References of "Skin Pharmacology & Physiology"
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See detailProtomyofibroblast Pathway in Early Thermal Burn Healing
Hermanns-Lê, Trinh ULiege; Pierard, Gérald ULiege; jennes, Serge et al

in Skin Pharmacology and Physiology (2015), 28

Wound healing following partial thickness thermal burns is commonly hampered by the risk of hypertrophic scarring. Skin myofibroblast (MF) density is commonly increased in postburn healing. The transition ... [more ▼]

Wound healing following partial thickness thermal burns is commonly hampered by the risk of hypertrophic scarring. Skin myofibroblast (MF) density is commonly increased in postburn healing. The transition between fibroblast-like cells and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)+ MF possibly begins with CD14+ monocytes, evolving to CD14+ CD34+ fibrocytes, followed by β-SMA+ protomyofibroblast (PMF) maturation. Skin biopsies from 25 burn patients were collected about 1 and 4 weeks after injury. Immunohistochemistry was performed using monoclonal antibodies to α-SMA, β-SMA, factor XIIIa, lysozyme, Mac 387, CD14, CD117 and Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1). The set of Mac 387+ and CD14+ monocytes was accompanied by both CD34+ fibrocytes and factor XIIIa+ dendrocytes. By contrast, β-SMA+ PMF were rare. Of note, α-SMA+ MF were more abundant at week 4 than at week 1 (p < 0.01). The UEA-1+ endothelial cells showed marked variations in their dermal distribution, irrespective of the densities in the other scrutinized cells. In conclusion, healing of partial thickness thermal burns involves a diversity of cell types including PMF. In the present samples, the PMF density remained low. [less ▲]

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See detailGlutathione-S-transferase pi expression in toxic epidermal necrolysis: a marker of putative oxidative stress in keratinocytes.
Paquet, Philippe ULiege; Pierard, Gérald ULiege

in Skin Pharmacology and Physiology (2007), 20(2), 66-70

BACKGROUND: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a dramatic drug-induced emergency related to extensive destruction of the epidermis. There is evidence that its pathomechanism involves impaired ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a dramatic drug-induced emergency related to extensive destruction of the epidermis. There is evidence that its pathomechanism involves impaired detoxication of xenobiotics. Glutathione-S-transferase pi (GST-pi) is a phase II detoxifying enzyme involved in drug metabolization by human keratinocytes. METHOD: Immunohistochemistry was performed in order to assess the expression of GST-pi in keratinocytes of TEN, other cutaneous adverse drug reactions and bullous pemphigoid. RESULTS: GST-pi was disclosed in the involved epidermis of 16/16 TEN patients. It was present in the cytoplasm of suprabasal keratinocytes. GST-pi was also expressed in the clinically uninvolved skin in a majority (8/12) of TEN patients. By contrast, it was rarely and poorly expressed in the other tested dermatoses. CONCLUSION: The pathomechanism of TEN is not related to an impaired quantitative expression of GST-pi. GST-pi expression is an early event in TEN. As oxidative stress is a major inducer of GST-pi, this mechanism might be involved in TEN. Its GST-pi expression mainly restricted to the suprabasal keratinocytes suggests that the pathomechanisms leading to keratinocyte death in TEN are distinct at different levels of the epidermis. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of skin barrier repair following topical applications of miconazole nitrate.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULiege; Vroome, Valérie; Cauwenbergh, G. et al

in Skin Pharmacology and Physiology (2006), 19(5), 290-4

The skin barrier function (SBF) is an important aspect of skin biology, particularly in the elicitation of inflammation. The SBF recovery rate after tape stripping and surfactant challenge can be assessed ... [more ▼]

The skin barrier function (SBF) is an important aspect of skin biology, particularly in the elicitation of inflammation. The SBF recovery rate after tape stripping and surfactant challenge can be assessed by measuring the transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Previous clinical studies have shown some inflammatory effect after topical applications of miconazole. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of pastes (petrolatum and 15% zinc oxide) containing or not miconazole nitrate on controlled impaired SBF. Fifteen volunteers were enrolled. In each subject, successive cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings were harvested from 5 sites of the volar forearm until TEWL raised above 15 g/cm(2)/h on all test sites. In addition, one daily soak session with a 0.2% dishwashing liquid further damaged the SBF. Each of the test formulations was applied twice daily for 5 days at two dosages, namely 1 and 2 mg/cm(2), on randomized test sites. Another site remained untreated. TEWL was measured daily for 5 days. A fastened SBF repair was observed on all treated sites, particularly where the largest amount of the products had been applied. A faster SBF recovery rate was obtained at the site receiving the miconazole nitrate paste. We conclude that the occlusive effect of a paste helped mitigate SBF defect. The adjunction of miconazole nitrate improved the efficacy. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel. [less ▲]

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See detailActivity of the triazole antifungal r126638 as assessed by corneofungimetry.
Pierard, Claudine ULiege; Ausma, Jannie; Wouters, Luc et al

in Skin Pharmacology and Physiology (2006), 19(1), 50-6

BACKGROUND: R126638 is a novel triazole exhibiting potent in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity against fungal pathogens including dermatophytes and yeasts. OBJECTIVE: To determine the antifungal ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: R126638 is a novel triazole exhibiting potent in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity against fungal pathogens including dermatophytes and yeasts. OBJECTIVE: To determine the antifungal activity in time in the stratum corneum of healthy volunteers after oral intake of R126638 at a daily dose of 100 or 200 mg for 1 week. METHOD: Sixteen male volunteers were randomly allocated to oral treatment with either 100 or 200 mg of R126638 once daily for 1 week. Five cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings (CSSS) were obtained from the forearm of each subject before drug intake at day 1. CSSS were also collected during treatment at day 2 (24 h after the first drug intake, before the second drug intake), at day 4 (before the fourth drug intake) and at day 7 (10 h after the last drug intake). The post-treatment lingering effect was assessed at day 10 (3 days after treatment) and at day 14 (7 days after treatment). The corneofungimetry bioassay was performed on these CSSS to assess the antifungal profile of R126638. Cells of different fungal species (Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Candida albicans and Malassezia globosa) were deposited and cultured for 10 days on CSSS in a sterile and controlled environment. The extent of fungal growth on the stratum corneum was determined using computerized image analysis. RESULTS: R126638 clearly reduced the growth of all tested fungal species. The onset of effects of R126638 was evidenced at day 4 when it reached statistical significance for 3 of 5 species. At day 7, significance was reached for 4 of 5 species. During the posttreatment period, R126638 remained effective for 4 of 5 species at day 10, and this activity persisted until day 14 for 2 of 5 species. CONCLUSION: A broad spectrum antifungal activity was rapidly expressed in the stratum corneum after oral intake of R126638. The drug likely reached the upper layers of the stratum corneum by diffusion and persisted in this location for at least 7 days after treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailCorneofungimetry bioassay on Malassezia spp. under ketoconazole and desonide influences.
Pierard, Claudine ULiege; Vroome, Valérie; Cauwenbergh, Geert et al

in Skin Pharmacology and Physiology (2005), 18(2), 98-102

BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids can boost some Malassezia-driven dermatoses. However, both antifungals and topical corticosteroids improve lesions of seborrheic dermatitis. OBJECTIVE: To revisit the topical ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids can boost some Malassezia-driven dermatoses. However, both antifungals and topical corticosteroids improve lesions of seborrheic dermatitis. OBJECTIVE: To revisit the topical activity of the antifungal ketoconazole and the corticosteroid desonide on Malassezia growth on human stratum corneum. Material and Methods: The computer-assisted corneofungimetry bioassay was used to compare the growth of M. furfur, M. globosa and M. restricta on human stratum corneum coated with olive oil. Four blinded gel formulations were tested. They contained either 2% ketoconazole, 0.05% desonide or a combination of 2% ketoconazole and 0.05% desonide; one gel was unmedicated. Untreated stratum corneum and specimens coated with a 2% ketoconazole cream were used as negative and positive comparators, respectively. A total of 45 samples (15 M. furfur, 15 M. globosa, and 15 M. restricta) were used for each test formulation in this randomized, double-blind study. RESULTS: The 2% ketoconazole gel and cream and the combination of 2% ketoconazole and 0.05% desonide formulation abated similarly and significantly the M. furfur, M. globosa and M. restricta growth. The 3 species were similarly sensitive to these formulations. By contrast, no significant inhibitory effect was yielded by the 0.05% desonide gel and the vehicle. CONCLUSION: The presence of 0.05% desonide does not impair or improve the Malassezia susceptibility to 2% ketoconazole when growing on lipid-enriched human stratum corneum. [less ▲]

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See detailEEMCO guidance for the assessment of hair shedding and alopecia.
Pierard, Gérald ULiege; Pierard, Claudine ULiege; Marks, R. et al

in Skin Pharmacology and Physiology (2004), 17(2), 98-110

Knowledge of the hair follicle anatomy and the dynamics of hair cycling is substantial. Recognizing the anagen, catagen and telogen phases as well as teloptosis and the hair eclipse phenomenon clearly ... [more ▼]

Knowledge of the hair follicle anatomy and the dynamics of hair cycling is substantial. Recognizing the anagen, catagen and telogen phases as well as teloptosis and the hair eclipse phenomenon clearly characterizes the typical hair chronobiology. Physiological modulators include hormones, neuromediators, miscellaneous biomolecules, seasons, micro-inflammation and ageing. For individuals who present with the complaint of increased hair shedding or alopecia, a host of evaluation techniques are available in addition to history, physical examination and laboratory assessment. Various clinical hair techniques can help in assessing the efficacy of drugs and cosmetics on hair growth. The methods are quite similar to those used to establish a definite diagnosis in dermatological practice. Great strides have been made during the recent decades in the methodology of hair growth trials in dermatology and cosmetology. Clinical evaluations benefit from a few additional specific techniques that enhance the perception of hair (re-) growth, shedding and alopecia. These assessments include the determination of hair patterning and density that may be helped by the 'black-and-white felt' examination. Daily hair counts, the 'hair pull test' and the 'hair feathering test' are also available. Instrumental methods provide reliable quantitative information that is useful if there are adequate controls. Some photographic methods, the trichogram, hair weighing and variants of the hair growth window technique including the phototrichogram, videotrichogram and tractio-phototrichogram provide insight into the complexities of hair cycling and shedding. Skin biopsy is indicated for diagnostic purposes, especially when the hair loss is accompanied by scarring. [less ▲]

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