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A novel class of biomarkers was defined based on modelling ... [more ▼]Recent research showed the usefulness of using estimated breeding values (EBV) for mid-infrared (MIR) based biomarkers in genetic improvement. A novel class of biomarkers was defined based on modelling responses of milk composition (e.g., mid-infrared (MIR) based) to stress expressed on continuous scales using reaction norm models. Heat stress is an important aspect of dairy production even in temperate climates as shown in recent studies. Implementation of genomic selection for tolerance to heat stress is therefore not only an issue for Australian dairy cattle, a country that introduced recently such an evaluation. The question remains open if using milk composition based heat stress resilience genomically enhanced EBV (GEBV) is not a viable option. Genetic parameters were estimated for production and milk composition traits. Data included 155,977 test-day records for milk, fat, and protein yields, fat and protein percentages, 9 individual milk fatty acids (FA), 7 FA groups, 5 minerals, and 3 ketone bodies) predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry., and 7 FA groups. Data were from 21,375 first-lactation Holstein cows in 473 herds in the Walloon region of Belgium and were collected between 2008 and 2014. Test-day records were merged with daily temperature-humidity index (THI) values based on meteorological records from public weather stations. The maximum distance between each farm and its corresponding weather station was 13 km. Linear reaction norm models were used to estimate the intercept and slope responses of 23 traits to increasing THI values. Most yield and FA traits had phenotypic and genetic declines as THI increased, whereas C18:0, C18:1 cis-9, and 4 FA groups (unsaturated FA, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA, and long-chain FA) increased with THI. Moreover, the latter traits had the largest slope-to-intercept genetic variance ratios, which indicate that they are more affected by heat stress at high THI levels and therefore good candidate traits. Among all traits, C18:1 cis-9 was the most sensitive to heat stress. As this trait is known to reflect body reserve mobilization, using its response to THI could be a very affordable milk biomarker of heat stress for dairy cattle expressing the equilibrium between intake and mobilization, and therefore adaptation, under warm conditions. By including novel milk based composition traits to traditional production traits, correlations between EBVs and also GEBVs of those milk based traits and udder health, fertility and longevity increased considerably. This study demonstrated that milk composition resilience heat stress traits could be used as early indicators of robustness traits. Our results also suggest that marker information tend to lead to higher accuracies of prediction. Therefore, new options to improve robustness through genomic selection in Walloon Holsteins are now presented. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 ULiège) Defining Antonymy by studying Co-occurrences in ContextSteffens, Marie Poster (2011, June)Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULiège) Defining Antonymy by studying Co-occurrences in Context (2)Steffens, Marie Poster (2011, October)Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULiège) Defining multiplication for polynomials over a finite field.Rigo, Michel ; Waxweiler, LaurentE-print/Working paper (2011)Let $P$ and $Q$ be two non-zero multiplicatively independent polynomials with coefficients in a finite field $\mathbb{F}$. Adapting a result of R.~Villemaire, we show that multiplication of polynomials is ... [more ▼]Let $P$ and $Q$ be two non-zero multiplicatively independent polynomials with coefficients in a finite field $\mathbb{F}$. Adapting a result of R.~Villemaire, we show that multiplication of polynomials is a ternary relation $\{(A,B,C)\in\mathbb{F}[X]\mid A.B=C\}$ definable by a first-order formula in a suitable structure containing both functions $V_P$ and $V_Q$ where $V_A(B)$ is defined as the greatest power of $A$ dividing $B$. Such a result has to be considered in the context of a possible analogue of Cobham's theorem for sets of polynomials whose $P$-expansions are recognized by some finite automaton. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 124 (10 ULiège) Defining multiplication in some additive expansions of polynomial ringsPoint, Françoise; Rigo, Michel ; Waxweiler, Laurentin Communications in Algebra (2016), 44Adapting a result of R. Villemaire on expansions of Presburger arithmetic, we show how to define multiplication in some expansions of the additive reduct of certain Euclidean rings. In particular, this ... [more ▼]Adapting a result of R. Villemaire on expansions of Presburger arithmetic, we show how to define multiplication in some expansions of the additive reduct of certain Euclidean rings. In particular, this applies to polynomial rings over a finite field. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (11 ULiège) Defining obesity in childhoodGuillaume, Michèle Conference (1997, June)Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULiège) Defining obesity in childhood: current practice.Guillaume, Michèle in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (1999), 70(1), 126-30A survey of information from 26 countries was performed to examine the methods, cutoff points, and reference materials used to define obesity in childhood and adolescence. The body mass index (in kg/m2 ... [more ▼]A survey of information from 26 countries was performed to examine the methods, cutoff points, and reference materials used to define obesity in childhood and adolescence. The body mass index (in kg/m2) was used frequently, as well as several other methods. Reference materials used were often based on national surveys, although reference data from other countries were sometimes used. The data presented was often insufficient to judge the representativeness of the reference material. Cutoff points varied considerably. Available data allow neither a meaningful international estimation of the prevalence of obesity nor international comparisons. Although associated with considerable problems, this situation can be improved with an international consensus which, by necessity, will be riddled with uncertainties and compromises. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 60 (10 ULiège) Defining optimal brightness temperature simulation adjustment parameters to improve Metop-A/AVHRR SST over the Mediterranean SeaTomazic, Igor ; Le Borgne, Pierre; Roquete, HervéConference (2013)Sea surface temperature (SST) multispectral algorithms applied to infrared (IR) radiometer data exhibit regional biases due to the intrinsic inability of the SST algorithm to cope with the vast range of ... [more ▼]Sea surface temperature (SST) multispectral algorithms applied to infrared (IR) radiometer data exhibit regional biases due to the intrinsic inability of the SST algorithm to cope with the vast range of atmospheric types, mainly influenced by water vapor and temperature profiles. Deriving a SST correction from simulated brightness temperatures (BT), obtained by applying a Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) to Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) atmospheric profiles and first guess SST, is one of the solutions to reduce regional biases. This solution is envisaged in the particular case of Metop-A Advanced Very High resolution (AVHRR) derived SST. Simulated BTs show errors, linked to RTM, atmospheric profiles or guess field errors. We investigated the conditions of adjusting simulated to observed BTs in the particular case of the Mediterranean Sea over almost one year. Our study led to define optimal spatio/temporal averaging parameters of the simulation observation differences, both during day and night and summer and colder season. Each BT adjustment has been evaluated by comparing the corresponding corrected AVHRR SST to the AATSR SST, that we adopted as validation reference. We obtained an optimized result across all defined conditions for a spatial smoothing of 15 deg and a temporal averaging between 3 and 5 days. Specifically, time series analyses showed that a standard deviation based criterion favors spatial smoothing above 10 deg for all temporal averaging, while a bias based criterion favors shorter temporal averaging during daytime (< 5 days) and higher spatial smoothing (>10 deg) for nighttime. This study has shown also the impact of diurnal warming both in deriving BT adjustment and in validation results, leading to more appropriate separate BT adjustment for day and night in areas and seasons of intensive diurnal warming conditions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULiège) Defining Resonant Bonding: Why Are Phase Change Materials Unique ?Raty, Jean-Yves Conference (2017, September 28)Many of the most extraordinary properties of phase change materials (PCMs) can be attributed to the specific type of bonding found in the crystal structure and called ‘resonant bonding’. However, if ... [more ▼]Many of the most extraordinary properties of phase change materials (PCMs) can be attributed to the specific type of bonding found in the crystal structure and called ‘resonant bonding’. However, if experimental studies have shown (using FTIR) the unique character of bonding in several PCMs, the ‘resonant’ nature of bonds remains a rather general concept. In this presentation, we use ab initio (DFT) methods to address the bonding properties of various types of crystalline compounds, among which popular phase change materials, and quantify the electronic properties using several indicators. We show the direct correlation between the high polarizability of the bonds and the localization properties of electrons close to the Fermi level which allow to better define resonant bonding. This allows to place resonantly bonded materials, thus PCMs, at a specific location on a scale that extends from ionic compounds to regular semiconductors and finally metals. Our indicator also illustrates clearly the difference between amorphous and crystalline PCMs. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULiège) Defining Social EnterpriseDefourny, Jacques ; Nyssens, Marthein Nyssens, Marthe (Ed.) Social Enterprise, at the Crossroads of Market, Public Policies and Civil Society (2006)Detailed reference viewed: 481 (4 ULiège) Defining the "city museum". The creation process of a new museum categoryPostula, Jean-Louis Conference (2012, October 25)As early as the second half of the nineteenth century, some major European cities developed museums to present their history. This movement has grown around the world throughout the twentieth century. The ... [more ▼]As early as the second half of the nineteenth century, some major European cities developed museums to present their history. This movement has grown around the world throughout the twentieth century. The phenomenon is now more relevant than ever, as evidenced by numerous projects of creation and renovation of such institutions. Nevertheless, it took a long time before this kind of museum began to be considered as part of a specific museum category, with its own characteristics and challenges. It was only in 1993, at the Museum of London, that representatives of museums devoted to the study of cities met for the very first time, in order “to discuss [their] problems, to develop theories and to promote [their] special place in the museum movement worldwide” (Hebditch, Max, Key-note address, in Johnson, Nichola, ed., Reflecting cities. The proceedings of a symposium. London, Museum of London, 1993, p. 1). The expression “city museum” took shape for this occasion, with the creation at the end of the symposium of what can be seen as the ancestor of CAMOC, the International Association of City Museums, which faded in 2005. For almost two decades, the city museum has become the object of study of a large number – almost one per year – of international conferences and collections of articles bringing together academics, but mostly professionals who live and experience the museum every day. Practitioners appear therefore as the main producers of discourse on the city museum. This presentation examines the concept of city museum through its different uses and definitions within the museological literature, between 1993 and 2008. The analysis of these speeches will highlight the fact that there are no unanimously established uses of the expression among the authors. It will also show that, as a museum category, city museum is an object whose identity is still under construction. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 123 (3 ULiège) Defining the Observables for Quarks and Gluons Orbital Angular Momentum DistributionsLiuti, S.; Courtoy, Aurore ; Goldstein, G. R. et alin Few-Body Systems (2015), 56(6-9), 325-330We present a critical discussion of the observables that have been recently put forth to describe quarks and gluons orbital angular momentum distributions. Starting from a standard parameterization of the ... [more ▼]We present a critical discussion of the observables that have been recently put forth to describe quarks and gluons orbital angular momentum distributions. Starting from a standard parameterization of the energy momentum tensor in QCD one can single out two forms of angular momentum, a so-called kinetic term, generally associated with the Ji decomposition, and a canonical term from the Jaffe Manohar decomposition. Orbital angular momentum has been connected to a Generalized Transverse Momentum Distribution (GTMD), for the canonical term, and to a twist three Generalized Parton Distribution for the kinetic term. We argue that while the latter appears as an azymuthal angular modulation in the longitudinal target spin asymmetry in deeply virtual Compton scattering, due to parity constraints, the GTMD associated with canonical angular momentum cannot be measured in a similar set of experiments. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULiège) Defining the role of aromatase inhibitors in the adjuvant endocrine treatment of early breast cancerBUDZAR, A.; CHLEBOWSKI, R.; CUZICK, J. et alin Current Medical Research & Opinion (2006), 22Detailed reference viewed: 12 (4 ULiège) Defining thermal comfort boundaries for heating and cooling demand estimation in Iran's urban settlementsRoshan, GhR.; Farrokhzad, M.; Attia, Shady in Building & Environment (2017), 121Iran has diverse climate variability, comfort boundaries for each geographic region must be defined in order to present current architectural design recommendations and proper mechanical systems design to ... [more ▼]Iran has diverse climate variability, comfort boundaries for each geographic region must be defined in order to present current architectural design recommendations and proper mechanical systems design to meet building's heating and cooling energy demand. Therefore, two components of the temperature and relative humidity of 148 stations with the longest common statistical period of twenty years (1994–2014), which have been in daily scale were selected to calibrate and redefine the thermal boundary conditions in Iran. Givoni chart was used to define and visualize the bioclimatic conditions in buildings. The results of this study indicate that only 18% of the 148 stations days, falls in the thermal comfort bioclimatic conditions. After calibration of the base comfort temperature, we found that the upper threshold of this component varies from at least 22.62 °C for Ardebil to 25.94 °C for Dorudzan station and the low threshold of this component belongs to Ardebil with at least 20.13 °C up to its maximum value with 22 °C which belongs to Dorudzan. Spatial distribution of cooling and heating days show that their maximum threshold has been for cores in Northeastern half of Iran, Iran's Western half and some Central parts of Iran and the minimum threshold of these two components belongs to the beaches of north and south of the country. The findings present updated thermal comfort boundaries that can be used by architects, engineers and policy makers to achieve, in turn, more energy efficient homes and high quality indoor and outdoor living environments. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 65 (13 ULiège) Defining Zero Energy Buildings from a Cradle to Cradle ApproachAttia, Shady ; De Herde, Andréin Conference proceedings of Passive and Low Energy Architecture (PLEA) 2011 (2011, July)Several bodies including the DOE, ASHRAE and the IEA SHC Task 40 are working on developing definitions for Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs). Most existing definitions are based on setting a performance ... [more ▼]Several bodies including the DOE, ASHRAE and the IEA SHC Task 40 are working on developing definitions for Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs). Most existing definitions are based on setting a performance metric (quantity and quality) such as site energy, source energy, energy costs, or emissions, and a boundary for the energy source. However, the problem of most existing definitions is that they neglect the energy use during the whole building lifecycle, neglect the climatic context, neglect the urban or city scale, derive from a ‘zero’ or neutralizing notion, link the energy use to area separately from occupants and do not specify the intended definition audience they address e.g. policymakers or building developers or construction professionals. On the other hand, the cradle to cradle approach encourages the creation of ecologically positive footprint buildings where buildings are very efficient by design and by using suitable technologies to become energy positive. The cradle to cradle approach allows us to examine broader criteria including the embodied energy, environmental impact, energy storage and the management of plus energy. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss those problems and suggest a necessary shift to approach NZEB definition, from a cradle to cradle approach rather from a balance approach. This paper provides an overview of existing definitions and compares their impact toward cradle to cradle NZEBs. Finally, the paper sets three principles for defining NZEBs and suggests a definition, metric and calculation method from a cradle to cradle approach. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 64 (2 ULiège) Définir et organiser la mosaïque sociale : les trois ordres dans les Croniques de Jean de WavrinDumont, Jonathan Conference (2013, October 24)Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 ULiège) Définir l'économie sociale en BelgiqueMertens de Wilmars, Sybille ; Marée, Michel in E-Note (2008), 4Les différentes définitions de l’économie sociale qui coexistent en Belgique sont soumises à une analyse critique et systématique. Les auteurs identifient ce qui constitue le socle commun des différentes ... [more ▼]Les différentes définitions de l’économie sociale qui coexistent en Belgique sont soumises à une analyse critique et systématique. Les auteurs identifient ce qui constitue le socle commun des différentes interprétations qu'on peut donner à ce concept et éclairent le débat sur les points de divergence. Ils montrent ensuite que les formes juridiques pressenties pour appartenir à l'économie sociale n'offrent pas une garantie complète de respect des principes qui fondent les définitions de l'économie sociale. Les auteurs concluent que la variabilité dans l'interprétation du concept d'économie sociale et l'insuffisance du critère juridique pour repérer les organisations d'économie sociale ne favorisent pas le développement d'un sentiment d'appartenance à ce troisième secteur. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 572 (38 ULiège) Définir l'économie sociale en BelgiqueMertens de Wilmars, Sybille ; Marée, Michel in E-note (2007), (4), Detailed reference viewed: 36 (4 ULiège) Définir la jeunesse ? D'un bout à l'autre du mondeGauthier, Madeleine; Guillaume, Jean-François Book published by Les Presses de l'Université Laval (1999)Cet ouvrage réunit des chercheurs d'un bout à l'autre du monde autour d'une même question, l'étude de la jeunesse. De quelle manière faut-il aborder cette période du cycle de vie dont on parle avec ... [more ▼]Cet ouvrage réunit des chercheurs d'un bout à l'autre du monde autour d'une même question, l'étude de la jeunesse. De quelle manière faut-il aborder cette période du cycle de vie dont on parle avec abondance sans bien savoir comment la définir ? Les mots sont non seulement porteurs de sens, mais servent aussi à orienter l'action. Les notions d'insertion, d'intégration ou de socialisation héritées de la tradition sociologique sont aujourd'hui récupérées dans des politiques où les jeunes se sentent souvent happés. Le statut d'acteurs qu'on leur a reconnu au beau temps de l'action étudiante ne continue-t-il à s'appliquer que dans les sociétés où les jeunes sont majoritaires ? Les sociétés vieillissantes laissent-elles un peu de place aux jeunes pour l'élaboration de stratégies ? Les études qui portent aujourd'hui sur la jeunesse impliquent de démêler les intentions derrière les discours. Dans un contexte de mutation ou de (ré)invention du lien social, le pari à relever n'en est que plus passionnant. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 165 (6 ULiège)