References of "Diabetes and Metabolism"
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See detailRecherche de facteurs prédictifs de recourir à l’insulinothérapie dans le diabète gestationnel
PHILIPS, Jean-Christophe ULiege; RADERMECKER, Régis ULiege; Rodari, Arthur et al

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2019)

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See detailIntérêt des inhibiteurs SGLT-2 dans le diabète de type 1
PHILIPS, Jean-Christophe ULiege; PAQUOT, Nicolas ULiege; SCHEEN, André ULiege

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2019)

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See detailCardiovascular safety of DPP-4 inhibitors compared with sulphonylureas: Results of randomized controlled trials and observational studies
Scheen, André ULiege

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2018), 44(5), 386-392

After failure of metformin monotherapy, another glucose-lowering agent should be added to improve glucose control. The clinician has several pharmacological choices, including the addition of a ... [more ▼]

After failure of metformin monotherapy, another glucose-lowering agent should be added to improve glucose control. The clinician has several pharmacological choices, including the addition of a sulphonylurea (SU) or a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i). While the cardiovascular safety of SUs remains a matter of controversy, DPP-4is have proven their non-inferiority vs placebo in recent cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials. In the absence of a head-to-head CV outcome trial—the CAROLINA, comparing linagliptin with glimepiride, is still ongoing—only indirect information can be found in the literature to compare CV outcomes (major CV events, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, CV death and all-cause mortality) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with SUs or DPP-4is. Thus, this comprehensive review summarizes the CV outcomes (excluding heart failure) reported in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of SUs vs placebo or other glucose-lowering agents, DPP-4is vs placebo or other glucose-lowering agents and SUs vs DPP-4is in phase-II/III studies. Also, the results of observational studies reporting CV events in patients treated with either SUs or DPP-4is have been carefully examined. Overall, the CV safety of SUs appears to be poorer than that of DPP-4is in both RCTs and cohort studies. However, the results are somewhat disparate, and such heterogeneity may be explained by different patient characteristics across studies, but also perhaps by differences between various molecules in each pharmacological class. In particular, some doubt about a class effect affecting SU CV safety has been raised. The results of CAROLINA are expected to shed more light on SU CV concerns, especially compared with DPP-4is. © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS [less ▲]

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See detailGLP-1 receptor agonists and cardiovascular protection: A class effect or not?
Scheen, André ULiege

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2018)

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See detailEffects of SGLT2 inhibitors on systemic and tissue low-grade inflammation: The potential contribution to diabetes complications and cardiovascular disease
Bonnet, Fernand ULiege; Scheen, André ULiege

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2018)

Chronic low-grade inflammation is a recognized key feature associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications. In prospective randomized trials, sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 ... [more ▼]

Chronic low-grade inflammation is a recognized key feature associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications. In prospective randomized trials, sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have demonstrated benefits related to several cardiovascular and renal risk factors, including HbA1c, blood pressure, body weight, renal hyperfiltration, and improvement of cardiorenal outcomes. SGLT2 inhibitors may improve adipose tissue function and induce decreases in serum leptin, TNF-α and IL-6 while increasing adiponectin. While data on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and other inflammatory markers are relatively scarce in humans, in animals, a number of reports have shown reductions in cytokine and chemokine concentrations in parallel with protective effects against progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Experimental findings also suggest that part of the renoprotective effects of SGLT2 inhibition may be related to anti-inflammatory actions at the kidney level. Underlying mechanisms to explain this anti-inflammatory effect are multiple, but may involve weight loss, and reduction in adipose tissue inflammation, slight increase in ketone bodies and diminution of uric acid levels or attenuation of oxidative stress. However, further studies in diabetes patients with specific assessment of inflammatory markers are still necessary to determine the specific contribution of the anti-inflammatory action of SGLT2 inhibitors to the reduction of cardiovascular and renal complications and mortality observed with this class of antidiabetic drugs. © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS [less ▲]

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See detailHaemoglobin A1c and 5-year all-cause mortality in French type 2 diabetic patients aged 70 years and older: The GERODIAB observational cohort.
Doucet, J; Verny, C.; Balkau, B. et al

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2018)

AIM: The role of glycaemic control in the mortality of elderly diabetic patients remains uncertain. GERODIAB is the first multi-centre, prospective, observational study that aims to describe the link ... [more ▼]

AIM: The role of glycaemic control in the mortality of elderly diabetic patients remains uncertain. GERODIAB is the first multi-centre, prospective, observational study that aims to describe the link between HbA1c and 5-year mortality in French, type 2 diabetic patients aged >/=70 years. METHODS: Consecutive patients (n=987; mean age 77 years) were included from 56 diabetes centres and followed for five years. Individual histories, risk factors, standard diabetes parameters and geriatric evaluations were regularly recorded. Survival was studied using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable analyses used Cox regression. RESULTS: Twenty-one percent of the patients died, 13% were lost during follow-up. Patients with a 5-year mean HbA1c in the range [40-50) mmol/mol ([5.8-6.7) %) had the highest survival (84%); those in the range [50-70) mmol/mol ([6.7-8.6) %) or <40mmol/mol (<5.8%) an intermediary survival rate (79%); patients with HbA1c >/=70mmol/mol (>/=8.6%) the worst survival (71%). Patients with mean HbA1c >/=70mmol/mol (>/=8.6%) had a significantly higher mortality than those with lower HbA1c (P=0.011), and HbA1c remained a significant predictor of mortality after adjusting for individual, diabetic and geriatric factors (hazards ratio [95%CI]: 1.76 [1.21 to 2.57], P=0.0033). Survival was also significantly associated with both HbA1c variability and with the frequency of HbA1c determinations. CONCLUSION: In this large sample of elderly French type 2 diabetic patients, an HbA1c level <70mmol/mol (<8.6%) was associated with lower mortality. The range [40-50) mmol/mol ([5.8-6.7) %) could be an acceptable target provided patients are not exposed to hypoglycaemia. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of glucose-lowering therapies on risk of stroke in type 2 diabetes.
Bonnet, Fernand ULiege; Scheen, André ULiege

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2017)

Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have an increased risk of stroke compared with people without diabetes. However, the effects of glucose-lowering drugs on risk of ischaemic stroke in T2D have been less ... [more ▼]

Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have an increased risk of stroke compared with people without diabetes. However, the effects of glucose-lowering drugs on risk of ischaemic stroke in T2D have been less extensively investigated than in coronary heart disease. Some evidence, including the UKPDS, has suggested a reduced risk of stroke with metformin, although the number of studies is limited. Inhibition of the KATP channels increases ischaemic brain lesions in animals. This is in agreement with a recent meta-analysis showing an increased risk of stroke with sulphonylureas vs. various comparators as both mono- and combination therapy. Pioglitazone can prevent recurrence of stroke in patients with previous stroke, as already shown in PROactive, although results are less clear for first strokes. As for DPP-4 inhibitors, there was a non-significant trend towards benefit for stroke, whereas a possible increased risk of stroke with SGLT2 inhibitors-and in particular, empagliflozin in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial-has been suggested and requires clarification. Experimental results support a potential protective effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists against stroke that has, at least in part, been translated to clinical benefits in T2D patients in the LEADER and SUSTAIN-6 trials. Further interventional studies are now warranted to confirm the effects of glucose-lowering agents on risk of stroke in patients with T2D. In summary, the effects of antidiabetic drugs on risk of stroke appear to be heterogeneous, with some therapies (pioglitazone, GLP-1 receptor agonists) conferring possible protection against ischaemic stroke, other classes showing a neutral impact (DPP-4 inhibitors, insulin) and some glucose-lowering agents being associated with an increased risk of stroke (sulphonylureas, possibly SGLT2 inhibitors, high-dose insulin in the presence of insulin resistance). [less ▲]

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See detail‘Treatment-resistant’ type 2 diabetes: Which definition for clinical practice?
Scheen, André ULiege

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2017), 43(4), 295-297

[No abstract available]

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See detailEffects of reducing blood pressure on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: Focus on SGLT2 inhibitors and EMPA-REG OUTCOME.
Scheen, André ULiege; DELANAYE, Pierre ULiege

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2017), (epub ahead of print),

Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has enabled remarkable reductions in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality as well as in renal outcomes in patients with type 2 ... [more ▼]

Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has enabled remarkable reductions in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality as well as in renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and a history of cardiovascular disease in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME. These results have been attributed to haemodynamic rather than metabolic effects, in part due to the osmotic/diuretic action of empagliflozin and the reduction in arterial blood pressure (BP). The present narrative review includes the results of meta-analyses of trials evaluating the effects on renal outcomes of lowering BP in patients with T2D, with a special focus on the influence of baseline and achieved systolic BP, and compares the renal outcome results of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME with those of other major trials with inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system in patients with T2D and the preliminary findings with other SGLT2 inhibitors, and also evaluates post hoc analyses from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME of special interest as regards the BP-lowering hypothesis and renal function. While systemic BP reduction associated to empagliflozin therapy may have contributed to the renal benefits reported in EMPA-REG OUTCOME, other local mechanisms related to kidney homoeostasis most probably also played a role in the overall protection observed in the trial. [less ▲]

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See detailGLP-1 receptor agonists and heart failure in diabetes.
Scheen, André ULiege

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2017), 43 Suppl 1

The prevalence of heart failure (HF) is increasing in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and glucose-lowering agents have distinctive effects on the risk of developing HF that requires hospitalization ... [more ▼]

The prevalence of heart failure (HF) is increasing in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and glucose-lowering agents have distinctive effects on the risk of developing HF that requires hospitalization. Such an increased risk has been consistently reported with thiazolidinediones (glitazones) and perhaps also with the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor saxagliptin (at least in SAVOR - TIMI 53), whereas a markedly decreased risk was highlighted with the sodium - glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin in EMPA-REG OUTCOME. Yet, the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) on myocardial function remain controversial. Whereas some promising observations have been reported in various animal models, the effects of GLP-1RAs on myocardial function in humans are more heterogeneous, while the positive effect on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), if any, appears to be inconsistent and rather modest in most patients with HF. However, no increased risk of hospitalization for HF has been reported with GLP-1RAs in meta-analyses of phase-II/III trials (exenatide, albiglutide, dulaglutide, liraglutide), demonstrating the safety of this pharmacological class, and such findings have been confirmed by three large prospective cardiovascular outcome trials (ELIXA with lixisenatide, LEADER with liraglutide and SUSTAIN-6 with semaglutide). In particular, LEADER reported a trend towards a reduction in HF hospitalization (-13%, P = 0.14), together with a significant reduction in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with T2D at risk of cardiovascular disease. These results are reassuring in the face of the somewhat negative results of the FIGHT trial, which evaluated the effects of liraglutide in patients with advanced HF and low LVEF, such that further studies and caution are now required when using this agent to treat such patients in clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailFactors associated with reaching or not reaching target HbA1c after initiation of basal or premixed insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULiege; Schmitt, H.; Jiang, H. H. et al

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2017), 43(69-78),

AIMS: To evaluate factors associated with reaching or not reaching target glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels by analysing the respective contributions of fasting hyperglycaemia (FHG), also referred to as ... [more ▼]

AIMS: To evaluate factors associated with reaching or not reaching target glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels by analysing the respective contributions of fasting hyperglycaemia (FHG), also referred to as basal hyperglycaemia, vs postprandial hyperglycaemia (PHG) before and after initiation of a basal or premixed insulin regimen in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This post-hoc analysis of insulin-naive patients in the DURABLE study randomised to receive either insulin glargine or insulin lispro mix 25 evaluated the percentages of patients achieving a target HbA1c of <7.0% (<53mmol/mol) per baseline HbA1c quartiles, and the effect of each insulin regimen on the relative contributions of PHG and FHG to overall hyperglycaemia. RESULTS: Patients had comparable demographic characteristics and similar HbA1c and FHG values at baseline in each HbA1c quartile regardless of whether they reached the target HbA1c. The higher the HbA1c quartile, the greater was the decrease in HbA1c, but also the smaller the percentage of patients achieving the target HbA1c. HbA1c and FHG decreased more in patients reaching the target, resulting in significantly lower values at endpoint in all baseline HbA1c quartiles with either insulin treatment. Patients not achieving the target HbA1c had slightly higher insulin doses, but lower total hypoglycaemia rates. CONCLUSION: Smaller decreases in FHG were associated with not reaching the target HbA1c, suggesting a need to increase basal or premixed insulin doses to achieve targeted fasting plasma glucose and improve patient response before introducing more intensive prandial insulin regimens. [less ▲]

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See detailRenal outcomes with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors.
Scheen, André ULiege; DELANAYE, Pierre ULiege

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2017), 44(2), 101-111

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is) are increasingly being used in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The present review summarizes the current knowledge of the effects of DPP-4is on renal ... [more ▼]

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is) are increasingly being used in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The present review summarizes the current knowledge of the effects of DPP-4is on renal outcomes by analyzing the experimental preclinical data, the effects of DPP-4is on urinary albumin-creatinine ratios (UACRs) and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) from observational studies and clinical trials, and renal events (including kidney failure requiring renal replacement therapy) in recent large prospective cardiovascular outcome trials. Renal protection has been demonstrated in various animal models that have implicated different underlying mechanisms independent of glucose control, whereas prevention of new onset microalbuminuria and/or progression of albuminuria has been reported in some clinical studies, but with no significant effects on eGFR in most of them. The long-term clinical effects of DPP-4is on renal outcomes and the development of end-stage renal disease remain largely unknown and, thus, demand further investigations in prospective trials and long-term observational studies. In conclusion, despite promising results in animal models, data on surrogate biological markers of renal function and clinical renal outcomes remain rather scanty in patients with T2D, and mostly demonstrate the safety rather than true efficacy of DPP-4is. [less ▲]

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See detailReduction in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial: A critical analysis.
SCHEEN, André ULiege

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2016), 42(2), 71-6

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See detailReappraisal of the diuretic effect of empagliflozin in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial: Comparison with classic diuretics.
Scheen, André ULiege

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2016)

AIMS: Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has been associated with a remarkable reduction in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and ... [more ▼]

AIMS: Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has been associated with a remarkable reduction in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and antecedents of cardiovascular disease. This effect was attributed to a diuretic (haemodynamic) rather than metabolic (antiatherogenic) effect. The aim of this review is to offer arguments that either support or challenge this 'diuretic hypothesis'. METHODS: The literature was scrutinized to: (1) examine the diuretic effects of SGLT2 inhibitors vs. hydrochlorothiazide as the reference diuretic; (2) analyze the effects of classic diuretics on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in diabetic patients; and (3) reconsider some of the specific analyses of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial possibly related to a diuretic effect. RESULTS: The diuretic effect of empagliflozin has so far been poorly investigated, although SGLT2 inhibitors have actions distinct from those of classic diuretics. The effects of thiazide-like diuretics on cardiovascular and overall mortality have been limited in diabetic patients with hypertension, whereas the effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in subgroups of diabetic patients with heart failure were more impressive, but still largely inferior to those reported in EMPA-REG, where relative reductions in mortality with empagliflozin were observed in diabetic patients with or without heart failure, arterial hypertension, renal impairment or diuretic background therapy. CONCLUSION: Although the diuretic hypothesis was put forward to explain the remarkable reduction in mortality with empagliflozin in EMPA-REG, the available results do not support a major contribution of this mechanism, unless the specific diuretic effect of SGLT2 inhibitors turns out to be markedly different from those of classic diuretics. [less ▲]

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See detailFacteurs génétiques et risque de dysglycémie dans des familles de diabétiques de type 2: l’étude DESCENDANCE
Franc, S; Cauchi, S; Yengo, L et al

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2015, April), 41(s1), 10-35

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See detailRemboursement de la mesure continue du glucose en Belgique: un exemple de multidisciplinarité
RADERMECKER, Régis ULiege; Contessi, El

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2015, March), 41

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See detailAnalyse rétrospective des données concernant les patientes avec diabète gestationnel au CHU de Liège
RADERMECKER, Régis ULiege; PHILIPS, Jean-Christophe ULiege; Sepulchre, E

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2015, March), 41

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See detailAntidiabetic agents: Potential anti-inflammatory activity beyond glucose control.
Scheen, André ULiege; ESSER, Nathalie ULiege; Paquot, Nicolas ULiege

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2015)

A growing body of evidence is emerging to show that abdominal obesity, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and microvascular diabetic complications are intimately related to ... [more ▼]

A growing body of evidence is emerging to show that abdominal obesity, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and microvascular diabetic complications are intimately related to chronic inflammation. These observations pave the way to the development of new pharmacological strategies that aim to reduce silent inflammation. However, besides specific anti-inflammatory agents, glucose-lowering medications may also exert anti-inflammatory effects that could contribute to improved outcomes in diabetic patients. Most studies have used metformin, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, and thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which act as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonists. Both pharmacological classes (considered insulin-sparing agents or insulin sensitizers) appear to have greater anti-inflammatory activity than insulin-secreting agents such as sulphonylureas or glinides. In particular, TZDs have shown the widest range of evidence of lowered tissue (visceral fat and liver) and serum inflammation. In contrast, despite reducing postprandial hyperglycaemia, the effect of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors on inflammatory markers appears rather modest, whereas dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists appear more promising in this respect. These incretin-based therapies exert pleiotropic effects, including reports of anti-inflammatory activity. No human data are available so far regarding sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Although they may have indirect effects due to reduced glucotoxicity, their specific mode of action in the kidneys does not suggest systemic anti-inflammatory activity. Also, in spite of the complex relationship between insulin and atherosclerosis, exogenous insulin may also exert anti-inflammatory effects. Nevertheless, for all these glucose-lowering agents, it is essential to distinguish between anti-inflammatory effects resulting from better glucose control and potential anti-inflammatory effects related to intrinsic actions of the pharmacological class. Finally, it would also be of major clinical interest to define what role the anti-inflammatory effects of these glucose-lowering agents may play in the prevention of macrovascular and microvascular diabetic complications. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividualizing treatment of type 2 diabetes by targeting postprandial or fasting hyperglycaemia: Response to a basal vs a premixed insulin regimen by HbA quartiles and ethnicity.
Scheen, André ULiege; Schmitt, H.; Jiang, H. H. et al

in Diabetes and Metabolism (2015), 41(3), 216-222

AIM: This study evaluated the proportions of prandial (PHG) vs fasting hyperglycaemia (FHG) over 24h in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes (overall and for Caucasian vs Asian patients), and tested ... [more ▼]

AIM: This study evaluated the proportions of prandial (PHG) vs fasting hyperglycaemia (FHG) over 24h in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes (overall and for Caucasian vs Asian patients), and tested the hypothesis that an insulin regimen with a prandial component allows a greater response than basal insulin at low glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels with a higher proportion of PHG than FHG. METHODS: Relative contributions of PHG and FHG to overall hyperglycaemia were analyzed by baseline HbA1c quartiles and by ethnicity at baseline and after 24-week treatment with either insulin glargine or insulin lispro mix 25 in the DURABLE study. RESULTS: With increasing baseline HbA1c, the mean relative contribution of PHG to the total area under the curve decreased (from 41% to 27%) while FHG was increased (from 59% to 73%). Both insulins decreased FHG, but only insulin lispro mix 25 decreased PHG. More patients with baseline HbA1c<9%, where PHG was more relevant, achieved the target HbA1c of<7% at endpoint with insulin lispro mix 25 compared with glargine. On average, Asians had a 10% larger contribution of PHG at all HbA1c quartiles, and a lower proportion of Asians reached the HbA1c target of<7% with either insulin treatment compared with Caucasians. CONCLUSION: At baseline, the contribution of FHG to overall hyperglycaemia predominated at all HbA1c quartiles, whereas PHG was more clinically relevant at lower HbA1c levels and with a greater response to insulin lispro mix 25. Asians had a greater proportion of PHG and a lesser response to either insulins compared with Caucasians. Thus, responses to diabetes drugs by baseline HbA1c and ethnicity are worth investigating to better target and individualize treatment. [less ▲]

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