References of "Toxins"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCyanotoxins and Food Contamination in Developing Countries: Review of Their Types, Toxicity, Analysis, Occurrence and Mitigation Strategies
Abdallah, Mohamed F.; Van Hassel, Wannes ULiege; Andjelkovic, Mirjana et al

in Toxins (2021), 13(11), 786

Cyanotoxins have gained global public interest due to their potential to bioaccumulate in food, which threatens human health. Bloom formation is usually enhanced under Mediterranean, subtropical and ... [more ▼]

Cyanotoxins have gained global public interest due to their potential to bioaccumulate in food, which threatens human health. Bloom formation is usually enhanced under Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates which are the dominant climate types in developing countries. In this context, we present an up-to-date overview of cyanotoxins (types, toxic effects, analysis, occurrence, and mitigation) with a special focus on their contamination in (sea)food from all the developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America as this has received less attention. A total of 65 publications have been found (from 2000 until October 2021) reporting the contamination by one or more cyanotoxins in seafood and edible plants (five papers). Only Brazil and China conducted more research on cyanotoxin contamination in food in comparison to other countries. The majority of research focused on the detection of microcystins using different analytical methods. The detected levels mostly surpassed the provisional tolerable daily intake limit set by the World Health Organization, indicating a real risk to the exposed population. Assessment of cyanotoxin contamination in foods from developing countries still requires further investigations by conducting more survey studies, especially the simultaneous detection of multiple categories of cyanotoxins in food. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (5 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFirst report on microcystis as a potential microviridin producer in bulgarian waterbodies
Uzunov, Blagoy; Stefanova, Katerina; Radkova, Mariana et al

in Toxins (2021), 13

Bulgaria, situated on the Balkan Peninsula, is rich in small and shallow, natural and manmade non-lotic waterbodies, which are threatened by blooms of Cyanoprokaryota/Cyanobacteria. Although cyanotoxins ... [more ▼]

Bulgaria, situated on the Balkan Peninsula, is rich in small and shallow, natural and manmade non-lotic waterbodies, which are threatened by blooms of Cyanoprokaryota/Cyanobacteria. Although cyanotoxins in Bulgarian surface waters are receiving increased attention, there is no information on microviridins and their producers. This paper presents results from a phytoplankton study, conducted in August 2019 in three lakes (Durankulak, Vaya, Uzungeren) and five reservoirs (Duvanli, Mandra, Poroy, Sinyata Reka, Zhrebchevo) in which a molecular-genetic analysis (PCR based on the precursor mdnA gene and subsequent translation to amino acid alignments), combined with conventional light microscopy and an HPLC analysis of marker pigments, were applied for the identification of potential microviridin producers. The results provide evidence that ten strains of the genus Microcystis, and of its most widespread species M. aeruginosa in particular, are potentially toxigenic in respect to microviridins. The mdnA sequences were obtained from all studied waterbodies and their translation to amino-acid alignments revealed the presence of five microviridin variants (types B/C, Izancya, CBJ55500.1 (Microcystis 199), and MC19, as well as a variant, which was very close to type A). This study adds to the general understanding of the microviridin occurrence, producers, and sequence diversity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVolatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Aspergillus flavus Strains Producing or Not Aflatoxin B1
Josselin, Laurie ULiege; De Clerck, Caroline ULiege; De Boever Marthe et al

in Toxins (2021)

Aspergillus flavus is a phytopathogenic fungus able to produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a carcinogenic mycotoxin that can contaminate several crops and food commodities. In A. flavus, two different kinds of ... [more ▼]

Aspergillus flavus is a phytopathogenic fungus able to produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a carcinogenic mycotoxin that can contaminate several crops and food commodities. In A. flavus, two different kinds of strains can co-exist: toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains. Microbial-derived volatile organic compounds (mVOCs) emitted by toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains of A. flavus were analyzed by solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in a time-lapse experiment after inoculation. Among the 84 mVOCs emitted, 44 were previously listed in the scientific literature as specific to A. flavus, namely alcohols (2-methylbutan1-ol, 3-methylbutan-1-ol, 2-methylpropan-1-ol), aldehydes (2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal), hydrocarbons (toluene, styrene), furans (2,5-dimethylfuran), esters (ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate), and terpenes (epizonaren, trans-caryophyllene, valencene, α-copaene, β-himachalene, γ-cadinene, γ-muurolene, δ-cadinene). For the first time, other identified volatile compounds such as α-cadinol, cis-muurola-3,5-diene, α-isocomene, and β-selinene were identified as new mVOCs specific to the toxigenic A. flavus strain. Partial Least Square Analysis (PLSDA) showed a distinct pattern between mVOCs emitted by toxigenic and non-toxigenic A. flavus strains, mostly linked to the diversity of terpenes emitted by the toxigenic strains. In addition, the comparison between mVOCs of the toxigenic strain and its non-AFB1-producing mutant, coupled with a semiquantification of the mVOCs, revealed a relationship between emitted terpenes (β-chamigrene, αcorocalene) and AFB1 production. This study provides evidence for the first time of mVOCs being linked to the toxigenic character of A. flavus strains, as well as terpenes being able to be correlated to the production of AFB1 due to the study of the mutant. This study could lead to the development of new techniques for the early detection and identification of toxigenic fungi. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (20 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMulti-Mycotoxin Occurrence in Dairy Cattle and Poultry Feeds and Feed Ingredients from Machakos Town, Kenya
Kemboi, David Chetubia; Ochieng, Phillis Emelda ULiege; Antonissen, Gunther et al

in Toxins (2020), 12

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (5 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVenomics Approach Reveals a High Proportion of Lactrodectus-Like Toxins in the Venom of the Noble False Widow Spider Steatoda nobilis.
Dunbar, John P.; Fort, Antoine; Redureau, Damien et al

in Toxins (2020), 12(6),

The noble false widow spider Steatoda nobilis originates from the Macaronesian archipelago and has expanded its range globally. Outside of its natural range, it may have a negative impact on native ... [more ▼]

The noble false widow spider Steatoda nobilis originates from the Macaronesian archipelago and has expanded its range globally. Outside of its natural range, it may have a negative impact on native wildlife, and in temperate regions it lives in synanthropic environments where it frequently encounters humans, subsequently leading to envenomations. S. nobilis is the only medically significant spider in Ireland and the UK, and envenomations have resulted in local and systemic neurotoxic symptoms similar to true black widows (genus Latrodectus). S. nobilis is a sister group to Latrodectus which possesses the highly potent neurotoxins called α-latrotoxins that can induce neuromuscular paralysis and is responsible for human fatalities. However, and despite this close relationship, the venom composition of S. nobilis has never been investigated. In this context, a combination of transcriptomic and proteomic cutting-edge approaches has been used to deeply characterise S. nobilis venom. Mining of transcriptome data for the peptides identified by proteomics revealed 240 annotated sequences, of which 118 are related to toxins, 37 as enzymes, 43 as proteins involved in various biological functions, and 42 proteins without any identified function to date. Among the toxins, the most represented in numbers are α-latrotoxins (61), δ-latroinsectotoxins (44) and latrodectins (6), all of which were first characterised from black widow venoms. Transcriptomics alone provided a similar representation to proteomics, thus demonstrating that our approach is highly sensitive and accurate. More precisely, a relative quantification approach revealed that latrodectins are the most concentrated toxin (28%), followed by α-latrotoxins (11%), δ-latroinsectotoxins (11%) and α-latrocrustotoxins (11%). Approximately two-thirds of the venom is composed of Latrodectus-like toxins. Such toxins are highly potent towards the nervous system of vertebrates and likely responsible for the array of symptoms occurring after envenomation by black widows and false widows. Thus, caution should be taken in dismissing S. nobilis as harmless. This work paves the way towards a better understanding of the competitiveness of S. nobilis and its potential medical importance. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (9 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailUremic toxin concentrations are related to residual kidney function in the pediatric hemodialysis population
Snauwaert, Evelien; Holvoet, Els; Van Biesen, Wim et al

in Toxins (2019), 11(4),

Protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) play a role in the multisystem disease that children on hemodialysis (HD) are facing, but little is known about their levels and protein binding (%PB). In this study ... [more ▼]

Protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) play a role in the multisystem disease that children on hemodialysis (HD) are facing, but little is known about their levels and protein binding (%PB). In this study, we evaluated the levels and %PB of six PBUTs cross-sectionally in a large pediatric HD cohort (n = 170) by comparing these with healthy and non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4-5 (n = 24) children. In parallel β2-microglobulin (β2M) and uric acid (UA) were evaluated. We then explored the impact of age and residual kidney function on uremic toxin levels and %PB using analysis of covariance and Spearman correlation coefficients (rs). We found higher levels of β2M, p-cresyl glucuronide (pCG), hippuric acid (HA), indole acetic acid (IAA), and indoxyl sulfate (IxS) in the HD compared to the CKD4-5 group. In the HD group, a positive correlation between age and pCG, HA, IxS, and pCS levels was shown. Residual urine volume was negatively correlated with levels of β2M, pCG, HA, IAA, IxS, and CMPF (rs -0.2 to -0.5). In addition, we found overall lower %PB of PBUTs in HD versus the CKD4-5 group, and showed an age-dependent increase in %PB of IAA, IxS, and pCS. Furhtermore, residual kidney function was overall positively correlated with %PB of PBUTs. In conclusion, residual kidney function and age contribute to PBUT levels and %PB in the pediatric HD population. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDistinct spatiotemporal distribution of bacterial toxin-produced cellular camp differentially inhibits opsonophagocytic signaling
Hasan, Shakir ULiege; Rahman, W. U.; Sebo, P. et al

in Toxins (2019), 11(6),

Myeloid phagocytes have evolved to rapidly recognize invading pathogens and clear them through opsonophagocytic killing. The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis and the edema toxin (ET ... [more ▼]

Myeloid phagocytes have evolved to rapidly recognize invading pathogens and clear them through opsonophagocytic killing. The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis and the edema toxin (ET) of Bacillus anthracis are both calmodulin-activated toxins with adenylyl cyclase activity that invade host cells and massively increase the cellular concentrations of a key second messenger molecule, 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). However, the two toxins differ in the kinetics and mode of cell entry and generate different cAMP concentration gradients within the cell. While CyaA rapidly penetrates cells directly across their plasma membrane, the cellular entry of ET depends on receptor-mediated endocytosis and translocation of the enzymatic subunit across the endosomal membrane. We show that CyaA-generated membrane-proximal cAMP gradient strongly inhibits the activation and phosphorylation of Syk, Vav, and Pyk2, thus inhibiting opsonophagocytosis. By contrast, at similar overall cellular cAMP levels, the ET-generated perinuclear cAMP gradient poorly inhibits the activation and phosphorylation of these signaling proteins. Hence, differences in spatiotemporal distribution of cAMP produced by the two adenylyl cyclase toxins differentially affect the opsonophagocytic signaling in myeloid phagocytes. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBotulinum Toxin Therapy Combined with Rehabilitation for Stroke: A Systematic Review of Effect on Motor Function.
Hara, Takatoshi; Momosaki, Ryo; Niimi, Masachika ULiege et al

in Toxins (2019), 11(12),

AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) therapy combined with rehabilitation on motor function in post-stroke patients. METHODS: The following sources ... [more ▼]

AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) therapy combined with rehabilitation on motor function in post-stroke patients. METHODS: The following sources up to December 31, 2018, were searched from inception for articles in English: Pubmed, Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL. Trials using injections of BoNT-A for upper and lower limb rehabilitation were examined. We excluded studies that were not performed for rehabilitation or were not evaluated for motor function. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies were included. In addition to rehabilitation, nine studies used adjuvant treatment to improve spasticity or improve motor function. In the upper limbs, two of 14 articles indicated that significant improvement in upper limb motor function was observed compared to the control group. In the lower limbs, seven of 14 articles indicated that significant improvement in lower limb motor function was observed compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of combined with rehabilitation is limited after stroke, and there is not sufficient evidence, but results suggest that BoNT-A may help to improve motor function. In future studies, the establishment of optimal rehabilitation and evaluation times of BoNT-A treatment will be necessary for improving motor function and spasticity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (2 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Effect of Repeated Botulinum Toxin A Therapy Combined with Intensive Rehabilitation on Lower Limb Spasticity in Post-Stroke Patients.
Hara, Takatoshi; Abo, Masahiro; Hara, Hiroyoshi et al

in Toxins (2018), 10(9),

OBJECTIVES: This study is a retrospective investigation of the effects of repetitive botulinum toxin A therapy (BoNT-A) and intensive rehabilitation (IR) on lower limb spasticity in post-stroke patients ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: This study is a retrospective investigation of the effects of repetitive botulinum toxin A therapy (BoNT-A) and intensive rehabilitation (IR) on lower limb spasticity in post-stroke patients. METHODS: Thirty-five post-stroke patients was included in this study and received BoNT-A for the first time. A 12-day inpatient protocol was with 4 cycles of the treatment protocol. The severity of spasticity, motor function and brace status were evaluated. RESULTS: The modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) score of ankle dorsiflexors, range of motion, walking speed and balancing ability were significantly improved after cycle 1. The improvement of spasticity and motor function was persistent through cycles 2(-)4. One-third of brace users were able to discontinue the use of a brace. All of these brace users showed a forward gait pattern prior to therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated BoNT-A combined with IR improved lower limb spasticity in post-stroke patients. Our results suggest that patients who show the forward gait pattern prior to therapy may be able to discontinue the use of their brace after therapy. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNew insights on moojase, a thrombin-like serine protease from bothrops moojeni snake venom
Amorim, F. G.; Menaldo, D. L.; Carone, S. E. I. et al

in Toxins (2018), 10(12),

Snake venom serine proteases (SVSPs) are enzymes that are capable of interfering in various parts of the blood coagulation cascade, which makes them interesting candidates for the development of new ... [more ▼]

Snake venom serine proteases (SVSPs) are enzymes that are capable of interfering in various parts of the blood coagulation cascade, which makes them interesting candidates for the development of new therapeutic drugs. Herein, we isolated and characterized Moojase, a potent coagulant enzyme from Bothrops moojeni snake venom. The toxin was isolated from the crude venom using a two-step chromatographic procedure. Moojase is a glycoprotein with N-linked glycans, molecular mass of 30.3 kDa and acidic character (pI 5.80–6.88). Sequencing of Moojase indicated that it is an isoform of Batroxobin. Moojase was able to clot platelet-poor plasma and fibrinogen solutions in a dose-dependent manner, indicating thrombin-like properties. Moojase also rapidly induced the proteolysis of the Aα chains of human fibrinogen, followed by the degradation of the Bβ chains after extended periods of incubation, and these effects were inhibited by PMSF, SDS and DTT, but not by benzamidine or EDTA. RP-HPLC analysis of its fibrinogenolysis confirmed the main generation of fibrinopeptide A. Moojase also induced the fibrinolysis of fibrin clots formed in vitro, and the aggregation of washed platelets, as well as significant amidolytic activity on substrates for thrombin, plasma kallikrein, factor Xia, and factor XIIa. Furthermore, thermofluor analyses and the esterase activity of Moojase demonstrated its very high stability at different pH buffers and temperatures. Thus, studies such as this for Moojase should increase knowledge on SVSPs, allowing their bioprospection as valuable prototypes in the development of new drugs, or as biotechnological tools. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailProteopeptidomic, Functional and Immunoreactivity Characterization of Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom: Influence of Snake Gender on Venom Composition
Amorim, Fernanda; Costa, Raphaela; Baiwir, Dominique ULiege et al

in Toxins (2018), 10(5)(177),

Venom composition varies across snakes from all taxonomic levels and is influenced by the snakes’ age, habitat, diet, and sexual dimorphism. The present study reports the first in-depth investigation of ... [more ▼]

Venom composition varies across snakes from all taxonomic levels and is influenced by the snakes’ age, habitat, diet, and sexual dimorphism. The present study reports the first in-depth investigation of venom composition in male and female Bothrops moojeni (B. moojeni) snakes (BmooM and BmooF, respectively) through three proteomics approaches associated with functional, cytotoxic, and immunoreactivity characterization. Compared with BmooM venom, BmooF venom exhibited weaker hyaluronidase, metalloproteinase, and phospholipase activity; stronger recognition by anti-bothropic serum; 1.4-fold stronger cytotoxicity; and greater number of peptides. The increased L-amino acid oxidase expression probably accounted for the stronger immunoreactivity and cytotoxicity of BmooF venom. BmooF and BmooM venom shared only 19% peptides. Some venom components were gender-specific, such as phospholipases B, phospholipase inhibitor, and hyaluronidases in BmooM, and cysteine-rich secretory proteins in BmooF. In conclusion, we describe herein the first proteomics study of B. moojeni snake venom and an in-depth characterization of gender-specific differences in venom composition. Altogether, our findings not only stress the importance of considering the snake’s gender during antivenom production, but also help to identify new potential drugs and biotechnological tools. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (9 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailToxic Cyanobacteria in Svalbard: Chemical Diversity of Microcystins Detected Using a Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Precursor Ion Screening Method
Kleinteich, Julia; Puddick, Jonathan; Wood, Susanna A et al

in Toxins (2018), 10(147), 1-15

Cyanobacteria synthesize a large variety of secondary metabolites including toxins. Microcystins (MCs) with hepato- and neurotoxic potential are well studied in bloom-forming planktonic species of ... [more ▼]

Cyanobacteria synthesize a large variety of secondary metabolites including toxins. Microcystins (MCs) with hepato- and neurotoxic potential are well studied in bloom-forming planktonic species of temperate and tropical regions. Cyanobacterial biofilms thriving in the Polar Regions have recently emerged as a rich source for cyanobacterial secondary metabolites including previously undescribed congeners of microcystin. However, detection and detailed identification of these compounds is difficult due to unusual sample matrices and structural congeners produced. We here report a time-efficient liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) precursor ion screening method that facilitates microcystin detection and identification. We applied this method to detect six different MC congeners in 8 out of 26 microbial mat samples of the Svalbard Archipelago in the Arctic. The congeners, of which [Asp3, ADMAdda5, Dhb7] MC-LR was most abundant, were similar to those reported in other polar habitats. Microcystins were also determined using an Adda-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Adda-ELISA). Nostoc sp. was identified as a putative toxin producer using molecular methods that targeted 16S rRNA genes and genes involved in microcystin production. The mcy genes detected showed highest similarities to other Arctic or Antarctic sequences. The LC-MS precursor ion screening method could be useful for microcystin detection in unusual matrices such as benthic biofilms or lichen [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (3 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVeal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves.
Valgaeren, Bonnie R.; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy et al

in Toxins (2015), 7(7), 2586-97

Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to ... [more ▼]

Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (4 ULiège)