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See detailModelling the probability and impact of false-positive serology for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: A case study
HOUBEN, Rosa; Meersschaert, Carole ULiege; HENDRICKX, Guy et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2020)

BACKGROUND:Serological screening tests for lyme borreliosis have poor specificity, with potential for misdiagnosis and unnecessary antimicrobial treatment. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the impact of lyme ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND:Serological screening tests for lyme borreliosis have poor specificity, with potential for misdiagnosis and unnecessary antimicrobial treatment. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the impact of lyme borreliosis seroprevalence and serologic test characteristics on the probability of obtaining a false positive result and impact on antimicrobial use. STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional serological survey and modelling. METHODS:Sera from 303 horses in southern Belgium were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apparent seroprevalence was derived from serological data and a Bayesian estimate of true seroprevalence was computed. These were a starting point to model the impact of test and population characteristics on the probability of obtaining false positive results and consequently unnecessary treatments and complications. RESULTS:Apparent and true seroprevalence were 22% (95% CI 18-27%) and 11% (credible interval with 95% probability 0.6-21%) respectively. We estimate that two-thirds of positive samples are false-positive in southern Belgium, with one in five of tested horses potentially misdiagnosed as infected. Around 5% of antimicrobial use in equine veterinary practice in Belgium may be attributable to treatment of a false positive result. MAIN LIMITATIONS:There was uncertainty regarding the ELISA's sensitivity and specificity. CONCLUSIONS:This study highlights the importance of appreciating the poor diagnostic value of ELISA screening for lyme borreliosis as demonstrated by this case study of seroprevalence in southern Belgium where we demonstrate that a nontrivial number of horses is estimated to receive unwarranted treatment due to poor appreciation of screening test characteristics by practitioners, contributing substantially to unnecessary use of antimicrobials. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of intraocular Leptospira spp. by real‐time polymerase chain reaction in horses with recurrent uveitis in Belgium
Sauvage, Aurélie ULiege; Monclin, Sébastien ULiege; Elansary, Mahmoud ULiege et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2019)

Background Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) has been associated with Leptospira spp. infection. No information exists concerning the prevalence of Leptospira‐associated ERU in Belgium and about the ... [more ▼]

Background Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) has been associated with Leptospira spp. infection. No information exists concerning the prevalence of Leptospira‐associated ERU in Belgium and about the sensitivity of detection of Leptospira in different ocular media. Objectives To establish the prevalence of intraocular Leptospira spp. in ERU‐affected and healthy eyes of horses examined at the Equine Clinic of the University of Liège by real‐time PCR and to compare the results of the aqueous and vitreous humour of the same eye. Study design Cross‐sectional. Methods Sixty‐six eyes from 59 client‐owned horses with a diagnosis of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU‐group) were studied from May 2015 to December 2017. Fifty healthy eyes from 28 euthanised horses for unrelated reasons examined during the same period were included in the control group. Intraocular fluids (aqueous and/or vitreous humours) from ERU‐affected eyes were sampled and analysed by real‐time PCR for Leptospira spp. Aqueous and vitreous humours from the control group were processed in the same way. Results Both groups were comparable regarding age, sex, eye sampled (OS/OD), humours sampled (aqueous/vitreous humour) but not regarding breeds, with an over‐representation of Warmbloods and Appaloosas in the ERU‐group. The prevalence of Leptospira spp. was 30.3% (20/66 eyes) in the ERU‐group. Leptospira spp. DNA was identified in 11 aqueous and 17 vitreous humours with eight horses testing positive in both humours, nine horses testing positive for vitreous humour alone and third horses for aqueous humour alone. The phi‐correlation between aqueous and vitreous humour Leptospira‐PCR results is 0.47 suggesting a low association. All the control eyes were negative. Main limitations The diagnostic method selected for this study (lipL32 qPCR) did not allow identification of the serovars. Conclusions Leptospirosis is a potential cause of ERU in Belgium. Testing both intraocular media is advised whenever possible. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferences in third metacarpal trabecular microarchitecture between the parasagittal groove and condyle at birth and in adult racehorses
Anne-Archard, Nicolas ULiege; Martel, Gabrielle; Fogarty, Ursula et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2018)

Background: The aetiology of equine metacarpal condylar fractures is not completely understood and a developmental cause has been postulated. Objectives: To investigate the subchondral bone trabecular ... [more ▼]

Background: The aetiology of equine metacarpal condylar fractures is not completely understood and a developmental cause has been postulated. Objectives: To investigate the subchondral bone trabecular microarchitecture of the lateral parasagittal groove and condyle in equine neonates and its adaptation with maturation and athletic activity. Study design: Ex vivo observational study. Methods: Distal metacarpi of neonates, yearlings and adult racehorses (n = 24) were harvested. Dorsal and palmar frontal histological sections, containing the lateral parasagittal groove and condyle, were studied. The sections were digitalised and subchondral trabecular bone quantity and quality parameters and trabecular orientation in the frontal plane were measured. Results: Trabecular spacing and length were greater (P = 0.004 and P = 0.0005 respectively) whereas bone fraction, trabecular number and connectivity were all lower (P = 0.0004, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.001 respectively) in the lateral parasagittal groove compared with the condyle in neonatal foals. Trabecular thickness and bone fraction increased with age in racehorses and trabecular spacing decreased. The predominant trabecular orientation had a consistent pattern in neonates and it changed with maturity and the cumulative effect of racing at all the ROIs except for the palmar lateral parasagittal groove that retained a more 'immature' pattern. Main limitations: Samples were investigated in 2D. 3D processing could have provided more information. Conclusions: Already at birth there are striking differences in the subchondral bone trabecular microarchitecture between the lateral parasagittal groove and condyle in foals. Adaptation of trabeculae is confirmed with maturity in racehorses, with the greatest adaptation measured in bone quantity parameters. The trabecular orientation had a unique and more immature orientation pattern in the lateral palmar parasagittal grooves in adult racehorses and may reflect a weaker structure at this site. © 2018 EVJ Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailEquine Atypical Myopathy in the UK: Epidemiological characteristics of cases reported from 2011 to 2015 and factors associated with survival
Gonzalez-Medina, S.; Ireland, J. L.; Piercy, R. J. et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2017)

BACKGROUND: Equine atypical myopathy (AM) is a toxic rhabdomyolysis associated with ingestion of hypoglycin A, derived typically in Europe, from Acer pseudoplatanus tree. Despite the wide distribution of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Equine atypical myopathy (AM) is a toxic rhabdomyolysis associated with ingestion of hypoglycin A, derived typically in Europe, from Acer pseudoplatanus tree. Despite the wide distribution of this tree species in the UK, the number of cases reported annually varies, and there has been an apparent increase in prevalence in recent years. Although AM was first recognised in the UK, epidemiological studies have never been conducted focused solely on this country. OBJECTIVES: To describe the spatiotemporal distribution, presentation, treatment and outcome of AM cases reported in the UK. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: British AM cases reported to the atypical myopathy alert website, between 2011 and 2015 were included (n = 224). Data were obtained via standardised epidemiological questionnaires from owners and veterinarians. Factors associated with survival were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Most cases reported were from England (87.9%). Survival was 38.6% (n = 73/189). Clinical factors associated with reduced odds of survival included, hypothermia (odds ratio (OR) 0.18; CI 0.06-0.57; p = 0.01), bladder distension (OR 0.11; CI 0.02-0.59; p = 0.01), tachycardia (OR 0.97; CI 0.94-0.99; p = 0.04) and serum creatine kinase activity >100,000 IU/L (OR 0.17; CI 0.04-0.68; p = 0.01) in the univariable analysis as well as recumbency. The latter was the only sign retained in multivariable analysis (OR = 0.19; CI 0.06-0.62; p = 0.006). Administration of vitamins during the disease was associated with survival (OR 3.75; CI 1.21-11.57; p = 0.02). MAIN LIMITATIONS: Reporting cases to the atypical myopathy alert group is voluntary; therefore, under-reporting will result in underestimation of AM cases; furthermore, direct owner-reporting could have introduced misdiagnosis bias. CONCLUSION: Some areas of the UK reported AM cases more commonly. Clinical signs such as recumbency, rectal temperature, distended bladder and serum CK activity might be useful prognostic indicators though should be considered in the context of the clinical picture. Treatment with vitamins increases survival. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAcid base imbalances in ill neonatal foals and their association with survival.
Viu, J.; Armengou, L.; Rios, J. et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2015)

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Acid-base imbalances observed in human paediatric patients are associated with outcome. Likewise, neonatal foals may have different acid-base imbalances associated with ... [more ▼]

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Acid-base imbalances observed in human paediatric patients are associated with outcome. Likewise, neonatal foals may have different acid-base imbalances associated with diagnosis or prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To determine acid-base imbalances by the quantitative method in ill neonatal foals and to assess their association with diagnosis and prognosis. STUDY DESIGN: Observational prospective clinical study. METHODS: This study included 65 ill neonatal foals (32 septic, 33 non-septic) admitted to an equine referral hospital from 2005 to 2011with acid-base parameters determined on admission and a control group of 33 healthy neonatal foals. Blood pH, pCO2 , sodium, potassium, chloride, L-lactate, albumin and phosphate concentrations were determined. Bicarbonate, globulin, measured strong ion difference (SIDm ), non-volatile weak buffer concentrations (Atot ), base excess and its components were calculated. ANCOVA and multiple linear regression statistical analyses were performed. Results are summarised as mean +/- s.d. for normally distributed variables and median [25-75th percentiles] for non-normally distributed ones. RESULTS: Sixty-three per cent of ill foals had respiratory alkalosis and 58.5% had SIDm acidosis. The combination of both alterations was detected in 21 of 65 ill foals and abnormal pH was found in 24 of 65. Compared to healthy foals, ill foals had significantly lower SIDm (non-septic 31.6 +/- 6.3 (p<0.01) and septic 32.0 +/- 6.4 (p<0.01) vs. control 40.3 +/- 3.1 mmol/L), potassium (non-septic 3.5 [3.3-3.8] (p<0.01) and septic 3.6 [3.2-4.3] (p = 0.01) vs. control 4.2 [3.8-4.5] mEq/L) and higher L-lactate (non-septic 5.1 +/- 4.2 (p = 0.01) and septic 5.0 +/- 3.7 (p = 0.03) vs. control 2.5 +/- 1.3 mmol/L). Significantly higher L-lactate and venous pCO2 were found in non-surviving (6.4 +/- 3.5 mmol/L (p = 0.04) and 51 +/- 13 mmHg (p<0.01)) compared to surviving foals. CONCLUSIONS: The most common acid-base imbalances observed in ill foals were respiratory alkalosis, SIDm acidosis or mixed respiratory alkalosis with strong ion acidosis. Increased venous pCO2 and blood L-lactate concentration were associated with poor outcome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of methylenecyclopropyl acetic acid in serum of European horses with atypical myopathy
Votion, Dominique ULiege; Van Galen, Gaby ULiege; Sweetan et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2013)

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See detailDo developmental orthopaedic disorders influence future jumping performances in Warmblood stallions?
Verwilghen, D. R.; Janssens, S.; Busoni, Valeria ULiege et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2013), 45(5), 578-81

REASONS FOR PERFORMING THE STUDY: Few reports are available on the relationship between developmental orthopaedic diseases (DOD) and future performances in Warmblood horses. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the ... [more ▼]

REASONS FOR PERFORMING THE STUDY: Few reports are available on the relationship between developmental orthopaedic diseases (DOD) and future performances in Warmblood horses. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between performance and the presence of DOD lesions. METHODS: Records of Warmblood stallions for which radiographic and performance data were available were collected. Showjumping performances were expressed as scores derived from the final ranking of horses in each competition. These scores are available in an established performance database. The relationship between radiographic findings and both performance scores and number of performances was analysed using a linear regression model. RESULTS: Two hundred and fifteen horses met the inclusion criteria. There was no difference in either the number of performances or performance score between horses categorised as affected with DOD lesions (independent of joint location) compared with controls. Significantly lower numbers of performances were recorded for horses with osteochondral fragments (OCD) located at the dorsal aspect of the sagittal ridge of the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal bone. No significant difference was found between horses affected with DOD lesions of the tarsocrural joint and controls. Horses with osteochondrosis of the lateral trochlear ridge of the femur had both significantly lower performance scores and numbers of performances compared with controls. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that specific DOD location and site within the joint have an influence on performance. Osteochondral fragments in the femoropatellar and at the dorsal aspect of the sagittal ridge of the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal joint resulted in lowered performance. Fragmentation in the tarsocrural joint had no influence on performance. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: The future athletic performance of Warmblood jumping horses may be limited as a result of OCD in the femoropatellar joint and to a certain extent the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal joint. [less ▲]

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See detailEquine myeloperoxidase: A novel biomarker in synovial fluid for the diagnosis of infection.
Wauters, J.; Pille, F.; Martens, A. et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2013), 45(3),

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Equine joint infection is a life-threatening disorder, and confirmation of the diagnosis can be difficult. Synovial fluid biomarkers may assist the discrimination between ... [more ▼]

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Equine joint infection is a life-threatening disorder, and confirmation of the diagnosis can be difficult. Synovial fluid biomarkers may assist the discrimination between infectious and noninfectious joint disease. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates whether the immunological detection of total and enzymatically active myeloperoxidase (MPO) assists the diagnosis of joint infection in horses. METHODS: The following 4 sample groups were included: healthy; osteochondritis dissecans (OCD); traumatic synovitis; and culture-confirmed infected joints. Synovial fluid was analysed for total MPO by a horse-specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for active MPO using the specific immunological extraction followed by enzymatic detection (SIEFED) technique. Western blot analysis was performed to confirm the antibody specificity. RESULTS: Synovial fluid from infected joints contained significantly more total and active MPO than samples from healthy joints, joints affected by OCD and joints with traumatic synovitis. Cut-off values were set at 5000 and 350 ng/ml for total and active MPO, respectively, with fair sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and likelihood ratios for infection. Correlation coefficients were reported between the total as well as the active MPO levels and the routine synovial fluid parameters, i.e. the white blood cell count, the neutrophil count and the total protein level. No correlation was observed between MPO and either the age of the horse or the joint affected. Western blotting confirmed the antibody specificity for equine MPO. CONCLUSIONS AND POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: Synovial fluid MPO was identified as a very promising biomarker to augment the discrimination of infectious vs. noninfectious joint disease in horses. Both ELISA and SIEFED techniques can be used for its specific and rapid detection. The analysis of synovial fluid MPO can be used as a complementary test to aid in the discrimination between infectious and noninfectious joint disease, especially when the white blood cell counts and the total protein level are inconclusive. [less ▲]

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See detailSuccessful treatment of equine sarcoids with cisplatin electrochemotherapy: a retrospective study of 48 cases.
Tamzali, Y; Borde, Laura ULiege; Rols, MP et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2012), 44(2), 214-220

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Sarcoids are the commonest form of equine skin tumour. Several therapeutic measures have been described but none is considered to be universally effective ... [more ▼]

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Sarcoids are the commonest form of equine skin tumour. Several therapeutic measures have been described but none is considered to be universally effective. Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a new anticancer therapy that utilises electrical field pulses to induce increased cell membrane permeability to antitumour hydrophilic drugs, such as cisplatin. The increased intracellular concentration of the drugs has a significant therapeutic benefit. The procedure has not been previously reported in a large number of horses. OBJECTIVE: To validate ECT as a novel alternative treatment for equine sarcoids. METHODS: A retrospective study evaluating the efficacy of cisplatin ECT in the treatment of equine sarcoids was performed. Electrochemotherapy treatments were applied under general anaesthesia at 2 week intervals with or without prior excision or debulking. Electric pulses were directly applied to the lesions following intra-tumoural injections of an aqueous solution of cisplatin. RESULTS: One-hundred-and-ninety-four sarcoids on 34 horses, 2 ponies, 11 donkeys and one mule were treated with ECT. The 4 year nonrecurrence rate was 97.9% for animals (47/48) and 99.5% (193/194) for tumours. When ECT was used as a single treatment, a significant influence of tumour size (ρ= 0.55) on the number of treatments required for cure was shown. When prior surgery was performed, there was a significant influence (P<0.001) of the excision quality (complete or incomplete) and the healing mode (closed or open wound) on the number of treatments. The most common adverse effect was a slight oedematous reaction for lesions located on thin skin regions. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results demonstrate that ECT, with or without concurrent tumour debulking, is an effective alternative for treatment of equine sarcoids [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean outbreaks of atypical myopathy in grazing horses (2006-2009): Determination of indicators for risk and prognostic factors
Van Galen, Gaby ULiege; Saegerman, Claude ULiege; Marcillaud-Pitel, Christel et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2012), DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2012.00555.x

Appropriate management of atypical myopathy (AM) requires the establishment of an accurate diagnosis and prognosis. Furthermore, preventive measures to avoid AM need to be refined. The aims of the study ... [more ▼]

Appropriate management of atypical myopathy (AM) requires the establishment of an accurate diagnosis and prognosis. Furthermore, preventive measures to avoid AM need to be refined. The aims of the study were as follows: 1) to improve the diagnosis of AM; 2) to identify prognostic predictors; and 3) to refine recommended preventive measures based on indicators of risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean outbreaks of atypical myopathy in grazing equids (2006-2009). Spatiotemporal distribution, history and clinical features
Van Galen, Gaby ULiege; Marcillaud-Pitel, Christel; Saegerman, Claude ULiege et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2012)

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See detailSerum concentration of surfactant protein D in horses with lower airway inflammation
Richard, Eric; Pitel, Pierre-Hugues; Christmann, Undine et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2012), 44

Reasons for performing study: Surfactant protein D (SP-D), mainly synthesised by alveolar type II cells and nonciliated bronchiolar cells, is one important component of innate pulmonary immunity. In man ... [more ▼]

Reasons for performing study: Surfactant protein D (SP-D), mainly synthesised by alveolar type II cells and nonciliated bronchiolar cells, is one important component of innate pulmonary immunity. In man, circulating concentrations of SP-D are routinely used as biomarkers for pulmonary injury. To date, serum SP-D levels have only been investigated in horses in an experimental model of bacterial airway infection. Objectives: To compare serum SP-D concentrations at rest and after exercise in horses with and without inflammatory airway disease (IAD). Methods: Venous blood samples were collected from 42 Standardbred racehorses at rest and 60 min after performing a standardised treadmill exercise test. Tracheal wash and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were collected after exercise. Based on BALF cytology, 22 horses were defined as IAD-affected and 20 classified as controls. Serum SP-D concentrations were assessed using a commercially available ELISA kit and statistically compared between groups of horses and sampling times. Results: Serum concentrations of SP-D in IAD-affected horses were significantly higher than those of control horses, both at rest and after exercise. Within the IAD-affected group, no significant correlation was found between serum SP-D concentrations and BALF cytology. Within each group of horses (IAD and control), no significant influence of exercise was found on serum SP-D levels. Conclusions: This is the first study determining serum SP-D concentrations in a noninfectious, naturally occurring form of lower airway inflammation in horses. The results highlight that IAD is associated with a detectable, though moderate, increase of circulating SP-D levels. Potential relevance: Serum concentration of surfactant protein D could represent a potentially valuable and readily accessible blood biomarker of equine lower airway inflammation [less ▲]

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See detailDuration of corneal anaesthesia following multiple doses and two concentrations of tetracaine hydrochloride eyedrops on the normal equine cornea
Monclin, Sébastien ULiege; Farnir, Frédéric ULiege; Grauwels, Magda ULiege

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2011), 43(1), 69-73

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: There is a clinical impression that tetracaine hydrochloride (THCl) eyedrops is a suitable topical anaesthetic in horses. OBJECTIVE: To determine the duration of corneal ... [more ▼]

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: There is a clinical impression that tetracaine hydrochloride (THCl) eyedrops is a suitable topical anaesthetic in horses. OBJECTIVE: To determine the duration of corneal anaesthesia following instillation of multiple doses and 2 concentrations of THCl in 10 healthy horses. METHODS: The corneal touch threshold (CTT) was determined, in both eyes, before (basal CTT) and after application of one drop of 0.5% THCl, 2 drops at a 1 min interval of 0.5% THCl or one drop of 1% THCl. CTT was measured in mm every 5 min until complete recovery of the basal CTT. Treatments were separated by an interval of at least one week. RESULTS: Corneal sensitivity was significantly reduced from baseline values for 30, 60 and 50 min after application of one drop of 0.5% THCl, 2 drops of 0.5% THCl and one drop of 1% THCl, respectively. Mean maximal anaesthetic effects, corresponding to a CTT of 0 mm, lasted 5.5, 16 and 15.25 min and maximal anaesthetic effect was present in 55, 90 and 80% of eyes, 5 min after application of one drop of 0.5% THCl, 2 drops of 0.5% THCl and one drop of 1% THCl, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The application of a second drop or the use of more concentrated eyedrops significantly increases duration of both anaesthesia and maximal anaesthetic effect. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: Duration of corneal anaesthesia following tetracaine instillation was established enabling a better use when performing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Comparison of tetracaine with other ocular anaesthetics needs to be published in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of Tear Break-up Time reference values and ocular tolerance of tetracaine hydrochloride eyedops in healthy horses
Monclin, Sébastien ULiege; Farnir, Frédéric ULiege; Grauwels, Magda ULiege

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2011), 43(1), 74-77

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Tetracaine hydrochloride (THCl) has been reported to cause irritation in dogs. In man, some topical anaesthetics have been shown to disrupt the tear film. Tear break-up time ... [more ▼]

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Tetracaine hydrochloride (THCl) has been reported to cause irritation in dogs. In man, some topical anaesthetics have been shown to disrupt the tear film. Tear break-up time (TBUT) is a useful test allowing an assessment of the quality of the precorneal tear film. Only one TBUT value has been reported in horses with no information on the technique used. OBJECTIVES: To provide a method for performing the TBUT in horses and to report any side effects of a single application of THCl in clinically normal horses, particularly on the stability of the tear film. METHODS: In Study 1, one drop of 0.5 or 1% THCl was applied to one eye of 20 horses divided in 2 groups. Treated eyes were assessed for the development of side effects 2.5 and 5 min after treatment. In Study 2, the TBUT was measured in both eyes of 2 groups of 10 horses, before and 2.5 and 5 min after, instillation of one drop of either 0.5 or 1% THCl. RESULTS: No animals developed any ocular side effect after instillation. Basal TBUT was 8.3±1.3 s. TBUT decreased from baseline 5 and 2.5 min after application of one drop of 0.5% THCl and one drop of 1% THCl, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A technique to measure the TBUT in healthy horses is described and normal range values that could be used as a reference were obtained. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: THCl is well tolerated in horses but lowers the TBUT. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between blood serum and salivary cortisol concentrations in horses using an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge
Peeters, Marie ULiege; Sulon, Joseph; Beckers, Jean-François ULiege et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2011), 43(4), 487-493

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See detailAlterations in mitochondrial respiratory function in response to endurance training and endurance racing
Votion, Dominique ULiege; Fraipont, Audrey ULiege; Goachet, Anne-Gaëlle et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2010), 42(38), 268-274

Objectives: To determine effects of training and racing on muscle oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and electron transport system (ETS) capacities in horses with high-resolution respirometry (HRR).

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See detailHydratation and electrolyte balance in horses during an endurance season
Robert, Céline; Goachet, Anne-Gaëlle; Fraipont, Audrey ULiege et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2010), 42(38), 98-104

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See detailAltered systolic left ventricular function in horses completing a long distance endurance race
Amory, Hélène ULiege; Votion, Dominique ULiege; Fraipont, A. et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2010), 42(38), 216-219

Reasons for performing the study: It is unknown whether exercise-induced cardiac fatigue (EICF), as demonstrated in athletes performing long duration exercise, occurs in endurance horses. Objective: To ... [more ▼]

Reasons for performing the study: It is unknown whether exercise-induced cardiac fatigue (EICF), as demonstrated in athletes performing long duration exercise, occurs in endurance horses. Objective: To examine the effects of a long distance endurance race on left ventricular systolic function in horses. Methods: Echocardiography was performed before and after a 2 or 3 star international endurance race (106 to 132 km) in 11 horses. Systolic (s) and diastolic (d) interventricular and left ventricular free wall thickness (IVS and LVFW, respectively), left ventricular, left atrial and aortic internal diameter (LVID, LA and Ao, respectively), fractional shortening (FS) and ejection fraction (EF) were measured by echocardiography. Heart rate (HR), peak flow velocity (Vmax), flow velocity integral (FVI), ejection time (ET), pre-ejection period (PEP), velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (Vcf), stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) were measured from aortic Doppler wave recordings. Results: After the race, LVIDd, Ao, LA, EF, FS, FVI, SV, ET and ET indexed for HR were significantly lower and IVSd, LVFWd, HR, PEP, PEP/ET, and Vcf were significantly higher as compared with pre-race values. Pre- to post-exercise changes in those parameters were not significantly correlated with changes in HR or in LVIDd. Conclusions: Results suggest that EICF, with a decrease in left ventricular systolic function, could occur post-exercise in horses performing long duration endurance races. However, a confounding effect of altered preload and heart rate on the studied variables cannot be discounted. [less ▲]

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