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See detail3 years of liraglutide versus placebo for type 2 diabetes risk reduction and weight management in individuals with prediabetes: a randomised, double-blind trial
Le Roux, C. W.; Astrup, A.; Fujioka, K. et al

in Lancet (2017), 389(10077), 1399-1409

Background Liraglutide 3·0 mg was shown to reduce bodyweight and improve glucose metabolism after the 56-week period of this trial, one of four trials in the SCALE programme. In the 3-year assessment of ... [more ▼]

Background Liraglutide 3·0 mg was shown to reduce bodyweight and improve glucose metabolism after the 56-week period of this trial, one of four trials in the SCALE programme. In the 3-year assessment of the SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes trial we aimed to evaluate the proportion of individuals with prediabetes who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Methods In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adults with prediabetes and a body-mass index of at least 30 kg/m2, or at least 27 kg/m2 with comorbidities, were randomised 2:1, using a telephone or web-based system, to once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide 3·0 mg or matched placebo, as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity. Time to diabetes onset by 160 weeks was the primary outcome, evaluated in all randomised treated individuals with at least one post-baseline assessment. The trial was conducted at 191 clinical research sites in 27 countries and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01272219. Findings The study ran between June 1, 2011, and March 2, 2015. We randomly assigned 2254 patients to receive liraglutide (n=1505) or placebo (n=749). 1128 (50%) participants completed the study up to week 160, after withdrawal of 714 (47%) participants in the liraglutide group and 412 (55%) participants in the placebo group. By week 160, 26 (2%) of 1472 individuals in the liraglutide group versus 46 (6%) of 738 in the placebo group were diagnosed with diabetes while on treatment. The mean time from randomisation to diagnosis was 99 (SD 47) weeks for the 26 individuals in the liraglutide group versus 87 (47) weeks for the 46 individuals in the placebo group. Taking the different diagnosis frequencies between the treatment groups into account, the time to onset of diabetes over 160 weeks among all randomised individuals was 2·7 times longer with liraglutide than with placebo (95% CI 1·9 to 3·9, p<0·0001), corresponding with a hazard ratio of 0·21 (95% CI 0·13–0·34). Liraglutide induced greater weight loss than placebo at week 160 (–6·1 [SD 7·3] vs −1·9% [6·3]; estimated treatment difference −4·3%, 95% CI −4·9 to −3·7, p<0·0001). Serious adverse events were reported by 227 (15%) of 1501 randomised treated individuals in the liraglutide group versus 96 (13%) of 747 individuals in the placebo group. Interpretation In this trial, we provide results for 3 years of treatment, with the limitation that withdrawn individuals were not followed up after discontinuation. Liraglutide 3·0 mg might provide health benefits in terms of reduced risk of diabetes in individuals with obesity and prediabetes. Funding Novo Nordisk, Denmark. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd [less ▲]

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See detailInduction therapy with the selective interleukin-23 inhibitor risankizumab in patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 study.
Feagan, Brian G.; Sandborn, William J.; D'Haens, Geert et al

in Lancet (2017), 389(10080), 1699-1709

BACKGROUND: The interleukin-23 pathway is implicated genetically and biologically in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of risankizumab (BI 655066, Boehringer ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The interleukin-23 pathway is implicated genetically and biologically in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of risankizumab (BI 655066, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany), a humanised monoclonal antibody targeting the p19 subunit of interleukin-23, in patients with moderately-to-severely active Crohn's disease. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 study, we enrolled patients at 36 referral sites in North America, Europe, and southeast Asia. Eligible patients were aged 18-75 years, with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease for at least 3 months, assessed as moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease at screening, defined as a Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) of 220-450, with mucosal ulcers in the ileum or colon, or both, and a Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS) of at least 7 (>/=4 for patients with isolated ileitis) on ileocolonoscopy scored by a masked central reader. Patients were randomised 1:1:1 using an interactive response system to a double-blind investigational product, and stratified by previous exposure to TNF antagonists (yes vs no). Patients received intravenous 200 mg risankizumab, 600 mg risankizumab, or placebo, at weeks 0, 4, and 8. The primary outcome was clinical remission (CDAI <150) at week 12 (intention-to-treat population). Safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02031276. FINDINGS: Between March, 2014, and September, 2015, 213 patients were screened, and 121 patients randomised. At baseline, 113 patients (93%) had been previously treated with at least one tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist (which had failed in 96 [79%]). At week 12, 25 (31%) of 82 risankizumab patients (pooled 41 patients in 200 mg and 41 patients in 600 mg arms) had clinical remission versus six (15%) of 39 placebo patients (difference vs placebo 15.0%, 95% CI 0.1 to 30.1; p=0.0489). Ten (24%) of 41 patients who received 200 mg risankizumab had clinical remission (9.0%, -8.3 to 26.2; p=0.31) and 15 (37%) of 41 who received the 600 mg dose (20.9%, 2.6 to 39.2; p=0.0252). 95 (79%) patients had adverse events (32 in the placebo group, 32 randomised to 200 mg risankizumab, 31 randomised to 600 mg risankizumab); 18 had severe adverse events (nine, six, three); 12 discontinued (six, five, one); 24 had serious adverse events (12, nine, three). The most common adverse event was nausea and most common serious adverse event was worsening of underlying Crohn's disease. No deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: In this short-term study, risankizumab was more effective than placebo for inducing clinical remission in patients with active Crohn's disease. Therefore, selective blockade of interleukin-23 via inhibition of p19 might be a viable therapeutic approach in Crohn's disease. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim. [less ▲]

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See detailInherited determinants of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis phenotypes: a genetic association study
Cleynen, Isabelle; Boucher, Gabrielle; Jostins, Luke et al

in Lancet (2016)

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See detailAgainst age discrimination
STRANDBERG, TIMO; MAGGI, STEFANIA; HARKIN, MARIAN et al

in Lancet (2015), 386

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See detailWhich incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes?
Scheen, André ULiege

in Lancet (2014)

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See detailDisorders of consciousness: Are we ready for a paradigm shift? - Authors' reply
Jox, RJ; Bernat, JL; Laureys, Steven ULiege et al

in Lancet (2013), Vol 12

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See detailReanalysis of “Bedside detection of awareness in the vegetative state: a cohort study”
Goldfine, Andrew; Bardin, Jonathan; Noirhomme, Quentin ULiege et al

in Lancet (2013), 381

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See detailReanalysis of "Bedside detection of awareness in the vegetative state: a cohort study" - Authors' reply.
Cruse, Damian; Chennu, Srivas; Chatelle, Camille ULiege et al

in Lancet (2013), 381(9863), 291-2

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See detailPazopanib for metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma (PALETTE) : a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial
van der Graaf, WT; Blay, JY; Chawla, SP et al

in Lancet (2012), 379(9829), 1879-1886

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See detailGliptin versus a sulphonylurea as add-on to metformin.
SCHEEN, André ULiege; Paquot, Nicolas ULiege

in Lancet (2012), 380

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See detailBedside detection of awareness in the vegetative state: a cohort study.
Cruse, Damian; Chennu, Srivas; Chatelle, Camille ULiege et al

in Lancet (2011), 378(9809), 2088-94

BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed as vegetative have periods of wakefulness, but seem to be unaware of themselves or their environment. Although functional MRI (fMRI) studies have shown that some of these ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed as vegetative have periods of wakefulness, but seem to be unaware of themselves or their environment. Although functional MRI (fMRI) studies have shown that some of these patients are consciously aware, issues of expense and accessibility preclude the use of fMRI assessment in most of these individuals. We aimed to assess bedside detection of awareness with an electroencephalography (EEG) technique in patients in the vegetative state. METHODS: This study was undertaken at two European centres. We recruited patients with traumatic brain injury and non-traumatic brain injury who met the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised definition of vegetative state. We developed a novel EEG task involving motor imagery to detect command-following--a universally accepted clinical indicator of awareness--in the absence of overt behaviour. Patients completed the task in which they were required to imagine movements of their right-hand and toes to command. We analysed the command-specific EEG responses of each patient for robust evidence of appropriate, consistent, and statistically reliable markers of motor imagery, similar to those noted in healthy, conscious controls. FINDINGS: We assessed 16 patients diagnosed in the vegetative state, and 12 healthy controls. Three (19%) of 16 patients could repeatedly and reliably generate appropriate EEG responses to two distinct commands, despite being behaviourally entirely unresponsive (classification accuracy 61-78%). We noted no significant relation between patients' clinical histories (age, time since injury, cause, and behavioural score) and their ability to follow commands. When separated according to cause, two (20%) of the five traumatic and one (9%) of the 11 non-traumatic patients were able to successfully complete this task. INTERPRETATION: Despite rigorous clinical assessment, many patients in the vegetative state are misdiagnosed. The EEG method that we developed is cheap, portable, widely available, and objective. It could allow the widespread use of this bedside technique for the rediagnosis of patients who behaviourally seem to be entirely vegetative, but who might have residual cognitive function and conscious awareness. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, James S McDonnell Foundation, Canada Excellence Research Chairs Program, European Commission, Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique, Mind Science Foundation, Belgian French-Speaking Community Concerted Research Action, University Hospital of Liege, University of Liege. [less ▲]

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See detailIntensified chemotherapy with ACVBP plus rituximab versus standard CHOP plus rituximab for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (LNH03-2B): an open-label randomised phase 3 trial
Récher, Christian; Coiffier, Bertrand; Haioun, Corinne et al

in Lancet (2011), 378(9806)

Background The outcome of diff use large B-cell lymphoma has been substantially improved by the addition of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab to chemotherapy regimens. We aimed to assess, in ... [more ▼]

Background The outcome of diff use large B-cell lymphoma has been substantially improved by the addition of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab to chemotherapy regimens. We aimed to assess, in patients aged 18–59 years, the potential survival benefi t provided by a dose-intensive immunochemotherapy regimen plus rituximab compared with standard treatment plus rituximab. Methods We did an open-label randomised trial comparing dose-intensive rituximab, doxorubicin, cyclo phosphamide, vindesine, bleomycin, and prednisone (R-ACVBP) with subsequent consolidation versus standard rituximab, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). Random assignment was done with a computer-assisted randomisation-allocation sequence with a block size of four. Patients were aged 18–59 years with untreated diff use large B-cell lymphoma and an age-adjusted international prognostic index equal to 1. Our primary endpoint was event-free survival. Our analyses of effi cacy and safety were of the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00140595. Findings One patient withdrew consent before treatment and 54 did not complete treatment. After a median follow-up of 44 months, our 3-year estimate of event-free survival was 81% (95% CI 75–86) in the R-ACVBP group and 67% (59–73) in the R-CHOP group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·56, 95% CI 0·38–0·83; p=0·0035). 3-year estimates of progression-free survival (87% [95% CI, 81–91] vs 73% [66–79]; HR 0·48 [0·30–0·76]; p=0·0015) and overall survival (92% [87–95] vs 84% [77–89]; HR 0·44 [0·28–0·81]; p=0·0071) were also increased in the R-ACVBP group. 82 (42%) of 196 patients in the R-ACVBP group experienced a serious adverse event compared with 28 (15%) of 183 in the R-CHOP group. Grade 3–4 haematological toxic eff ects were more common in the R-ACVBP group, with a higher proportion of patients experiencing a febrile neutropenic episode (38% [75 of 196] vs 9% [16 of 183]). Interpretation Compared with standard R-CHOP, inten sifi ed immunochemotherapy with R-ACVBP signifi cantly improves survival of patients aged 18–59 years with diff use large B-cell lymphoma with low-intermediate risk according to the International Prognostic Index. Haematological toxic eff ects of the intensive regimen were raised but manageable. Funding Groupe d’Etudes des Lymphomes de l’Adulte and Amgen. [less ▲]

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See detailRimonabant for prevention of cardiovascular events (CRESCENDO): a randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial
Topol, E. J.; Scheen, André ULiege

in Lancet (2010), 376

BACKGROUND: Blockade of the endocannabinoid receptor reduces obesity and improves metabolic abnormalities such as triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose. We assessed whether rimonabant ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Blockade of the endocannabinoid receptor reduces obesity and improves metabolic abnormalities such as triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose. We assessed whether rimonabant would improve major vascular event-free survival. METHODS: This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken in 974 hospitals in 42 countries. 18,695 patients with previously manifest or increased risk of vascular disease were randomly assigned to receive either rimonabant 20 mg (n=9381) or matching placebo (n=9314). Randomisation was stratified by centre, implemented with an independent interactive voice response system, and all study personnel and participants were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, as determined via central adjudication. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00263042. FINDINGS: At a mean follow-up of 13.8 months (95% CI 13.6-14.0), the trial was prematurely discontinued because of concerns by health regulatory authorities in three countries about suicide in individuals receiving rimonabant. All randomised participants were analysed. At the close of the trial (Nov 6, 2008), the composite primary endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 364 (3.9%) patients assigned to rimonabant and 375 (4.0%) assigned to placebo (hazard ratio 0.97, 95% CI 0.84-1.12, p=0.68). With rimonabant, gastrointestinal (3038 [33%] vs 2084 [22%]), neuropsychiatric (3028 [32%] vs 1989 [21%]), and serious psychiatric side-effects (232 [2.5%] vs 120 [1.3%]) were significantly increased compared with placebo. Four patients in the rimonabant group and one in the placebo group committed suicide. INTERPRETATION: The premature termination of this trial has important lessons for drug development. A drug that was being marketed for weight loss, but being tested for improving cardiovascular outcomes, induced a level of serious neuropsychiatric effects that was deemed unacceptable by regulatory authorities, and both the drug and the trial were abruptly terminated. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of fibrates on cardiovascular outcomes.
Delanaye, Pierre ULiege; Scheen, André ULiege

in Lancet (2010), 376(9746), 1051

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See detailAddition of incretin therapy to metformin in type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULiege; Radermecker, Régis ULiege

in Lancet (2010), 375(9724), 1410-2

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See detailGreen Urine
LECLERCQ, Philippe ULiege; LOLY, Catherine ULiege; DELANAYE, Pierre ULiege et al

in Lancet (2009)

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See detailVoglibose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Scheen, André ULiege

in Lancet (2009), 373(9675), 1579-80

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See detailAn assessment of interactions between global health initiatives and country health systems.
World Health Organization Maximizing Positive Synergies Collaborative Group; Porignon, Denis ULiege

in Lancet (2009), 373(9681), 2137-69

Since 2000, the emergence of several large disease-specific global health initiatives (GHIs) has changed the way in which international donors provide assistance for public health. Some critics have ... [more ▼]

Since 2000, the emergence of several large disease-specific global health initiatives (GHIs) has changed the way in which international donors provide assistance for public health. Some critics have claimed that these initiatives burden health systems that are already fragile in countries with few resources, whereas others have asserted that weak health systems prevent progress in meeting disease-specific targets. So far, most of the evidence for this debate has been provided by speculation and anecdotes. We use a review and analysis of existing data, and 15 new studies that were submitted to WHO for the purpose of writing this Report to describe the complex nature of the interplay between country health systems and GHIs. We suggest that this Report provides the most detailed compilation of published and emerging evidence so far, and provides a basis for identification of the ways in which GHIs and health systems can interact to mutually reinforce their effects. On the basis of the findings, we make some general recommendations and identify a series of action points for international partners, governments, and other stakeholders that will help ensure that investments in GHIs and country health systems can fulfil their potential to produce comprehensive and lasting results in disease-specific work, and advance the general public health agenda. The target date for achievement of the health-related Millennium Development Goals is drawing close, and the economic downturn threatens to undermine the improvements in health outcomes that have been achieved in the past few years. If adjustments to the interactions between GHIs and country health systems will improve efficiency, equity, value for money, and outcomes in global public health, then these opportunities should not be missed. [less ▲]

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See detailZoledronic acid and risedronate in the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (HORIZON): a multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial.
Reid, David M; Devogelaer, Jean-Pierre; Saag, Kenneth et al

in Lancet (2009), 373(9671), 1253-63

BACKGROUND: Persistent use of glucocorticoid drugs is associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk. Concurrent oral bisphosphonates increase bone mineral density and reduce frequency of vertebral ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Persistent use of glucocorticoid drugs is associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk. Concurrent oral bisphosphonates increase bone mineral density and reduce frequency of vertebral fractures, but are associated with poor compliance and adherence. We aimed to assess whether one intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid was non-inferior to daily oral risedronate for prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. METHODS: This 1-year randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, non-inferiority study of 54 centres in 12 European countries, Australia, Hong Kong, Israel, and the USA, tested the effectiveness of 5 mg intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid versus 5 mg oral risedronate for prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. 833 patients were randomised 1:1 to receive zoledronic acid (n=416) or risedronate (n=417). Patients were stratified by sex, and allocated to prevention or treatment subgroups dependent on duration of glucocorticoid use immediately preceding the study. The treatment subgroup consisted of those treated for more than 3 months (272 patients on zoledronic acid and 273 on risedronate), and the prevention subgroup of those treated for less than 3 months (144 patients on each drug). 62 patients did not complete the study because of adverse events, withdrawal of consent, loss to follow-up, death, misrandomisation, or protocol deviation. The primary endpoint was percentage change from baseline in lumbar spine bone mineral density. Drug efficacy was assessed on a modified intention-to-treat basis and safety was assessed on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00100620. FINDINGS: Zoledronic acid was non-inferior and superior to risedronate for increase of lumbar spine bone mineral density in both the treatment (least-squares mean 4.06% [SE 0.28] vs 2.71% [SE 0.28], mean difference 1.36% [95% CI 0.67-2.05], p=0.0001) and prevention (2.60% [0.45] vs 0.64% [0.46], 1.96% [1.04-2.88], p<0.0001) subgroups at 12 months. Adverse events were more frequent in patients given zoledronic acid than in those on risedronate, largely as a result of transient symptoms during the first 3 days after infusion. Serious adverse events were worsening rheumatoid arthritis for the treatment subgroup and pyrexia for the prevention subgroup. INTERPRETATION: A single 5 mg intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid is non-inferior, possibly more effective, and more acceptable to patients than is 5 mg of oral risedronate daily for prevention and treatment of bone loss that is associated with glucocorticoid use. [less ▲]

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