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See detailDynamic Modelling of Photovoltaic Units in Response to Voltage Disturbances
Chaspierre, Gilles ULiege

in Revue E Tijdschrift (2017), 1-2-3-4-2016

The objective of this work was to build a simplified mathematical model of distributed photovoltaic (PV) units representing small-scale systems accounting for residential installations. These ... [more ▼]

The objective of this work was to build a simplified mathematical model of distributed photovoltaic (PV) units representing small-scale systems accounting for residential installations. These installations are generally connected to the Low Voltage (LV) network but can be aggregated to a Medium Voltage (MV) bus through equivalent impedance accounting for the distribution feeder and the transformer. The model represents reliably the dynamic behavior of small-scale PV units in response to grid voltage disturbances according to new connection requirements. It focuses on grid interactions through the electronic interface and does not propose a detailed mathematical representation of each physical component of the system. Therefore, the mathematical model is based on recent/near future grid requirements and ancillary services that should be provided by PV units to support the grid during a fault. The proceedings of this work can be divided in three parts. First, one third of the time has consisted in the review of the literature and grid codes to make out a list of PV model specifications. The most important specifications are the Low Voltage Ride- Through (LVRT) capability, the voltage support through reactive current injection and the active-reactive strategy during a fault. During the second third of the time, the dynamic model of PV units has been built based on existing elaborated models that have been improved in order to implement the PV model specifications. Finally, the remaining time has been devoted to dynamic simulations using a 75-bus MV test network where PV units have been attached to each node next to static and dynamic loads. The external transmission system has been represented by its Thevenin equivalent defined by its short circuit power. First, simulations have been made in order to validate the model. Then different scenarios interesting from a System Operator point of view have been investigated in order to see how the units react in particular fault/low voltage situations. The figure 1 shows the fast increase in PV units installed capacity around the world that clearly illustrates the needs in the introduction of new PV units grid requirements and in new models implementing these requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailLe projet PEGASE
Stubbe, Marc; Karoui, Karim; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULiege et al

in Revue E Tijdschrift (2008), (4), 37-41

A group of Transmission System Operators (TSO’s), expert companies and leading research centers in power system analysis and applied mathematics, under the coordination of Tractebel Engineering, has ... [more ▼]

A group of Transmission System Operators (TSO’s), expert companies and leading research centers in power system analysis and applied mathematics, under the coordination of Tractebel Engineering, has joined to develop methodologies and software tools able to monitor, simulate and analyze the European Transmission Network (ETN). This project called PEGASE is part of the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission. Its budget is about 13 MEUR. It started in September 2008 and will last for 4 years. It will define the architecture, data flows and algorithms of an ETN state estimator making use of emerging technologies like the GPS-synchronized Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs). Giving access to the state of the ETN to each TSO would improve dramatically their coordination provided that new ideas to display huge amounts of ETN data are proposed. This is also part of the research. The static simulation of the ETN requires to take into account the various operating rules and control practices of each national grid. New algorithms will be developed, based on optimization techniques and sound engineering judgment. The dynamic simulation of the ETN is of paramount importance for better control and security assessment of this large-scale system. PEGASE will build a prototype of a simulation engine capable of reproducing all kinds of behavior of the ETN. Such an engine will be designed to play extreme scenarios up to the complete black-out of Europe and its subsequent restoration. It will require algorithmic breakthroughs and advanced computer architecture. It will be embedded in a mock-up of a real time dispatcher training simulator. Simplified dynamic simulation tools, able to run much faster than real time, will be developed for on-line security assessment. If the main challenge of the project remains the size and the heterogeneity of the ETN, special attention will be paid to modeling methodology. Component models have to face the complexity introduced by IT and power electronic technologies presently used in power systems. Standard model libraries reach some limits and a greater modeling flexibility is needed to introduce new devices in software tools or exchange models between operators. [less ▲]

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See detailResearch and Education Activities in Electric Power Systems at the University of Liège
Wehenkel, Louis ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege; Rousseaux, Patricia ULiege et al

in Revue E Tijdschrift (2008), (4), 54-59

This paper presents research and education activities of the power systems group of the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of the University of Liège. These activities cover power ... [more ▼]

This paper presents research and education activities of the power systems group of the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of the University of Liège. These activities cover power systems stability, security, reliability, and markets, within the contexts of expansion planning, operation planning and real-time operation and automatic control. The paper also reviews the international collaborations of the team. [less ▲]

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See detailAlternative methodologies for the evaluation of the EMC-Behaviour of large machines
Catrysse, Johan; Vanhee, Filip; Knockaert, Jos et al

in Revue E tijdschrift (2007), (4), 16-28

On the legal aspect, the new European Directive on ElectroMagnetic Compatibility 2004/108/EC concerns also large machines. The conformity assessment procedure in that case should be clarified and which ... [more ▼]

On the legal aspect, the new European Directive on ElectroMagnetic Compatibility 2004/108/EC concerns also large machines. The conformity assessment procedure in that case should be clarified and which standards should be applied and how. On a technical point of view, the special situation to characterise the EMC behaviour of large machines implies that current procedures are complex and very expensive, and in some cases even not possible. Adapted measuring methodologies and procedures are needed. As a response to this situation and within the European R&D Frameworks, the TEMCA2 project aimed to develop new and adapted methodologies for the assessment of EMC related to this type of industrial large machinery. The present paper describes the legal aspect for large machines and shows the objectives and the results of the European TEMCA2 project. [less ▲]

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See detailLa lutte contre les dérèglements climatiques : du protocole de Kyoto au régime post-2012
Maréchal, Kevin ULiege

in Revue E Tijdschrift (2007), 122e année(4(Décembre 2006)), 6-13

It is scientifically established that avoiding harmful effects of climate change will require major changes in our consumption and production habits, this for both industrialised and developing countries ... [more ▼]

It is scientifically established that avoiding harmful effects of climate change will require major changes in our consumption and production habits, this for both industrialised and developing countries. The impact of the Kyoto Protocol being limited, it is necessary for the international community to agree on a future world climate regime. This will inevitably require a balance of several issues, such as equity, cost factor and competitiveness. To do so, it is of ultimate importance that the economic arbitration rests upon a healthy and objective basis. [less ▲]

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See detailL'éclairage : une technique en évolution. De la performance visuelle à l'émotion
Eugène, Christian; Rombauts, Patrick; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULiege et al

in Revue E Tijdschrift (1999), 115è année, 3/4

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See detailL'éclairage : une technique en évolution. Les méthodes de calcul et de simulation
Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULiege; Renglet, Michel; Eugène, Christian et al

in Revue E Tijdschrift (1999), 115è année, 3/4

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