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See detailEncapsulation of essential oils for the development of biosourced pesticides with controlled release: a review
Maes, Chloé ULiege; Bouquillon, Sandrine; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULiege

in Molecules (2019), 24(Special Issue "Essential Oils in Weed Control and Food Preservation"), 2539

Essential oil (EO) encapsulation can be carried out via a multitude of techniques depending on applications. Because of EOs biological activities, development of biosourced pesticides with EOs ... [more ▼]

Essential oil (EO) encapsulation can be carried out via a multitude of techniques depending on applications. Because of EOs biological activities, development of biosourced pesticides with EOs encapsulation is of great interest. A lot of methods had been developed; they are presented in this review together with the properties of the final products. Encapsulation conserves and protects EOs from outside aggression, but also allows for controlled release, which is useful for applications in agronomy. The focus is on matrices that are of interest for the controlled release of their content: alginate, chitosan and cyclodextrin. Those three matrices are used with several methods to create EOs encapsulation with different structures, capacities and release profiles. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluating the In Vivo Specificity of [18F]UCB-H for the SV2A Protein, Compared with SV2B and SV2C in Rats Using microPET.
Serrano Navacerrada, Maria Elisa ULiege; Becker, Guillaume ULiege; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULiege et al

in Molecules (2019), 24(9), 1705

The synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) is involved in synaptic vesicle trafficking. The SV2A isoform is the most studied and its implication in epilepsy therapy led to the development of the first SV2A PET ... [more ▼]

The synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) is involved in synaptic vesicle trafficking. The SV2A isoform is the most studied and its implication in epilepsy therapy led to the development of the first SV2A PET radiotracer [18F]UCB-H. The objective of this study was to evaluate in vivo, using microPET in rats, the specificity of [18F]UCB-H for SV2 isoform A in comparison with the other two isoforms (B and C) through a blocking assay. Twenty Sprague Dawley rats were pre-treated either with the vehicle, or with specific competitors against SV2A (levetiracetam), SV2B (UCB5203) and SV2C (UCB0949). The distribution volume (Vt, Logan plot, t* 15 min) was obtained with a population-based input function. The Vt analysis for the entire brain showed statistically significant differences between the levetiracetam group and the other groups (p < 0.001), but also between the vehicle and the SV2B group (p < 0.05). An in-depth Vt analysis conducted for eight relevant brain structures confirmed the statistically significant differences between the levetiracetam group and the other groups (p < 0.001) and highlighted the superior and the inferior colliculi along with the cortex as regions also displaying statistically significant differences between the vehicle and SV2B groups (p < 0.05). These results emphasize the in vivo specificity of [18F]UCB-H for SV2A against SV2B and SV2C, confirming that [18F]UCB-H is a suitable radiotracer for in vivo imaging of the SV2A proteins with PET. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization and discrimination of Chinese marinated pork hocks by volatile compound profiling using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry, electronic nose and chemometrics
Han, Dong ULiege; Mi, Si; Zhang, Chun ULiege et al

in Molecules (2019), 24(7), 1385

The primary aim of this study was to investigate volatile constituents for the differentiation of Chinese marinated pork hocks from four local brands, Dahongmen (DHM), Daoxiangcun (DXC), Henghuitong (HHT ... [more ▼]

The primary aim of this study was to investigate volatile constituents for the differentiation of Chinese marinated pork hocks from four local brands, Dahongmen (DHM), Daoxiangcun (DXC), Henghuitong (HHT) and Tianfuhao (TFH). To this end the volatile constituents were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), electronic nose (E-nose) and chemometrics. A total of 62 volatile compounds were identified and quantified in all pork hocks, and 24 of them were considered as odour-active compounds because their odour activity values (OAVs) were greater than 1. Hexanal (OAV at 3.6–20.3), octanal (OAV at 30.3–47.5), nonanal (OAV at 68.6–166.3), 1,8-cineole (OAV at 36.4–133.3), anethole (OAV at 5.9–28.3) and 2-pentylfuran (OAV at 3.5–29.7) were the key odour-active compounds contributing to the integral flavour of the marinated pork hocks. According to principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of GC-MS/O and E-nose data, the results showed that the marinated pork hocks were clearly separated into three groups: DHM, HHT, and DXC-TFH. Nine odour-active compounds, heptanal, nonanal, 3-carene, D-limonene, -phellandrene, p-cymene, eugenol, 2-ethylfuran and 2-pentylfuran, were determined to represent potential flavour markers for the discrimination of marinated pork hocks. This study indicated the feasibility of using GC-MS/O coupled with the E-nose method for the differentiation of the volatile profile in different brands of marinated pork hocks. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the lipid profile of ATCC and clinical strains of staphylococcus aureus in relation to their antibiotic resistance
Bisignano, C.; Ginestra, G.; Smeriglio, A. et al

in Molecules (2019), 24(7),

A number of reports have indicated a relationship between bacterial resistance to antibiotics and their lipid composition. In the present study, we characterized the lipid profiles of American Type ... [more ▼]

A number of reports have indicated a relationship between bacterial resistance to antibiotics and their lipid composition. In the present study, we characterized the lipid profiles of American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and its correlation with antibiotic resistance and hydrophobicity. The following strains were used: S. aureus ATCC 6538P, S. aureus ATCC 43300 (MRSA), seven clinical strains from the pharynges, two strains from duodenal ulcers, four strains from hip prostheses, and one strain from the conjunctiva. Lipid-related differentiation was observed across the S. aureus strains: the higher abundance of anteiso-pentadecanoic acid (anteiso-C 15:0 ) and anteiso-heptadecanoic acid (anteiso-C 17:0 ), followed by iso-pentadecanoic acid (iso-C 15:0 ), suggested that these were common lipids. Iso-tridecanoic acid (iso-C 13:0 ) and anteiso-tridecanoic acid (anteiso-C 13:0 ), iso-hexadecanoic acid (iso-C 16:0 ) and anteiso-hexadecanoic acid (anteiso-C 16:0 ), and all forms of octadecanoic acid (C 18:0 ) were usually detected in low abundance. Strains isolated from pharynges showed the highest ratio of branched/straight chains. A distinction in two clusters based on the amount and type of bacterial lipids identified was obtained, which correlated to the antibiotic resistance, the strains origin, and the cell-surface hydrophobicity. We report a potential correlation between the lipid profile of S. aureus strains, site of infection, antibiotic resistance, and cell-surface hydrophobicity. These results, which still need further insights, could be a first step to identifying antibiotic resistance in response to environmental adaptation. © 2019 by the authors. [less ▲]

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See detailEndophytic fungal volatile compounds as solution for sustainable agriculture
Kaddes, Amine ULiege; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULiege; Sassi, Khaled et al

in Molecules (2019), 24

Endophytic fungi produce various mixtures of carbon-based compounds, which are known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Research regarding the use of VOCs as pesticide substitutes has garnered much ... [more ▼]

Endophytic fungi produce various mixtures of carbon-based compounds, which are known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Research regarding the use of VOCs as pesticide substitutes has garnered much attention. This review summarizes the recent knowledge about VOCs regarding their origin and chemical properties and emphasizes their antimicrobial potential against a wide variety of agricultural pathogens. Several studies have highlighted the importance of VOCs as antimicrobial agents. Nevertheless, the application of VOCs in biofumigation methods still requires the advanced evaluation of their phytotoxicity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of microwave pretreatment on micronutrients contents, oxidative stability and flavor quality of peanut oil
Hu, Hui; Liu, Hongzhi; Shi, Aimin et al

in Molecules (2019), 24(62), 1-12

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See detailSynergistic effect of bioactive anticarcinogens from soybean on anti-proliferative activity in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro
Zhu, Y.; Yao, Y.; Shi, Z. et al

in Molecules (2018), 23(7),

Consumption of soybean products has been implicated in the prevention of breast cancer. This study provides insights into the anti-proliferative activity of 12 anticarcinogens from soybean by single or ... [more ▼]

Consumption of soybean products has been implicated in the prevention of breast cancer. This study provides insights into the anti-proliferative activity of 12 anticarcinogens from soybean by single or two-way combination treatment against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Results showed that genistein, daidzein, glycitein, genistin and dainzin showed stronger anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 cells with EC50 values of 66.98 ± 4.87 µM, 130.14 ± 2.10 µM, 190.67 ± 5.65 µM, 72.82 ± 2.66 µM and 179.21 ± 6.37 µM, respectively. There is a synergistic effect of combination treatment of genistin plus daidzin in MCF-7 cells with combination index at inhibition of 50% (CI50) of 0.89 ± 0.12. Genistein, glycitein, genistin and β-sitosterol were demonstrated to have a stronger anti-proliferative activity against MDA-MB-231 cells with EC50 values of 93.75 ± 5.15 µM, 142.67 ± 5.88 µM, 127.82 ± 4.70 µM and 196.28 ± 4.45 µM. The synergistic effect was observed in the mixture of genistein plus genistin, genistein plus β-sitosterol or β-sitosterol plus genistin with CI50 values of 0.56 ± 0.13, 0.54 ± 0.20 and 0.45 ± 0.12, respectively. These bioactive anticarcinogens were able to inhibit invasion and migration of breast cancer cells and the combination treatments enhanced the inhibitory effect. Regulation of PI3K/Akt/mTORpathway seems to be the main mechanisms involved in the anticancer activity. © 2018 by the authors. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the Effect of Two Volatile Organic Compounds on Barley Pathogens
Kaddes, Amine ULiege; Parisi, Olivier ULiege; Berhal, Chadi ULiege et al

in Molecules (2016), 21(9),

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See detailSelenium in Cattle: A Review
Mehdi, Youcef ULiege; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULiege

in Molecules (2016), 21(4), 545

This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include ... [more ▼]

This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism’s use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se. [less ▲]

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See detailROMP synthesis of iron-containing organometallic polymers
Dragutan, I; Dragutan, V.; Filip, P. et al

in Molecules (2016), 21(198),

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See detailBMP Signaling Regulates Bone Morphogenesis in Zebrafish through Promoting Osteoblast Function as Assessed by Their Nitric Oxide Production
Windhausen, Thomas ULiege; Squifflet, Steeve; Renn, Jörg ULiege et al

in Molecules (2015), 20

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) control many developmental and physiological processes, including skeleton formation and homeostasis. Previous studies in zebrafish revealed the crucial importance of ... [more ▼]

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) control many developmental and physiological processes, including skeleton formation and homeostasis. Previous studies in zebrafish revealed the crucial importance of proper BMP signaling before 48 h post-fertilization (hpf) for cartilage formation in the skull. Here, we focus on the involvement of the BMP pathway between 48 and 96 hpf in bone formation after 96 hpf. Using BMP inhibitors and the expression of a dominant-negative BMP receptor, we analyze whether the loss of BMP signaling affects osteoblastogenesis, osteoblast function and bone mineralization. To this end, we used the transgenic zebrafish line Tg(osterix:mCherry), detection of nitric oxide (NO) production, and alizarin red staining, respectively. We observed that inhibition of BMP signaling between 48 and 72 hpf led to a reduction of NO production and bone mineralization. Osteoblast maturation and chondrogenesis, on the other hand, seemed unchanged. Osteoblast function and bone formation were less affected when BMP signaling was inhibited between 72 and 96 hpf. These results suggest that for the onset of bone formation, proper BMP signaling between 48 and 72 hpf is crucial to ensure osteoblast function and ossification. Furthermore, detection of NO in developing zebrafish larvae appears as an early indicator of bone calcification activity. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial of special issue ruthenium complex: The expanding chemistry of the ruthenium complexe
Dragutan, I.; Dragutan, V.; Demonceau, Albert ULiege

in Molecules (2015), 20

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See detailComparison of Two Methods, UHPLC-UV and UHPLC-MS/MS, for the Quantification of Polyphenols in Cider Apple Juices
Verdu, Cindy ULiege; Gatto, Julia; Freuze, Ingrid et al

in Molecules (2013), 18/9

Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop faster and more efficient phenotyping methods for in-depth genetic studies on cider apple progeny. The UHPLC chromatographic system was chosen to separate ... [more ▼]

Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop faster and more efficient phenotyping methods for in-depth genetic studies on cider apple progeny. The UHPLC chromatographic system was chosen to separate polyphenolic compounds, and quantifications were then simultaneously performed with a UV-PDA detector and an ESI-triple quadrupole mass analyzer (SRM mode). Both quantification methods were validated for 15 major compounds using two apple juice samples, on the basis of linearity, limits of detection and quantification, recovery and precision tests. The comparison between UV and SRM quantifications in 120 different samples of a cider apple progeny showed an excellent correlation for major compounds quantified with both methods. However, an overestimation was revealed for five compounds with the UV detector and the mass analyzer. Co-elution and matrix effects are discussed to explain this phenomenon. SRM methods should therefore be considered with restrictions in some cases for quantification measurements when several phenolic compounds are simultaneously quantified in complex matrices such as apple juices. For both methods, analyses were carried out over short periods of time while maintaining a high quality for the simultaneous quantification of phenolic compounds in apple juice. Each method is relevant for more in-depth genetic studies of the polyphenol content of apple juice. [less ▲]

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See detailImprovement of Ylang-Ylang Essential Oil Characterization by GCxGC-TOFMS
Brokl, Michal ULiege; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULiege; Benini, Céline et al

in Molecules (2013), 18(2), 1783-1797

A single fraction of essential oil can often contain hundreds of compounds. Despite of the technical improvements and the enhanced selectivity currently offered by the state-of-the-art gas chromatography ... [more ▼]

A single fraction of essential oil can often contain hundreds of compounds. Despite of the technical improvements and the enhanced selectivity currently offered by the state-of-the-art gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) instruments, the complexity of essential oils is frequently underestimated. Comprehensive two-dimensional GC coupled to time-of-flight MS (GC×GC-TOFMS) was used to improve the chemical characterization of ylang-ylang essential oil fractions recently reported in a previous one-dimensional (1D) GC study. Based on both, the enhanced chromatographic separation and the mass spectral deconvolution, 161 individual compounds were identified and labeled as potentially characteristic analytes found in both low and high boiling fractions issued from distillation of mature ylang-ylang flowers. Compared to the most recent full GC-MS characterization, this represents 75 new compounds, essentially consisting of terpenes, terpenoid esters, and alcohols. [less ▲]

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See detailBolaamphiphiles Derived from Alkenyl L-rhamnosides and Alkenyl D-xylosides: Importance of the Hydrophilic Head
Gatard, Sylvain; Nasir, Mehmet Nail ULiege; Deleu, Magali ULiege et al

in Molecules (2013), 18(5), 6101-6112

The two step synthesis of a new bolaamphiphile derived from alkenyl L-rhamnosides was described. The general synthetic strategy of bolaamphiphiles derived from L-rhamnose was based on a previous work ... [more ▼]

The two step synthesis of a new bolaamphiphile derived from alkenyl L-rhamnosides was described. The general synthetic strategy of bolaamphiphiles derived from L-rhamnose was based on a previous work describing the synthesis of bolaamphiphiles derived from D-xylose. The conformational properties of this new compound were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy in an aqueous film in order to obtain a reference for further studies about the membrane-interacting properties. Moreover, the surface activity of this new bolaamphiphile was analyzed by Langmuir balance technology and was compared with that of the analogous bolaamphiphile derived from alkenyl D-xylosides. The findings indicate that the rhamnoside-based bolaform has an increased surface activity and a better ability to form aggregates than xyloside-based one. [less ▲]

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See detailSelenium in the environment, metabolism and involvement in the body functions
Mehdi, Youcef; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege; Istasse, Louis ULiege et al

in Molecules (2013), 13

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See detailSelenium in the environment, metabolism and involvement in body functions
Mehdi, Youcef ULiege; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege; Istasse, Louis ULiege et al

in Molecules (2013), 18(3), 3292-3311

Selenium (Se34 79) is a metalloid which is close to sulfur (S) in terms of properties. The Se concentration in soil varies with type, texture and organic matter content of the soil and with rainfall. Its ... [more ▼]

Selenium (Se34 79) is a metalloid which is close to sulfur (S) in terms of properties. The Se concentration in soil varies with type, texture and organic matter content of the soil and with rainfall. Its assimilation by plants is influenced by the physico-chemical properties of the soil (redox status, pH and microbial activity). The presence of Se in the atmosphere is linked to natural and anthropogenic activities. Selenoproteins, in which selenium is present as selenocysteine, present an important role in many body functions, such as antioxidant defense and the formation of thyroid hormones. Some selenoprotein metabolites play a role in cancer prevention. In the immune system, selenium stimulates antibody formation and activity of helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells and Natural Killer (NK) cells. The mechanisms of intestinal absorption of selenium differ depending on the chemical form of the element. Selenium is mainly absorbed in the duodenum and caecum by active transport through a sodium pump. The recommended daily intake of selenium varies from 60 μg/day for women, to 70 μg/day for men. In growing ruminants the requirements are estimated at 100 μg/kg dry matter and 200 μg/Kg for pregnant or lactating females. A deficiency can cause reproductive disorders in humans and animals. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of new drugs for an old target — the penicillin binding proteins.
Zervosen, Astrid ULiege; Sauvage, Eric ULiege; Frère, Jean-Marie ULiege et al

in Molecules (2012), 17(11), 12478-505

The widespread use of β-lactam antibiotics has led to the worldwide appearance of drug-resistant strains. Bacteria have developed resistance to β-lactams by two main mechanisms: the production of β ... [more ▼]

The widespread use of β-lactam antibiotics has led to the worldwide appearance of drug-resistant strains. Bacteria have developed resistance to β-lactams by two main mechanisms: the production of β-lactamases, sometimes accompanied by a decrease of outer membrane permeability, and the production of low-affinity, drug resistant Penicillin Binding Proteins (PBPs). PBPs remain attractive targets for developing new antibiotic agents because they catalyse the last steps of the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan, which is unique to bacteria, and lies outside the cytoplasmic membrane. Here we summarize the “current state of the art” of non-β-lactam inhibitors of PBPs, which have being developed in an attempt to counter the emergence of β-lactam resistance. These molecules are not susceptible to hydrolysis by β-lactamases and thus present a real alternative to β-lactams. We present transition state analogs such as boronic acids, which can covalently bind to the active serine residue in the catalytic site. Molecules containing ring structures different from the β-lactam-ring like lactivicin are able to acylate the active serine residue. High throughput screening methods, in combination with virtual screening methods and structure based design, have allowed the development of new molecules. Some of these novel inhibitors are active against major pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and thus open avenues new for the discovery of novel antibiotics. [less ▲]

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