References of "Avian Pathology : Journal of the W.V.P.A"
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See detailPresence of antimicrobial resistance in coliform bacteria from hatching broiler eggs with emphasis on ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria
Mezhoud, Halima; Chantziaras, Ilias; Iguer-Ouada, Mokrane et al

in Avian Pathology : Journal of the W.V.P.A (2016), 45(4), 493-500

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See detailThe replication characteristics of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in the respiratory and conjunctival mucosa
Reddy, V.R.; Steukers, L.; Li, Y. et al

in Avian Pathology : Journal of the W.V.P.A (2014), 21

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See detailReplication characteristics of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in the respiratory and conjunctival mucosa.
Reddy, Vishwanatha R. A. P.; Steukers, Lennert; Li, Yewei et al

in Avian Pathology : Journal of the W.V.P.A (2014), 43(5), 450-7

Avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus of poultry that is spread worldwide. ILTV enters its host via the respiratory tract and the eyes. Although ILTV has been known for a ... [more ▼]

Avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus of poultry that is spread worldwide. ILTV enters its host via the respiratory tract and the eyes. Although ILTV has been known for a long time, the replication characteristics of the virus in the respiratory and conjunctival mucosa are still poorly studied. To study these characteristics, two in vitro explant models were developed. Light microscopy and fluorescent terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labelling staining were used to evaluate the viability of mucosal explants, which were found to be viable up to the end of the experiment at 96 h of cultivation. The tracheal and conjunctival mucosal explants were inoculated with ILTV and collected at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post inoculation (p.i.). ILTV spread in a plaque-wise manner in both mucosae. A reproducible quantitative analysis of this mucosal spread was evaluated by measuring plaque numbers, plaque latitude and invasion depth underneath the basement membrane. No major differences in plaque numbers were observed over time. Plaque latitude progressively increased to 70.4 +/- 12.9 mum in the trachea and 97.8 +/- 9.5 mum in the conjunctiva at 72 h p.i. The virus had difficulty crossing the basement membrane and was first observed only at 48 h p.i. The virus was observed at 72 h p.i. in 56% (trachea) and 74% (conjunctiva) of the plaques. Viability analysis of infected explants indicated that ILTV blocks apoptosis in infected cells of both mucosae but activates apoptosis in bystander cells. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification and typing of Salmonella serotypes isolated from guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) farms in Benin during four laying seasons (2007-2010)
Boko, C; Kpodekon, T; Duprez, Jean-Noël ULiege et al

in Avian Pathology : Journal of the W.V.P.A (2013), 42

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See detailQuantification of pigeon circovirus in serum, blood, semen and different tissues of naturally infected pigeons using a real-time polymerase chain reaction
Duchatel, Jean-Pierre ULiege; Todd, D; Willeman, C et al

in Avian Pathology : Journal of the W.V.P.A (2009), 38(2), 143-148

The development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on SYBR Green chemistry is described for the quantification of pigeon circovirus (PiCV) DNA in various samples. Plasmid containing a ... [more ▼]

The development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on SYBR Green chemistry is described for the quantification of pigeon circovirus (PiCV) DNA in various samples. Plasmid containing a fragment of the PiCV genome was used to create a standard curve and to estimate the viral DNA copies in analysed samples. Both primers were designed in highly conserved regions to avoid false negatives, and amplified a 139-base-pair amplicon. When the amplifications were performed in the presence of cellular DNA extracted from PCR-negative liver, bursa and spleen samples, the detection limits were respectively 20, 20 and 60 copies of genome per milligram of tissue. These limits were 10, 160 and 25 copies/ml for control blood, sera and semen, respectively. For cloacal swab, the detection limit was 200 copies. The assay showed a <br />linear detection over a six-log range (R2 0.99) and displayed reliable inter-assay and intra-assay reproducibility. Application of the test to sera samples indicated the presence of the virus in Belgium in 1991, 6 years before PiCV infections were histologically diagnosed. Testing of samples from pigeons with <br />‘‘young pigeon sickness’’ showed that the viral loads were high in the bursa of Fabricius (up to 2.07 x 10^9 copies/mg), the liver (up to 2.88x10^8 copies/mg) and spleen (up to 5.57x10^8 copies/mg). For liver, the viral load was significantly higher in sick pigeons than in apparently healthy pigeons. Detection of high quantities of PiCV DNA (up to 1.6x10^9 copies/ml) in the sera or blood of some young healthy pigeons <br />indicated that the viral load in this sample type would not be useful as predictive indicator of disease. This work also showed that PiCV DNA can be detected in relatively large amounts in semen (up to 1.0x10^7 copies/ejaculate) and cloacal swabs (up to 3.6x10^10 copies/swab), confirming that PiCV may be transmitted by vertical and horizontal routes. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations on detection, excretion and transmission of pigeon circovirus in adult, young and embryonic pigeons
Duchatel, Jean-Pierre ULiege; Todd D; Smyth J et al

in Avian Pathology : Journal of the W.V.P.A (2006), 35

Infections with pigeon circovirus (PiCV) occur in young racing pigeons and pigeons raised for meat production and have been reported worldwide, but relatively little is known about the disease induced by ... [more ▼]

Infections with pigeon circovirus (PiCV) occur in young racing pigeons and pigeons raised for meat production and have been reported worldwide, but relatively little is known about the disease induced by PiCV infection. The aim of this study was to investigate how PiCV is transmitted. Using a sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, the presence of PiCV was investigated in a wide range of samples from adult pigeons, embryos, breeders and young birds, which were derived from a racing loft that had a clinical history of ‘‘young pigeon sickness’’ and in which PiCV had been previously been diagnosed. Using PCR, PiCV DNA was detected in tissues of 13/20 apparently healthy older birds, aged from 1 to 9 years. Viral DNA was most commonly detected in the respiratory organs, including the trachea, pharynx and lung, followed by tissues such as the spleen, kidney and liver. It was also detected in the ovary and/or testes of some birds. This finding, and the detection of viral DNA in tissues from 8/22 embryos, suggested that PiCV may be vertically transmitted. Testing of pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and blood samples, collected immediately before the death of the adult pigeons, failed to detect all birds found to be infected at necropsy, suggesting that testing of potential breeding birds would not enable exclusion of infected birds from breeding programmes. Additional PCR testing of cloacal swab samples obtained sequentially from 19 young pigeons showed that while four were excreting virus when 15 days old, only one bird was excreting at the time of weaning (28 days old). The detection of viral DNA in cloacal swab samples from 15.8% of the birds when 37 days old and 100% of birds when 51 days old suggested that most young pigeons probably became infected in the rearing loft. [less ▲]

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