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See detailUpdates on the epidemiology of dermatophyte infections.
Seebacher, Claus; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Mignon, Bernard ULiege

in Mycopathologia (2008), 166(5-6), 335-352

The spectrum of dermatophytes isolated from skin lesions had changed in last 70 years. Before the Second World War in Germany, Microsporum audouinii and Epidermophyton floccosum ranked the first, whereas ... [more ▼]

The spectrum of dermatophytes isolated from skin lesions had changed in last 70 years. Before the Second World War in Germany, Microsporum audouinii and Epidermophyton floccosum ranked the first, whereas Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte since the fifties of last century, accounting for 80-90% of the strains, followed by T. mentagrophytes. This evolution is typical for Central and North Europe and it needs to be connected with the increase in the incidence of tinea pedis. In contrast, in Southern Europe and in Arabic countries, zoophilic dermatophytes, such as Microsporum canis or Trichophyton verrucosum, are the most frequently isolated. In Europe, especially in Mediterranean countries, the incidence of M. canis infection has strongly increased during the recent years and this dermatophyte is now the most prevalent in tinea capitis in children. An analysis of the frequency and distribution of tinea pedis in different occupations and leisure-time activities as well as the routes of infection are reported. The spreading of this disease in most developed countries of the world represents a considerable economic problem, since it was accompanied by a parallel increase in the frequency of onychomycosis which implies, as tinea pedis, large financial charges. In poor developing countries, mycoses appear endemically, primarily with children, and their treatment often fails because of the lack of efficient antifungals. The particular epidemiological situations of dermatophytoses and the pathogenic spectrum of dermatophytes are examined at the example of numerous countries. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdating corneofungimetry: a bioassay exploring dermatomycoses and antifungal susceptibility.
Pierard, Gérald ULiege; Franchimont, Claudine ULiege; Quatresooz, Pascale ULiege

in Mycopathologia (2010), 169(1), 27-35

Superficial dermatomycoses are frequent conditions in humans and animals. Specific treatment modalities have been designed using a variety of different antifungal compounds. The need for antifungal ... [more ▼]

Superficial dermatomycoses are frequent conditions in humans and animals. Specific treatment modalities have been designed using a variety of different antifungal compounds. The need for antifungal susceptibility testing (AST) has been growing steadily over the last two decades due to the extending number of newer antifungal agents. Objective inter- and intraindividual comparisons of their respective efficacies are nearly impossible to perform in vivo. Currently, a series of standardized AST methods and interpretative guidelines have been designed. However, their clinical relevance for dermatomycoses is not consistent. The corneofungimetry bioassay was designed to test comparatively a series of antifungals on pathogenic fungi growing on sheets of human stratum corneum. Computerized morphometric assessments bring numerical values allowing statistical comparisons. Variants of corneofungimetry address more specific aspects related to fungal cell adhesion, fungitoxicity and lipid-dependent fungi. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdating Failure Probability Of A Welded Joint In Offshore Wind Turbine Substructures
Mai, Anh Quang ULiege; Sørensen, John D.; Rigo, Philippe ULiege

in The 35th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering (OMAE) (2016, June)

For offshore wind turbines, the support structure contributes with a significant part to the Levelized Cost Of Energy (LCOE). LCOE is the total cost to build and operate a whole offshore wind turbine ... [more ▼]

For offshore wind turbines, the support structure contributes with a significant part to the Levelized Cost Of Energy (LCOE). LCOE is the total cost to build and operate a whole offshore wind turbine structure over its lifetime divided by the total energy output of the wind turbine over that lifetime. That total expected cost of operation & maintenance may be lowered by application of reliability- and risk-based maintenance strategies and updating of the reliability based on e.g. inspections performed during the design lifetime. Updating the reliability (or alternatively the failure probability) of a welded joint can theoretically be done using Bayesian updating. However, for tubular joints in offshore wind turbine substructure when considering a two dimensional crack growth and a failure criterion combined brittle fracture and material strength, the updating is quite complex due to the wind turbine loading obtained during operation. This paper considers how the reliability (or the probability of failure) of welded steel details can be updated in the case where the fatigue failure is modelled by a fracture mechanics approach and a Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) is used to define a limit state equation. Besides, it is shown how the probability of failure of fatigue critical joints can be updated for various inspection scenarios. A two dimensional bi-linear model is considered for the crack growth. Calculation of the crack depth and the crack length are coupled. The stress intensity factor is calculated following the sophisticated procedure in BS 7910:2005. The initial crack size, the yield and ultimate strengths of steel, the fracture toughness, the stress intensity factor, and the stress-ranges are considered as uncertain and modelled by random variables. The probability of detection is used to account for uncertainty in crack inspections. By using Monte Carlo simulations, stress-range histories are generated randomly and together with the calculated stress intensity factors used to check the limit state condition using the FAD approach. The probability of failure updating is done for three inspection scenarios: No crack detected; Crack detected and repaired; Crack detected but not repaired. The paper presents illustrative results for offshore wind applications for the three scenarios, including comparisons of application of the FAD approach for modelling the limit state equation with a ‘conventional’ approach where it is assumed that failure happens when crack-depth reaches the plate thickness or the stress intensity factor is equal to or larger than the fracture toughness of the material. Finally, it is discussed how application of the updating procedure can be used for inspection planning for offshore wind turbine support structures, and thus also for reducing the required safety factors at the design stage. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdating hydrogen fluoride (HF) FTIR time series above Jungfraujoch: comparison of two retrieval algorithms and impact of line shape models
Duchatelet, Pierre ULiege; Demoulin, Philippe ULiege; Hase, Frank et al

Poster (2010, May)

Fluorine enters the stratosphere mainly in the form of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs; principally CFC-11 and CFC-12) and tetrafluoromethane (CF4), which have been widely emitted at ground level by human ... [more ▼]

Fluorine enters the stratosphere mainly in the form of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs; principally CFC-11 and CFC-12) and tetrafluoromethane (CF4), which have been widely emitted at ground level by human activities over the past few decades. In the lower stratosphere, the photolysis of the long-lived CFC-11 (CCl3F) and CFC-12 (CCl2F2), whose emissions from the ground have been progressively phased out by the Montreal Protocol and its successive Amendments and Adjustments, leads to the formation of the two reservoirs: COClF and COF2. Subsequent photolysis of these two compounds then liberates F atoms, which could quickly react with CH4, H2O or H2 to form the extreme stable hydrogen fluoride (HF) gas. The formation of HF by these reactions is significant, as they make HF the largest fluorine reservoir in the middle and upper stratosphere. Despite the fact that fluorine does not directly participate in ozone depletion, measurements of the concentration of individual F-containing species at different altitude of the atmosphere are important as they reflect the amounts of anthropogenic gases – which also often bear ozone-threatening Cl atoms - transported into the middle atmosphere as well as their decomposition. Since the first detection of hydrogen fluoride in the Earth’s atmosphere by Zander (1975), several studies dealing with HF total column amounts derived from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) observations at several latitudes in both hemispheres have been published. In addition, these last years have seen the emergence of more sophisticated retrieval algorithms (e.g. SFIT-2, PROFFIT) allowing to inverse total or partial columns as well as vertical distribution of the target gas from ground-based FTIR spectra. In this contribution, we propose to compare HF total columns derived from FTIR high-resolution ground-based observations performed at the Jungfraujoch (46.5°N, 8.0°E, 3580 m asl) by using two different retrieval codes: SFIT-2 v.3.91 and PROFFIT v.9.5. The impact of spectroscopic parameters (Voigt line shape model versus Galatry model line shape) on HF retrievals is also analyzed. References: Zander, R.: Présence de HF dans la stratosphère supérieure, C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris. Série B., 281, 213-214, 1975. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdating Industrial Models Under a General Optimization Environnment
Pascual, Rodrigo; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULiege; Berthillier, Marc et al

Conference given outside the academic context (1998)

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See detailUpdating the 2003 European regulatory requirements for registering disease-modifying drugs to be used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Smolen, Josef S.; Boers, Maarten; Abadie, Eric ULiege et al

in Rheumatology (2011), 50(10), 1732-6

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See detailUpdating the correlation Miospores/Conodonts in upper and uppermost Famennian
Streel, Maurice ULiege

in IUGS, Subcommisson Devonian Strata Newsletter (2016), 31

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See detailUpdating the Jungfraujoch FTIR databases : current status
Duchatelet, Pierre ULiege; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULiege; Zander, Rodolphe ULiege et al

(2003)

Since the middle of the 20th century, the University of Liège has been active at the International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch (ISSJ) in the Swiss Alps (46.5°N, 8.0°E, 3580m asl) to study the ... [more ▼]

Since the middle of the 20th century, the University of Liège has been active at the International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch (ISSJ) in the Swiss Alps (46.5°N, 8.0°E, 3580m asl) to study the chemical composition of both the solar photosphere and the Earth’s atmosphere. Since 1989, the ISSJ is an accepted site of the northern midlattitude primary Alpine station of the NDSC (Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change). This acceptance resulted from earlier monitoring activities by Ulg of a large number of atmospheric constituents. Within the NDSC frame, a special attention and many efforts have been devoted to the monitoring of the most important atmospheric constituents involved both in the erosion of stratospheric ozone and in the greenhouse capacity of the troposphere, after it became clear that human activities have a direct impact on these two processes. Using two high resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers, over 25000 wide-band solar spectra encompassing nearly 1700 days since the mid 1980s have been recorded and analyzed to study, quasi simultaneously and repeatedly, local, seasonal and secular variations of some 20 gaseous telluric species. So far, most results have been reported, demonstrating the power of infrared spectrometric solar observations to characterize the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These datas, archived in terms of total vertical column abundances (e.g., at the NDSC-Data Host Facility; http://www.ndsc.ws), are expressed in number molecules per cm2 above the site using best-know input parameters (i.e. spectroscopic-, instrumental-, environmental-) in the retrieval procedure. Meanwhile, more sophisticated algorithms, based on the “Rodgers” optimal estimation method, have been developed, allowing to derive partial tropospheric- and stratospheric columns for various species, including HCl, ClONO2, O3, HF, CO, N2O, CH4, HCN, OCS. This contribution reports related results for HCl and ClONO2. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdating trends in cutaneous cancers in south-east Belgium.
Uhoda, Isabelle; Quatresooz, Pascale ULiege; Fumal, Isabelle et al

in Oncology Reports (2004), 12(1), 111-4

From data collected in a dermatopathology laboratory, the ratios between the numbers of specific cancers represent good markers for identifying any epidemiological shift in their prevalence and incidence ... [more ▼]

From data collected in a dermatopathology laboratory, the ratios between the numbers of specific cancers represent good markers for identifying any epidemiological shift in their prevalence and incidence among the reference population. The objective of the present study was to assess the ratios of the annual incidence of skin cancers in the Mosan region and Ardennes of Belgium over the past 6 years, and to compare the data with previous similar evaluations. A total of 7,640 skin cancers were collected and compared with regard to age and gender. Changes in time show that the trend of the increase in incidence of malignant melanoma (MM) is more impressive than that of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The age distribution of BCC and SCC confirms the increasing risk with ageing. By contrast, there is a steady decrease over the past decade in the mean age for MM, teenagers and young adults now form an expanding proportion of MM patients. There is an ongoing trend in diagnosing an increased number of skin cancers in our laboratory. This trend is particularly obvious for MM affecting young adults. [less ▲]

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See detailUpfront allogeneic stem cell transplantation after reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome : a study by the Société Française de Greffe de Moelle et de Thérapie Cellulaire
Damaj, Gandhi; Mohty, Mohammad; Robin, Marie et al

in Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation (2014), 20

Cytoreduction before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes remains a debatable issue. After excluding patients who had received preconditioning ... [more ▼]

Cytoreduction before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes remains a debatable issue. After excluding patients who had received preconditioning induction chemotherapy, we analyzed 128 consecutive patients with myelodysplastic syndrome who received reducedintensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning (RIC/NMA) allo-SCT. Among them, 40 received azacitidine (AZA) before transplant (AZA group) and 88 were transplanted up front (best supportive care [BSC] group). At diagnosis, 55 patients had intermediate 2 or high-risk scores per the International Prognostic Scoring System and 33 had a high cytogenetic risk score. Progression to a more advanced disease before allo-SCT was recorded in 22 patients. Source of stem cells were blood (n ¼ 112) or marrow (n ¼ 16) from sibling (n ¼ 78) or HLA-matched unrelated (n ¼ 50) donors. With a median follow-up of 60 months, 3-year overall survival, relapse-free survival, cumulative incidence of relapse, and nonrelapse mortality were, respectively, 53% versus 53% (P ¼ .69), 37% versus 42% (P ¼ .78), 35% versus 36% (P ¼ .99), and 20% versus 23% (P ¼ .74), for the AZA group and BSC group, respectively. Multivariate analysis confirmed the absence of statistical differences in outcome between the AZA and BSC groups, after adjusting for potential confounders using the propensity score approach. The absence of cytoreduction before RIC/NMA allo-SCT did not seem to alter the outcome. However, our results emphasize the need to perform prospective protocols to delineate the role of debulking strategy and to identify subsets of patients who may benefit from this approach. [less ▲]

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See detailUpgrading of Bio-Sourced Platform Molecules Using Flow Chemistry
Monbaliu, Jean-Christophe ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, February 06)

This lecture illustrates our work in flow chemistry with bio-sourced platform molecules. Selected examples deal with the upgrading of biomass-derived small platform molecules, and in particular the ... [more ▼]

This lecture illustrates our work in flow chemistry with bio-sourced platform molecules. Selected examples deal with the upgrading of biomass-derived small platform molecules, and in particular the implementation of a deoxydehydration (DODH) reaction of glycerol towards allyl alcohol under continuous-flow conditions. The combination of a unique reactive dynamic feed solution approach and short exposure time to high temperature gave high yield and excellent selectivity. Other polyols are also studied. The second part of the lecture illustrates our effort for the continuous-flow production of glycerol carbonate using low environmental footprint processes. [less ▲]

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See detailUpgrading opportunities in agricultural value chains: Lessons from the analysis of the consumption of processed pineapple products in southern Benin
Aoudji, Augustin K.N.; Avocevou-Ayisso, Carole; Adégbidi, Anselme et al

in African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development (2017), 2017

This study analyzed the consumption of processed pineapple products in southern Benin. The low processing of agricultural products does not enable sub-Saharan Africa to exploit the potential of ... [more ▼]

This study analyzed the consumption of processed pineapple products in southern Benin. The low processing of agricultural products does not enable sub-Saharan Africa to exploit the potential of agriculture for development. The objective of this paper was to identify upgrading opportunities in Benin’s pineapple value chain. A survey was carried out from December 2012 to February 2013 among 250 respondents randomly selected in five cities in southern Benin; and data were collected based on structured interviews. Dried pineapple, jam, syrup, juice, and cocktail were the processed pineapple products available on the market. Beverages, especially the juice, were the main processed pineapple products. The motivations driving the purchase of processed pineapple beverages by consumers were: competitive price and interest in local, natural and therapeutic beverages. The results indicate there is a margin for the value chain to upgrade products and services, and increase the price of pineapple-based products while staying competitive. A strong marketing and advertisement campaign is essential to support wider knowledge of processed pineapple products by consumers. Product traceability is a prerequisite for export in regional and international markets. This makes the certification of the value chain a critical issue. A joint action of value chain stakeholders is needed to exploit these opportunities. [less ▲]

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See detailUpkeeping an atrium house during the Principate in Ostia.
Mainet, Grégory ULiege

Conference (2018, July)

The Roman upper-class houses are well-know thanks to Vitruvius' De Architectura and Pompeii's excavations. This atrium house form, as encountered in the Vesuvian cities, is typical of the late Republic ... [more ▼]

The Roman upper-class houses are well-know thanks to Vitruvius' De Architectura and Pompeii's excavations. This atrium house form, as encountered in the Vesuvian cities, is typical of the late Republic and early Empire. At the same time, however, a new form of residential building - the insulae - progressively took the place of this kind of domus in Rome and Ostia. However, some of them were maintained over many centuries, as suggest the three atrium houses along the Vicus Patricius represented on a fragment of the severian Forma Urbis Romae (n°543). Ostia is a good case study to investigate the maintenance of this architectural form in the Empire (sens temporel). Indeed, the urban growth of Ostia is continuous from the fourth century BC to the late Antiquity. Most of the houses built in late Republic and Early Empire are knocked down during this time, like the republican Casette Repubblicane (I, IX, 1) or the Augustean Domus con Portico di Tufo (IV, VI, 1) because the insulae became the common type of dwelling at the mouth of the Tiber during the second century AD. These destructions reflect many transformations in social practices of the Roman aristocracy in the harbour of Rome. Nevertheless, some households prefered to preserve their domus rather than construct new more profitable ones, as suggest the Domus di Giove Fulminatore (IV, IV, 3), the Domus della Nicchia a Mosaico (IV, IV, 2) or the Domus a Peristilio (IV, V, 15-16). These ancient domus contrasted with the new insulae and they indicated the social rank of their owner in the new townscape. This paper will discuss the case of these Augustean houses in the imperial urban fabric of Ostia, with a focus on the Domus a Peristilio, owned by the familly of C. Fabius Agrippinus, consul suffect in 148 AD. Indeed, the excavations undertaken between 2002 and 2010 within the so-called Schola del Traiano (IV, V, 15-16) offer some stratigraphic evidence - unpublished - from the building yard to the demolition of this aristocratic house. These archeological investigations have made it possible to envisage many repairs and transformations that took place over time. This building maintenance betrays the homeowner's will to adapt his dwelling to technical progress, like water supplies, or the decorative program to the decorative fashion. All in all, this talk about the upkeep of atrium upper-class houses during the Empire re-evaluates the features of the society in Roman Ostia. [less ▲]

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See detailUPLC MS/MS method for the determination of bupropion and its main metabolites in human whole blood
Denooz, Raphael ULiege; Mercerolle, M.; Lachatre, C. et al

in Journal of Analytical Toxicology (2010), 34(5), 280-286

A selective and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)–electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (MS) method for simultaneous determination of bupropion and its main metabolites ... [more ▼]

A selective and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)–electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (MS) method for simultaneous determination of bupropion and its main metabolites, hydroxybupropion, erythrohydrobupropion, and threohydrobupropion, in human whole blood is presented. The sample preparation consists of cleanup protein precipitation with methanol combined with a solid-phase extraction on Oasis HLB cartridges. Analytes were separated on a Waters Acquity UPLC® BEH phenyl column using a binary mobile phase consisting of ammonium formate buffer (2 mM, pH 4) and acetonitrile. Detection was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC system coupled to a Quattro Premier triple-quadrupole MS in positive ion selected reaction monitoring. Internal standards were bupropion-d9 and hydroxybupropion-d6. Linearity was from 5 to 1000 ng/mL for bupropion and from 10 to 2000 ng/mL for metabolites. Accuracy profiles (80–120%), precision (< 15%), and limits of detection (1 ng/mL for bupropion and 2 ng/mL for metabolites) were also evaluated and responded to all criteria of validation. The aim of this study was to compare this presented method with a previously described method developed on a classic liquid chromatography–tandem MS system. [less ▲]

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See detailUPLC®-MS/MS, an analytical tool for the accurate and rapid quantification of phytoestrogen metabolites in milk
Daems, Frédéric ULiege; Jasselette, Christophe; Romnee, Jean-Michel et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015, April 17), 19(2), 121-122

The term ‘phytoestrogen’ is used to define a wide variety of nonsteroidal compounds that occur naturally in many plants. When they are absorbed by cows, these polyphenolic compounds undergo ... [more ▼]

The term ‘phytoestrogen’ is used to define a wide variety of nonsteroidal compounds that occur naturally in many plants. When they are absorbed by cows, these polyphenolic compounds undergo biotransformation by specific bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract. The resulting metabolites are absorbed in the organism and some are excreted in milk. The impact of these compounds on human health divides opinion. Some scientists believe that they might have adverse health effects. Others believe the opposite, especially with regard to their microbial metabolites, such as equol. Whatever one's view on the subject, scientists need accurate, sensitive and rapid analytical methods in order to continue the research on clarifying the phytoestrogen issue. Cow's milk is an animal product that is common in the human diet, and it is therefore important to evaluate its content of phytoestrogen metabolites. In order to study the human intake of equol via commercial milk, an analytical method was developed and validated following EMA/CVMP/VICH/463202/2009 guidelines. Enzymatic hydrolysis was used to release the equol. It was then extracted using double liquid/liquid extraction and analyzed using UPLC®-MS/MS, with an analysis runtime of only 5 min. This analytical method produced a linear calibration curve with a high correlation coefficient (R2≥0.996) between 5 and 1,000 ng mL−1. Good intra- and inter-day precision (RSDs≤5.3% and ≤5.2%, respectively) and accuracy (bias≤8.6%) were achieved. The recovery rate differed slightly among the different types of milk, ranging between 60.6±1.09% and 82.3±5.21%. Good method repeatability was observed (RSDs<15%). There was neither a matrix effect nor a carry-over effect, and the sample extracts were stable during storage for at least 7 days at −21°C and 5°C. In order to apply the proposed method and obtain an initial estimate of equol concentration in cow’s milk in Belgium, 44 samples of various brands found in several supermarkets and 5 raw milk samples from Walloon farms were analyzed. Equol was found in all the samples analyzed, with a concentration ranging from 10 to 50 ng mL−1 for conventional milk and from 70 to 130 ng mL−1 for organic milk. These results were compared with other European studies and the same trend was observed. The results obtained show the specificity, sensitivity and precision of this method for analyzing oestrogenic metabolite-equol in cow’s milk. This study should be extended to include a greater number of samples and be implemented over a longer period to see if there is a correlation between livestock practice and/or sample origins with the equol content in milk. The addition of other phytoestrogen compounds with this method, using UPLC®-MS/MS technology, could also lead to more reliable monitoring of these compounds in dairy production. [less ▲]

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See detailUpper airway dynamic endoscopy: are track and treadmill observations comparable ?
Van Erck, Emmanuelle ULiege; Frippiat, Thibault ULiege; Dupuis, Marie-Capucine ULiege et al

in Tessier, Caroline; Gerber, Vincent (Eds.) Abstract book: 4th World Equine Airways Symposium (WEAS) (2009)

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See detailUpper airway function and dysfunction
Art, Tatiana ULiege; Lekeux, Pierre ULiege

in 9e Congrès de Médecine et Chirurgie Equine (2005)

The main airway function is the conduction of thé air from the amblent air to the gas exchange regions of the lung and conversely. Upper airway include nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx and extrathoracic ... [more ▼]

The main airway function is the conduction of thé air from the amblent air to the gas exchange regions of the lung and conversely. Upper airway include nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx and extrathoracic trachea. These structures, supported by bones, cartilages or muscles, must be as permeable as possible to the air. flow. If for structural or functional reasons, a permanent or dynamic narrowing occurs along the airway, the resulting bottleneck will increase the resistance to airflow, thus impair ventilation and generate abnormal respiratory noises, and finally decrease the exercise capacity. This paper focuses on the function and potential dysfunctions of the different parts of the upper airway in horses [less ▲]

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See detailUpper airway imaging in sleep-disordered breathing.
POIRRIER, Anne-Lise ULiege; Fanielle, Julien; Bruwier, Annick ULiege et al

in Acta neurologica Belgica (2014)

Our understanding of sleep-disordered breathing has evolved considerably over the past three decades, and clinical techniques of evaluation have progressed tremendously. Myriad imaging techniques are now ... [more ▼]

Our understanding of sleep-disordered breathing has evolved considerably over the past three decades, and clinical techniques of evaluation have progressed tremendously. Myriad imaging techniques are now available for the physician to approach the dynamic features resulting in turbulent airflow, upper airway narrowing or collapse at different levels. Controversy exists in the choice of investigations, probably because the best evaluation should be a combination of different techniques. Physical, radiographic, endoscopic and acoustic evaluations could be integrated to understand the degree and the levels of airway reduction and/or obstruction in a given patient. This review focuses on cost-effective and easily implemented techniques in daily practice, allowing quality assessment of the dynamic anatomy of sleep-disordered breathing: cephalometry, (sleep-)endoscopy and acoustic reflectometry of the upper airway. [less ▲]

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