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See detailIn Vitro Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activities of Compounds from the Roots of Eriosema montanum Baker f. (Fabaceae)
Tomani, Jean Claude Didelot; Bonnet, Olivier ULiege; Nyirimigabo, Alain et al

in Molecules (2021), 26(9), 2795

Malaria remains one of the leading causes of death in sub-Saharan Africa, ranked in thetop three infectious diseases in the world. Plants of theEriosemagenus have been reported to beused for the treatment ... [more ▼]

Malaria remains one of the leading causes of death in sub-Saharan Africa, ranked in thetop three infectious diseases in the world. Plants of theEriosemagenus have been reported to beused for the treatment of this disease, but scientific evidence is still missing for some of them. Inthe present study, thein vitroantiplasmodial activity of the crude extract and compounds fromEriosema montanum Baker f.roots were tested against the 3D7 strain ofPlasmodium falciparumandrevealed using the SYBR Green, a DNA intercalating compound. The cytotoxicity effect of thecompounds on a human cancer cell line (THP-1) was assessed to determine their selectivity index.It was found that the crude extract of the plant displayed a significant antiplasmodial activitywith anIC50(μg/mL) = 17.68±4.030and a cytotoxic activity with a CC50(μg/mL) = 101.5±12.6,corresponding to a selective antiplasmodial activity of 5.7. Bioactivity-guided isolation of the majorcompounds of the roots’ crude extract afforded seven compounds, including genistein, genistin andeucomic acid. Under our experimental conditions, using Artemisinin as a positive control, eucomicacid showed the best inhibitory activity against theP. falciparum3D7, a well-known chloroquine-sensitive strain. The present results provide a referential basis to support the traditional use ofEriosemaspecies in the treatment of malaria. [less ▲]

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See detailSurvey of phenolic acids, flavonoids and antioxidant potency between figs peels and pulps: Chemical and Chemometric Approach
Hssaini, Lahcen; Hernandez, Fransisca; Viueluda-Martos, Manuel et al

in Molecules (2021), 26(9), 2574

In the present study, chromatic coordinates, phenolic acids, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS ... [more ▼]

In the present study, chromatic coordinates, phenolic acids, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity (LPIC) essays and their relative IC50 were investigated in 25 fig cultivars growing in Morocco. The aims of this study were to determine (i) the variation in these compounds among light and dark-colored cultivars, (ii) their partitioning between fruit peel and pulp and (iii) to display network connections among these variables. Twelve phenolic compounds (PCs) were isolated in peel extract versus eight in pulp samples. Anthocyanins, mainly cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, were the predominant compounds in peels, where the mean concentrations were 75.90 ± 18.76 and 77.97 ± 18.95 µg/g dw, respectively. On the other hand, (−)-epicatechin and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were the major compounds in the pulp extracts, where the mean values were 5.23 ± 4.03 and 9.01 ± 5.67 µg/g dw, respectively. A two-dimensional hierarchically clustered heatmap was applied to the dataset to explore correlations in the dataset and similarities between cultivars, without dimensionality reduction. Results showed that anthocyanins, particularly pelargonidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, were the main contributors to the peels’ free radical scavenging capacity. This capacity was particularly higher in the peel of dark-colored figs compared to the fruit pulp. The local cultivar “INRA 1301” showed the most promising phenolic profile due to its very high levels of almost all detected PCs, especially (−)-epicatechin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidine-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidine-3-O-rutinoside and pelargonidin-3-O-rutinoside (54.66, 141.08, 35.48, 494.08, 478.66, 12.56 µg/g dw, respectively). Having the darkest figs in the collection (L* = 25.72, c* = 22.09 and h° = 20.99), this cultivar has also combined promising IC50 values, which were of 19.85, 40.58 and 124.78 µg/mL for DPPH, ABTS and LPIC essays, respectively [less ▲]

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See detailPlant flavonoids as modulators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor
Goya-Jorge, Elizabeth ULiege; Jorge Rodríguez, María Elisa; Veitía, Maité Sylla-Iyarreta et al

in Molecules (2021), 26

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor deeply implicated in health and diseases. Historically identified as a sensor of xenobiotics and mainly toxic substances, AhR has recently ... [more ▼]

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor deeply implicated in health and diseases. Historically identified as a sensor of xenobiotics and mainly toxic substances, AhR has recently become an emerging pharmacological target in cancer, immunology, inflammatory conditions, and aging. Multiple AhR ligands are recognized, with plant occurring flavonoids being the largest group of natural ligands of AhR in the human diet. The biological implications of the modulatory effects of flavonoids on AhR could be highlighted from a toxicological and environmental concern and for the possible pharmacological applicability. Overall, the possible AhR-mediated harmful and/or beneficial effects of flavonoids need to be further investigated, since in many cases they are contradictory. Similar to other AhR modulators, flavonoids commonly exhibit tissue, organ, and species-specific activities on AhR. Such cellular-context dependency could be probably beneficial in their pharmacotherapeutic use. Flavones, flavonols, flavanones, and isoflavones are the main subclasses of flavonoids reported as AhR modulators. Some of the structural features of these groups of flavonoids that could be influencing their AhR effects are herein summarized. However, limited generalizations, as well as few outright structure-activity relationships can be suggested on the AhR agonism and/or antagonism caused by flavonoids. [less ▲]

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See detailThiol-ene reaction: an efficient tool to design lipophilic polyphosphoesters for drug delivery systems
Vanslambrouck, Stéphanie ULiege; Riva, Raphaël ULiege; Ucakar, Bernard et al

in Molecules (2021), 26(6), 1750

Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polyphosphoester (PEG-b-PPE) block copolymer nanoparticles are promising carriers for poorly water soluble drugs. To enhance the drug loading capacity and efficiency of such ... [more ▼]

Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polyphosphoester (PEG-b-PPE) block copolymer nanoparticles are promising carriers for poorly water soluble drugs. To enhance the drug loading capacity and efficiency of such micelles, a strategy was investigated for increasing the lipophilicity of the PPE block of these PEG-b-PPE amphiphilic copolymers. A PEG-b-PPE copolymer bearing pendant vinyl groups along the PPE block was synthesized and then modified by thiol-ene click reaction with thiols bearing either a long linear alkyl chain (dodecyl) or a tocopherol moiety. Ketoconazole was used as model for hydrophobic drugs. Comparison of the drug loading with PEG-b-PPE bearing shorter pendant groups is reported evidencing the key role of the structure of the pendant group on the PPE backbone. Finally, a first evidence of the biocompatibility of these novel PEG-b-PPE copolymers was achieved by performing cytotoxicity tests. The PEG-b-PPE derived by tocopherol was evidenced as particularly promising as delivery system of poorly water-soluble drugs. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the Role of L10 Loop in New Delhi Metallo- beta-lactamase (NDM-1): Kinetic and Dynamic Studies
Piccirilli, Alessandra; Criscuolo, Emanuele; Brisdelli, Fabrizia et al

in Molecules (2021), 26

Four NDM-1 mutants (L218T, L221T, L269H and L221T/Y229W) were generated in order to investigate the role of leucines positioned in L10 loop. A detailed kinetic analysis stated that these amino acid ... [more ▼]

Four NDM-1 mutants (L218T, L221T, L269H and L221T/Y229W) were generated in order to investigate the role of leucines positioned in L10 loop. A detailed kinetic analysis stated that these amino acid substitutions modified the hydrolytic profile of NDM-1 against some -lactams. Significant reduction of kcat values of L218T and L221T for carbapenems, cefazolin, cefoxitin and cefepime was observed. The stability of the NDM-1 and its mutants was explored by thermofluor assay in real-time PCR. The determination of TmB and TmD demonstrated that NDM-1 and L218T were the most stable enzymes. Molecular dynamic studies were performed to justify the differences observed in the kinetic behavior of the mutants. In particular, L218T fluctuated more than NDM-1 in L10, whereas L221T would seem to cause a drift between residues 75 and 125. L221T/Y229W double mutant exhibited a decrease in the flexibility with respect to L221T, explaining enzyme activity improvement towards some -lactams. Distances between Zn1-Zn2 and Zn1-OH- or Zn2- OH- remained unaffected in all systems analysed. Significant changes were found between Zn1/Zn2 and first sphere coordination residues. [less ▲]

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See detailPhytochemical investigation and biological activities of Lantana rhodesiensis
Nea, Fatimata ULiege; Bitchi, Michel Boni; Genva, Manon ULiege et al

in Molecules (2021), 26(4), 846

Lantana rhodesiensis Moldenke is a plant widely used to treat diseases, such as rheumatism, diabetes, and malaria in traditional medicine. To better understand the traditional uses of this plant, a ... [more ▼]

Lantana rhodesiensis Moldenke is a plant widely used to treat diseases, such as rheumatism, diabetes, and malaria in traditional medicine. To better understand the traditional uses of this plant, a phytochemical study was undertaken, revealing a higher proportion of polyphenols, including flavonoids in L. rhodesiensis leaf extract and moderate proportion in stem and root extracts. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was also determined using three different assays: the radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, the FRAP method (Ferric-reducing antioxidant power) and the β-carotene bleaching test. The anti-malarial activity of each extract was also evaluated using asexual erythrocyte stages of Plasmodium falciparum, chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7. The results showed that the leaf extract exhibited higher antioxidant and anti-malarial activities in comparison with the stem and root extracts, probably due to the presence of higher quantities of polyphenols including flavonoids in the leaves. A positive linear correlation was established between the phenolic compound content (total polyphenols including flavonoids and tannins; and total flavonoids) and the antioxidant activity of all extracts. Furthermore, four flavones were isolated from leaf dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions: a new flavone named rhodescine (5,6,3’,5’-tetrahydroxy-7,4’-dimethoxyflavone) (1), 5-hydroxy-6,7,3’,4’,5’-pentamethoxyflavone (2), 5-hydroxy-6,7,3′,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (3), and 5,6,3’-trihydroxy-7,4’-dimethoxyflavone (4). Their structures were elucidated by 1H, 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and MS-EI spectral methods. Aside from compound 2, all other molecules were described for the first time in this plant species. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Rise of Synaptic Density PET Imaging
Becker, Guillaume ULiege; Dammicco, Sylvestre ULiege; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULiege et al

in Molecules (2020), 25, 2303

Many neurological disorders are related to synaptic loss or pathologies. Before the boomof positrons emission tomography (PET) imaging of synapses, synaptic quantification could onlybe achievedin vitroon ... [more ▼]

Many neurological disorders are related to synaptic loss or pathologies. Before the boomof positrons emission tomography (PET) imaging of synapses, synaptic quantification could onlybe achievedin vitroon brain samples after autopsy or surgical resections. Until the mid-2010s,electron microscopy and immunohistochemical labelling of synaptic proteins were the gold-standardmethods for such analyses. Over the last decade, several PET radiotracers for the synaptic vesicle 2Aprotein have been developed to achievein vivosynapses visualization and quantification. Differentstrategies were used, namely radiolabelling with either11C or18F, preclinical development in rodentand non-human primates, and binding quantification with different kinetic modelling methods. Thisreview provides an overview of these PET tracers and underlines their perspectives and limitationsby focusing on radiochemical aspects, as well as preclinical proof-of-concept and the main clinicaloutcomes described so far. [less ▲]

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See detailComposition, Seasonal Variation and Biological Activities of Lantana camara essential oils from Côte d’Ivoire.
Nea, Fatimata ULiege; Kambiré, Didjour Albert; Genva, Manon ULiege et al

in Molecules (2020), 25(10), 2400

This work aims to study the variations in the composition of Lantana camara leaf, flower and stem essential oils over two years. L. camara organs were harvested in Bregbo (East Côte d'Ivoire) each month ... [more ▼]

This work aims to study the variations in the composition of Lantana camara leaf, flower and stem essential oils over two years. L. camara organs were harvested in Bregbo (East Côte d'Ivoire) each month from June 2015 to June 2017. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS and 13C NMR. Eighty-four compounds accounting for 84.4 – 99.1% of the essential oils have been identified. The essential oils hydrodistillated from L. camara are dominated by sesquiterpenes such as (E)-β-caryophyllene and α-humulene, which were found in all samples. Some monoterpenes such as thymol, sabinene and α-pinene were also present. Statistical analysis (principal component analysis and clustering) revealed a high variability in essential oil composition between the different organs and also within the studied periods as the thymol proportion was higher during flowering and fruiting months. In addition, the stem, flower, and fruit essential oils were more concentrated in thymol than the leaf essential oils. The proportions of (E)-β-caryophyllene and α-humulene were strictly inverted with the thymol proportion throughout the harvest period or vegetative cycle. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal activities of leaves and flowers essential oils were also studied. Results showed that L. camara leaf and flower essential oils displayed high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal activities. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Inhibition of NLRP3 Inflammasome and IL-6 Production by Hibiscus noldeae Baker f. Derived Constituents Provides a Link to Its Anti-Inflammatory Therapeutic Potentials
Tomani, Jean Claude Didelot; Kagisha, Vedaste ULiege; Tchinda, Alembert Tiabou et al

in Molecules (2020), 25(20), 4693

The activation of NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and/or its components is associated with the physio-pathogenesis of many respiratory diseases including asthma ... [more ▼]

The activation of NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and/or its components is associated with the physio-pathogenesis of many respiratory diseases including asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), SARS Cov-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), and in several autoimmune diseases. Hibiscus noldeae Baker f. has been widely reported to be traditionally used in the treatment of different ailments, some of which are of inflammatory background such as asthma, wounds, headache, etc. However, the claims have not been supported by evidence at the molecular and functional levels. Here, we report on the bio-guided fractionation of H. noldeae and assessment of the inhibitory properties of some fractions and purified compounds on NLRP3 inflammasome and Interleukin 6 (IL-6). The activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was determined by detecting the activity of caspase-1 and the production of Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP-stimulated Tamm-Horsfall Protein 1 (THP-1) macrophages, while the production of IL-6 was studied in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. It was observed that hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of the crude extract of the aerial parts of H. noldeae, as well as caffeic acid, isoquercetin, and ER2.4 and ER2.7 fractions revealed significant inhibitory effects on Caspase-1 activities, and on IL-1β and IL-6 production. The ER2.4 and ER2.7 fractions downregulated the production of IL-1β and IL-6, in a similar range as the caspase-1 inhibitor AC-YVAD-CHO and the drug Dexamethasone, both used as controls, respectively. Overall, our work does provide the very first scientific based evidence for Hibiscus noldeae anti-inflammatory effects and widespread use by traditional healers in Rwanda for a variety of ailments. [less ▲]

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See detailBiodegradable cell microcarriers based on chitosan/polyester graft-copolymers
Demina, T. S.; Drozdova, M. G.; Sevrin, Chantal ULiege et al

in Molecules (2020), 25(8),

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See detailEnhancing the Membranolytic Activity of Chenopodium quinoa Saponins by Fast Microwave Hydrolysis
Colson, Emmanuel; Savarino, Philippe; Claereboudt, Emily ULiege et al

in Molecules (2020), 25(7), 1731

Saponins are plant secondary metabolites. There are associated with defensive roles due to their cytotoxicity and are active against microorganisms. Saponins are frequently targeted to develop efficient ... [more ▼]

Saponins are plant secondary metabolites. There are associated with defensive roles due to their cytotoxicity and are active against microorganisms. Saponins are frequently targeted to develop efficient drugs. Plant biomass containing saponins deserves sustained interest to develop high-added value applications. A key issue when considering the use of saponins for human healthcare is their toxicity that must be modulated before envisaging any biomedical application. This can only go through understanding the saponin-membrane interactions. Quinoa is abundantly consumed worldwide, but the quinoa husk is discarded due to its astringent taste associated with its saponin content. Here, we focus on the saponins of the quinoa husk extract (QE). We qualitatively and quantitively characterized the QE saponins using mass spectrometry. They are bidesmosidic molecules, with two oligosaccharidic chains appended on the aglycone with two different linkages; a glycosidic bond and an ester function. The latter can be hydrolyzed to prepare monodesmosidic molecules. The microwave-assisted hydrolysis reaction was optimized to produce monodesmosidic saponins. The membranolytic activity of the saponins was assayed based on their hemolytic activity that was shown to be drastically increased upon hydrolysis. In silico investigations confirmed that the monodesmosidic saponins interact preferentially with a model phospholipid bilayer, explaining the measured increased hemolytic activity. [less ▲]

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See detailEncapsulation of essential oils for the development of biosourced pesticides with controlled release: a review
Maes, Chloé ULiege; Bouquillon, Sandrine; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULiege

in Molecules (2019), 24(Special Issue "Essential Oils in Weed Control and Food Preservation"), 2539

Essential oil (EO) encapsulation can be carried out via a multitude of techniques depending on applications. Because of EOs biological activities, development of biosourced pesticides with EOs ... [more ▼]

Essential oil (EO) encapsulation can be carried out via a multitude of techniques depending on applications. Because of EOs biological activities, development of biosourced pesticides with EOs encapsulation is of great interest. A lot of methods had been developed; they are presented in this review together with the properties of the final products. Encapsulation conserves and protects EOs from outside aggression, but also allows for controlled release, which is useful for applications in agronomy. The focus is on matrices that are of interest for the controlled release of their content: alginate, chitosan and cyclodextrin. Those three matrices are used with several methods to create EOs encapsulation with different structures, capacities and release profiles. [less ▲]

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See detailIn Vitro and in Vivo Antiviral Activity of Mizoribine Against Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus.
Li, Shifang; Gong, Meijiao ULiege; Sun, Yuefeng et al

in Molecules (2019)

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which has significant economic consequences in affected countries. As the currently available vaccines against ... [more ▼]

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which has significant economic consequences in affected countries. As the currently available vaccines against FMD provide no protection until 4-7 days post-vaccination, the only alternative method to control the spread of FMD virus (FMDV) during outbreaks is the application of antiviral agents. Hence, it is important to identify effective antiviral agents against FMDV infection. In this study, we found that mizoribine has potent antiviral activity against FMDV replication in IBRS-2 cells. A time-of-drug-addition assay demonstrated that mizoribine functions at the early stage of replication. Moreover, mizoribine also showed antiviral effect on FMDV in vivo. In summary, these results revealed that mizoribine could be a potential antiviral drug against FMDV. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluating the In Vivo Specificity of [18F]UCB-H for the SV2A Protein, Compared with SV2B and SV2C in Rats Using microPET.
Serrano Navacerrada, Maria Elisa ULiege; Becker, Guillaume ULiege; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULiege et al

in Molecules (2019), 24(9), 1705

The synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) is involved in synaptic vesicle trafficking. The SV2A isoform is the most studied and its implication in epilepsy therapy led to the development of the first SV2A PET ... [more ▼]

The synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) is involved in synaptic vesicle trafficking. The SV2A isoform is the most studied and its implication in epilepsy therapy led to the development of the first SV2A PET radiotracer [18F]UCB-H. The objective of this study was to evaluate in vivo, using microPET in rats, the specificity of [18F]UCB-H for SV2 isoform A in comparison with the other two isoforms (B and C) through a blocking assay. Twenty Sprague Dawley rats were pre-treated either with the vehicle, or with specific competitors against SV2A (levetiracetam), SV2B (UCB5203) and SV2C (UCB0949). The distribution volume (Vt, Logan plot, t* 15 min) was obtained with a population-based input function. The Vt analysis for the entire brain showed statistically significant differences between the levetiracetam group and the other groups (p < 0.001), but also between the vehicle and the SV2B group (p < 0.05). An in-depth Vt analysis conducted for eight relevant brain structures confirmed the statistically significant differences between the levetiracetam group and the other groups (p < 0.001) and highlighted the superior and the inferior colliculi along with the cortex as regions also displaying statistically significant differences between the vehicle and SV2B groups (p < 0.05). These results emphasize the in vivo specificity of [18F]UCB-H for SV2A against SV2B and SV2C, confirming that [18F]UCB-H is a suitable radiotracer for in vivo imaging of the SV2A proteins with PET. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization and discrimination of Chinese marinated pork hocks by volatile compound profiling using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry, electronic nose and chemometrics
Han, Dong ULiege; Mi, Si; Zhang, Chun ULiege et al

in Molecules (2019), 24(7), 1385

The primary aim of this study was to investigate volatile constituents for the differentiation of Chinese marinated pork hocks from four local brands, Dahongmen (DHM), Daoxiangcun (DXC), Henghuitong (HHT ... [more ▼]

The primary aim of this study was to investigate volatile constituents for the differentiation of Chinese marinated pork hocks from four local brands, Dahongmen (DHM), Daoxiangcun (DXC), Henghuitong (HHT) and Tianfuhao (TFH). To this end the volatile constituents were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), electronic nose (E-nose) and chemometrics. A total of 62 volatile compounds were identified and quantified in all pork hocks, and 24 of them were considered as odour-active compounds because their odour activity values (OAVs) were greater than 1. Hexanal (OAV at 3.6–20.3), octanal (OAV at 30.3–47.5), nonanal (OAV at 68.6–166.3), 1,8-cineole (OAV at 36.4–133.3), anethole (OAV at 5.9–28.3) and 2-pentylfuran (OAV at 3.5–29.7) were the key odour-active compounds contributing to the integral flavour of the marinated pork hocks. According to principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of GC-MS/O and E-nose data, the results showed that the marinated pork hocks were clearly separated into three groups: DHM, HHT, and DXC-TFH. Nine odour-active compounds, heptanal, nonanal, 3-carene, D-limonene, -phellandrene, p-cymene, eugenol, 2-ethylfuran and 2-pentylfuran, were determined to represent potential flavour markers for the discrimination of marinated pork hocks. This study indicated the feasibility of using GC-MS/O coupled with the E-nose method for the differentiation of the volatile profile in different brands of marinated pork hocks. [less ▲]

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See detailAntioxidant and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activities of Essential Oils from Endemic Plants of Côte d’Ivoire: Zanthoxylum mezoneurispinosum Ake Assi and Zanthoxylum psammophilum Ake Assi
Tanoh, Amenan Evelyne ULiege; Nea, Fatimata ULiege; Kenne Kemene, Tierry ULiege et al

in Molecules (2019), 24(13), 2445

Zanthoxylum mezoneurispinosum Ake Assi and Zanthoxylum psammophilum Ake Assi are species endemic to Côte d’Ivoire. In this study, we determined, for the first time, the composition and biological ... [more ▼]

Zanthoxylum mezoneurispinosum Ake Assi and Zanthoxylum psammophilum Ake Assi are species endemic to Côte d’Ivoire. In this study, we determined, for the first time, the composition and biological activities of essential oils obtained from each of these plants. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from different organs of each plant with a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty-four components, accounting for more than 99.9% of the overall composition, were identified in the oils. The Z. psammophilum leaf and trunk bark oils exhibited two unusual methylketones, undecan-2-one and tridecan-2-one, whereas the root oil was rich in thymol and sesquiterpenoids. The Z. mezoneurispinosum leaf and trunk bark oils were rich in monoterpenoids, whereas sesquiterpenoids were predominant in the root oil. These samples produced, for the first time, some new chemical profiles of essential oils. The oils’ antioxidant activities were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that the essential oil isolated from roots of Z. mezoneurispinosum had the highest antioxidant activity, which is in accordance with the high thymol content of that oil. We also determined the lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of the essential oils. The results showed that all of the tested oils displayed high and close lipoxygenase inhibitory activities. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of microwave pretreatment on micronutrients contents, oxidative stability and flavor quality of peanut oil
Hu, Hui; Liu, Hongzhi; Aimin, Shi et al

in Molecules (2019), 24(1), 62

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the changes in extraction yield, physicochemical properties, micronutrients content, oxidative stability and flavor quality of cold pressed peanut oil ... [more ▼]

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the changes in extraction yield, physicochemical properties, micronutrients content, oxidative stability and flavor quality of cold pressed peanut oil extracted from microwave (MW) treated seeds (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 min, 700 W). The acid value and peroxide value of extracted oil from MW-treated peanuts were slightly increased but far below the limit in the Codex standard. Compared with the untreated sample, a significant (p < 0.05) increase in extraction yield (by 33.75%), free phytosterols content (by 32.83%), free tocopherols content (by 51.36%) and induction period (by 168.93%) of oil extracted from 5 min MW-treated peanut were observed. MW pretreatment formed pyrazines which contribute to improving the nutty and roasty flavor of oil. In conclusion, MW pretreatment is a feasible method to improve the oil extraction yield and obtain the cold pressed peanut oil with longer shelf life and better flavor. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the lipid profile of ATCC and clinical strains of staphylococcus aureus in relation to their antibiotic resistance
Bisignano, C.; Ginestra, G.; Smeriglio, A. et al

in Molecules (2019), 24(7),

A number of reports have indicated a relationship between bacterial resistance to antibiotics and their lipid composition. In the present study, we characterized the lipid profiles of American Type ... [more ▼]

A number of reports have indicated a relationship between bacterial resistance to antibiotics and their lipid composition. In the present study, we characterized the lipid profiles of American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and its correlation with antibiotic resistance and hydrophobicity. The following strains were used: S. aureus ATCC 6538P, S. aureus ATCC 43300 (MRSA), seven clinical strains from the pharynges, two strains from duodenal ulcers, four strains from hip prostheses, and one strain from the conjunctiva. Lipid-related differentiation was observed across the S. aureus strains: the higher abundance of anteiso-pentadecanoic acid (anteiso-C 15:0 ) and anteiso-heptadecanoic acid (anteiso-C 17:0 ), followed by iso-pentadecanoic acid (iso-C 15:0 ), suggested that these were common lipids. Iso-tridecanoic acid (iso-C 13:0 ) and anteiso-tridecanoic acid (anteiso-C 13:0 ), iso-hexadecanoic acid (iso-C 16:0 ) and anteiso-hexadecanoic acid (anteiso-C 16:0 ), and all forms of octadecanoic acid (C 18:0 ) were usually detected in low abundance. Strains isolated from pharynges showed the highest ratio of branched/straight chains. A distinction in two clusters based on the amount and type of bacterial lipids identified was obtained, which correlated to the antibiotic resistance, the strains origin, and the cell-surface hydrophobicity. We report a potential correlation between the lipid profile of S. aureus strains, site of infection, antibiotic resistance, and cell-surface hydrophobicity. These results, which still need further insights, could be a first step to identifying antibiotic resistance in response to environmental adaptation. © 2019 by the authors. [less ▲]

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See detailEndophytic fungal volatile compounds as solution for sustainable agriculture
Kaddes, Amine ULiege; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULiege; Sassi, Khaled et al

in Molecules (2019), 24

Endophytic fungi produce various mixtures of carbon-based compounds, which are known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Research regarding the use of VOCs as pesticide substitutes has garnered much ... [more ▼]

Endophytic fungi produce various mixtures of carbon-based compounds, which are known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Research regarding the use of VOCs as pesticide substitutes has garnered much attention. This review summarizes the recent knowledge about VOCs regarding their origin and chemical properties and emphasizes their antimicrobial potential against a wide variety of agricultural pathogens. Several studies have highlighted the importance of VOCs as antimicrobial agents. Nevertheless, the application of VOCs in biofumigation methods still requires the advanced evaluation of their phytotoxicity. [less ▲]

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