis. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailEconomic and Economical Statistical Design of Hotelling’s T2 Control Chart with Two-State Adaptive Sample Size
Faraz, Alireza ULiege; Saniga, Erwin; kazemzadeh, R. B.

in Journal of Statistical Computation & Simulation (2010), 80(12), 12991316

The Hotelling’s T 2 control chart, a direct analogue of the univariate Shewhart ¯X chart, is perhaps the most commonly used tool in industry for simultaneous monitoring of several quality characteristics ... [more ▼]

The Hotelling’s T 2 control chart, a direct analogue of the univariate Shewhart ¯X chart, is perhaps the most commonly used tool in industry for simultaneous monitoring of several quality characteristics. Recent studies have shown that using variable sampling size (VSS) schemes results in charts with more statistical power when detecting small to moderate shifts in the process mean vector. In this paper, we build a cost model of a VSS T 2 control chart for the economic and economic statistical design using the general model of Lorenzen and Vance [The economic design of control charts: A unified approach, Technometrics 28 (1986), pp. 3–11].We optimize this model using a genetic algorithm approach.We also study the effects of the costs and operating parameters on theVSS T 2 parameters, and show, through an example, the advantage of economic design over statistical design forVSS T 2 charts, and measure the economic advantage of VSS sampling versus fixed sample size sampling. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 95 (4 ULiège)
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See detailThe economic and environmental feasibility of biogas buses in Liege
Mostert, Martine ULiege; Limbourg, Sabine ULiege

in 2013 BIVEC-GIBET Transport Research Days - Proceedings (2013, May 30)

Everyday, many students at the University of Liège have to drive to the Sart-Tilman village to attend their courses. These journeys are responsible for the emission of harmful particles which have ... [more ▼]

Everyday, many students at the University of Liège have to drive to the Sart-Tilman village to attend their courses. These journeys are responsible for the emission of harmful particles which have negative impacts on climate and human health. This paper analyzes the economic and environmental feasibility of using biogas buses for public transport in Liège. The idea of implementing biogas buses is based on the proposed recycling of organic waste by the company INTRADEL, which manages and treats waste in the region. The economic and environmental advantages and drawbacks of biogas buses are developed and compared with those of the current diesel bus fleet. The main conclusion of this study is that, while internalizing external costs due to pollution, the use of biogas buses becomes an attractive option compared with classical diesel buses. Nevertheless, it requires investment and might lead to resistance to change. However, it remains a good solution for the reduction of CO2 emissions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 120 (21 ULiège)
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See detailEconomic and environmental impacts of several retrofit options for residential buildings
Gendebien, Samuel ULiege

Master's dissertation (2011)

Nowadays, important efforts are deployed to reduce our actual residential building consumption which represents about 40% (25% for the residential sector and 15% for the non-residential sector) of the ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, important efforts are deployed to reduce our actual residential building consumption which represents about 40% (25% for the residential sector and 15% for the non-residential sector) of the total energy consumption in Europe. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the environmental and economical impact of several retrofit options for residential buildings. Our study focuses on the Walloon Region of Belgium. A “bottom-up” methodology is applied: this methodology focuses first on a micro-analysis. Results from this micro-analysis are then used and extended to a macro-analysis. The presented methodology does not permit to determine with precision the global consumption of residential buildings in the Walloon Region. However, the latter methodology allows pointing out some economical and environmental trends related to the different investigated retrofit options. The first part of this end-of-study work offers an overview of the Walloon building stock by presenting statistic data on the Walloon residential houses. From these latter statistic data, it is possible to divide the Walloon building stock by means of arborescence. Each type of building is characterized by constructive data (mean area, Uwall, Uwindow…) and by heating production system efficiency. Thanks to these data, it is possible to determine the gas and electrical annual consumption for each type of residential building by means of a computer program that simulates residential building. The latter computer program is also used to determine the annual energy consumption of envelope retrofitted houses. Retrofit options related to heat and/or cool production are also investigated. A macro-point of view study is carried out in order to determine the potential of energy saving of each investigated options. An environmental comparison between the several envisaged retrofit options is realized in terms of CO2 emission, final and primary annual energy consumption for each type of building. An economical study is carried out in order to determine the profitability of each investigated options for citizens. The work also proposes a reflection about the actual incentive policies. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic and financial crisis and pooling of military resources
Dumoulin, André ULiege

in Europe Diplomatie and Defence (2010), (326), 2

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (1 ULiège)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEconomic and Production Consequences of Liver Fluke Disease in Double-Muscled Fattening Cattle
Genicot, Bruno; Mouligneau, Frédéric; Lekeux, Pierre ULiege

in Zentralblatt für Veterinarmedizin. Reihe B = Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B (1991), 38(3), 203-208

The frequency of liver fluke disease in fattening units was determined by the analysis of random faeces samples issued from 1,513 Belgian White Blue bulls aged from 5 to 7 months and weighing from 200 to ... [more ▼]

The frequency of liver fluke disease in fattening units was determined by the analysis of random faeces samples issued from 1,513 Belgian White Blue bulls aged from 5 to 7 months and weighing from 200 to 300 kg. 12.5% of the investigated bulls were positive for liver fluke disease. These bulls were spread over 56.5% of the investigated fattening units. Furthermore the infestation rate varied from 0 to 33.3% inside the fattening units. In order to assess the economic consequences of bovine fascioliasis in double-muscled cattle and the beneficial effects of a treatment against such a disease, a trial including 30 Belgian White Blue bulls, weighing 365 +/- 9 kg and aged from 10 to 12 months, was conducted in a selected fattening unit. On the basis of faecal examinations, the 30 animals were subdivided in negative (group A; n = 10) and positive animals (n = 20) for fascioliasis, the latter being either treated with nitroxinil (group B; n = 10) or not (group C; n = 10) on day 0 of this trial which was conducted during 75 days. The daily body gains in group C (1.661 +/- 0.140 kg) were significantly lower than those in group A (1.975 +/- 0.120 kg). On the other hand there was no significant difference between the daily body gains registered in group B (1.960 +/- 0.085 kg) and A. The estimated financial loss, due to flukes and accounted on a 75 day-period, averaged 2,748 Belgian Francs per bull in group C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic and Production Repercussions of Deworming by Pulse Release Device and Oral Suspension in Grazing Double-Muscled Fattening Cattle
Genicot, Bruno; Mouligneau, Frédéric; Lekeux, Pierre ULiege

in Zentralblatt für Veterinarmedizin. Reihe B = Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B (1991), 38(3), 238-240

In this field trial, the repercussions of 2 administration forms of oxfendazole, namely a single administration of a front-loaded device (group 1; n = 18) and a repeated administration of a 90.6 per cent ... [more ▼]

In this field trial, the repercussions of 2 administration forms of oxfendazole, namely a single administration of a front-loaded device (group 1; n = 18) and a repeated administration of a 90.6 per cent oral suspension (group 2; n = 18), were compared in first season-grazing double-muscled fattening bulls. The comparison was based on the production performances, the mean worm egg counts and the product- and labour-costs. The daily body gains determined on the whole trial period, i.e. 1.312 +/- 0.055 kg and 1.270 +/- 0.056 kg for groups 1 and 2 respectively, and mean worm egg counts per gram (on days 0 and 130:200.0 +/- 44.3 and 94.4 +/- 27.4 for group 1; 366.7 +/- 98.4 and 100.0 +/- 33.6 for group 2) did not differ significantly between the two groups. However, the total costs were lower with a front-loaded device (1,021 Belgian Francs) than with oral suspension (1,248 Belgian Francs per bull). [less ▲]

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See detailThe Economic and Statistical Designs of Control charts for Censored and Non-Normal Data
Faraz, Alireza ULiege; Heuchenne, Cédric ULiege; Davis, Darwin, Edward et al

Scientific conference (2011, December)

In this research, we are dealing with constructing the statistical design (SD) and economic statistical design (ESD) of Shewhart and CUSUM control charts for reliability data which are right censored ... [more ▼]

In this research, we are dealing with constructing the statistical design (SD) and economic statistical design (ESD) of Shewhart and CUSUM control charts for reliability data which are right censored. This is the case which happens more frequently in the field. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (1 ULiège)
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Peer Reviewed
See detailAn Economic Appraisal of MOOC Platforms: Business Models and Impacts on Higher Education
Jacqmin, Julien ULiege; belleflamme, paul

in CESifo Economic Studies (2016), 62(1), 148-169

We use various economic and pedagogical concepts to understand the specificities of MOOC (Massive Online Open Courses) platforms. We discuss how the private provision of MOOCs can be sustained. Using the ... [more ▼]

We use various economic and pedagogical concepts to understand the specificities of MOOC (Massive Online Open Courses) platforms. We discuss how the private provision of MOOCs can be sustained. Using the theory of multisided platforms, we analyze five ways to monetize the MOOC business. We then claim that MOOC platforms can play a key transformative role in the higher education sector by making teaching practices evolve, rather than by replacing incumbent institutions. Finally, we derive a number of directions for public policy [less ▲]

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See detailAn economic appraisal of MOOC platforms: business models and impacts on higher education
belleflamme, paul; Jacqmin, Julien ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2014)

We start by using various economic and pedagogical concepts to understand the specificities of MOOC (Massive Online Open Courses) platforms. We then discuss how the private provision of MOOCs, seen as ... [more ▼]

We start by using various economic and pedagogical concepts to understand the specificities of MOOC (Massive Online Open Courses) platforms. We then discuss how the private provision of MOOCs, seen as pure public goods, can be sustained. Based on the theory of multisided platforms, we analyse five ways to monetize the MOOC business. Our conclusion is that the most sustainable approach is what we call the ‘subcontractor model’, flavored by touches of the other four models. We then claim that MOOC platforms can play a key transformative role in the higher education sector by making teaching practices evolve, rather than by replacing incumbent institutions. Finally, we derive a number of directions for public policy: governments should act to foster the cooperation between MOOC platforms and other higher education institutions, so as to improve the benefits that can arise from these technological innovations; a particular focus should also be given to professors in order to encourage them to innovate in their teaching practices [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (2 ULiège)
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Peer Reviewed
See detailEconomic assessment of electric energy storage for load shifting in positive energy building
Dumont, Olivier ULiege; Carmo, Carolina; Georges, Emeline ULiege et al

in International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (15 ULiège)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEconomic assessment of energy storage for load shifting in Positive Energy Building
Dumont, Olivier ULiege; Carmo, carolina; Georges, Emeline ULiege et al

Conference (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 79 (11 ULiège)
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See detailAn economic case for transnational and international transmission
Ernst, Damien ULiege

Speech/Talk (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 87 (13 ULiège)
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See detailThe economic crisis and its cause
De Laveleye, Émile ULiege

in Contemporary Review (1886)

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULiège)
See detailEconomic Design of Control Charts In Presence of Censored Data
Faraz, Alireza ULiege; Heuchenne, Cédric ULiege

Speech/Talk (2011)

we present Shewhart type Z ̅ and S2 control charts for monitoring individual or joint shifts in the scale and shape parameters of a Weibull distributed process. The advantage of this method is its ease of ... [more ▼]

we present Shewhart type Z ̅ and S2 control charts for monitoring individual or joint shifts in the scale and shape parameters of a Weibull distributed process. The advantage of this method is its ease of use and flexibility for the case where the process distribution is Weibull, although the method can be applied to any distribution. We illustrate the performance of our method through simulation and the application through the use of an actual data set. Our results indicate that Z ̅ and S2 control charts perform well in detecting shifts in the scale and shape parameters. We also provide a guide that would enable a user to interpret out-of-control signals. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULiège)
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See detailEconomic Development and Structural Change
Van Neuss, Leif ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

This doctoral dissertation contributes to the understanding of structural change, often defined as the process of reallocation of economic activity and resources across the three broad sectors agriculture ... [more ▼]

This doctoral dissertation contributes to the understanding of structural change, often defined as the process of reallocation of economic activity and resources across the three broad sectors agriculture (primary sector), manufacturing (secondary sector) and services (tertiary sector). Increasingly connected to the study of modern growth, the analysis of structural change has known an important revival over recent decades, due in part to the economic concerns associated with the movement of deindustrialization that has particularly affected the world’s most economically successful countries since the last third of the 20th century. These concerns have indeed fed many discussions on the causes and consequences of structural change, as well as on the role of policy instruments in driving and accompanying the inter-sectoral reallocation of activity. The first part of the thesis gets particularly interested in the driving forces behind the process of structural change. It begins by placing structural change in a very long historical perspective, notably shedding light on the factors that contributed to the emergence of the Industrial Revolution, an event characterized by the acceleration of structural change and traditionally considered as a turning point in the history of mankind because it eventually brought about modernity. It then analyzes the main causes of structural change in market economies, putting a particular emphasis on two mechanisms of structural change that have been largely overlooked in the recent multi-sector growth literature: changes in input-output (sectoral) linkages and changes in comparative advantage via globalization and trade. With respect to trade, an empirical analysis reveals that global exchanges have the potential to influence significantly and substantially a country’s sectoral patterns of employment, and that the estimated contribution of trade, especially of trade with developing countries, to recent structural change (deindustrialization) in affluent countries may be revised upwards when resorting to better-suited indicators of trade in manufactures. The second part of this doctoral thesis deals more with the economic effects of structural change. In particular, it proposes a new shift-share method, which is an accounting method aimed at computing the impact of the economic structure - or structural change - on a territory’s economic performance. By way of illustration, it provides an application to manufacturing employment in the Belgian provinces between 1995 and 2007. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Economic Development Pole (EDP) approach in Niger: the case of the Niger-IFAD Program
Andres, Ludovic ULiege; Populin, Martha; Bodé, Sambo et al

Poster (2017, August 29)

Since 2012, the Niger-IFAD Programme uses a new non-administrative geographical intervention unit, the Economic Development Pole (EDP). The EDP is described as a space concentrating economic activities ... [more ▼]

Since 2012, the Niger-IFAD Programme uses a new non-administrative geographical intervention unit, the Economic Development Pole (EDP). The EDP is described as a space concentrating economic activities linked to the production and commercialization of the main agro-pastoral products of the neighbouring production basins. This poster aims to describe and analyze the concept of EDP, to show its first results when put into practice and to analyze its risks. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (5 ULiège)
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe economic effectiveness of economic land supply
Halleux, Jean-Marie ULiege; Vandermeer, Marie-Caroline

Conference (2016, July 05)

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (6 ULiège)
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See detailEconomic efficiency of milk production farms in Hanoi Suburbs, Vietnam
Le Dinh, Khan; Phan Dang, Thang ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege et al

Poster (2014, November 14)

Dairy production has presented in Vietnam since 50 years, but these dairy farms really developed from 2001. In the period 2001 – 2010, the average growth rate of dairy herds was up to 30% per year ... [more ▼]

Dairy production has presented in Vietnam since 50 years, but these dairy farms really developed from 2001. In the period 2001 – 2010, the average growth rate of dairy herds was up to 30% per year. However, fresh milk production satisfies about 20-25% of milk consumption. The rural areas of Hanoi Province are large for dairy production. This province builds the 7 agro-ecological sub-regions for the development of dairy farming, in which Ba Vi District is a most of sub-regions for dairy production development. But the average size is about 2.5 cows per farm. This research aims to better understand how the factors in milk sector adapt to current economic conditions in Hanoi suburbs through analyzing farming systems. These studies were conducted from January to August 2012 on 43 dairy farms with different production scales at Ba Vi District to characteristic of dairy farming systems. The data were collected by interviewing and keeping records at the farms that have milk production. The results showed that three dairy production systems in these zones: (1) Dairy small farming system has from 1 to 3 cows per farm; (2) The medium farming system has from 4 to 5 cows per farm; and (3) The dairy intensive farming system has more 5 cows per farm. The economic activities were really diversified with landless per household farm such as rice production, gardens, grass production and sylviculture. Land resources per farm of intensive farming system were largest including 9,239 m² for garden around the household; 2,574 m² for rice land; 563 m² of grass area and 3,325 m² for sylviculture. While the small farming system has the lowest potential land, each household has only 2,815 m² of garden; 1,795 m² of rice land; 2,095 m² of grazing land. The medium farming system has about 3,150 m² of garden; 2,220 m² of rice land and 3,891 m² of grazing land. Milk production cycle was quite long with intensive farming system, up to 324 days comparing with 299 days per cycle with medium farming system and to 306 days per cycle with small-scale farmers. This difference was not statistically signification (P> 0.05). Average milk production yield per cow was high with medium farming system (16 kg per cow per day) in comparison with 15 kg per day at intensive and small farming systems (P> 0.05). Milk production yield has been improved in the past years with crossbreed cows such as Holstein-Friesian 50% and 75%. But this productivity was still considered to be lower than the milk production yield with dairy cows raised in Moc Chau District under Son La Province with 20.5 kg per cow per day and 6,250 kg of milk per cow per cycle). In addition, in the period from 2006 to 2012, fresh milk prices at farm gate have continued to rise for the farmers, while feed prices increased in the period from 2006 to 2010 and these feed prices were stable between 2011 and 2012. In the period of 2006 to 2012, fresh milk prices at farm gate increased from 0.17 USD per kg in 2006 to 0.60 USD per kg in 2012 and feed prices were from 0.15 USD per kg in 2006 increasing to 0.39 USD per kg in 2012. The net incomes were calculated per a cow per year reached 1,274 USD with the small-scale farming households to 1,476 USD with medium farming system. The net income per kg of fresh milk at farm gate obtained from 0.28 USD with small farming system to 0.31 USD with medium farming system. The net household income was high from dairy production, from 2,437 USD per farm per year with small farming system to 5,487 USD per farm per year with intensive farming system. The net labor family income gained from 997 USD per active per year with small farming system to 2,757 USD per active per year with intensive farming system. Thus, dairy production farms in recent years in Hanoi Suburbs provide very high economic efficiency for farmers in comparison with other agricultural activities at the farms. This explains why the rate of dairy family farming has grown very fast in the studied zones in the period from 2009 to 2012. This trend will continue to grow in the future. This research was also showed that the price of fresh milk plays a crucial role for profitable at farm level. But medium farming system with the size from 4 to 5 dairy cows per farm is more profitable with current economic conditions at farms. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 134 (4 ULiège)