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See detailQuest for the tertiary component in Cyg OB2 #5
Rauw, Grégor ULiege; Nazé, Yaël ULiege; Campos, Fran

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 627

Aims: The Cyg OB2 #5 system is thought to consist of a short- period (6.6 d) eclipsing massive binary orbited by an OB-star with a period of 6.7 yr; these stars in turn are orbited by a distant early B ... [more ▼]

Aims: The Cyg OB2 #5 system is thought to consist of a short- period (6.6 d) eclipsing massive binary orbited by an OB-star with a period of 6.7 yr; these stars in turn are orbited by a distant early B-star with a period of thousands of years. However, while the inner binary has been studied many times, information is missing on the other stars, in particular the third star whose presence was indirectly postulated from recurrent modulations in the radio domain. Besides, to this date, the X-ray light curve could not be fully interpreted, for example in the framework of colliding-wind emission linked to one of the systems. Methods: We obtained new optical and X-ray observations of Cyg OB2 #5, which we combined to archival data. We performed a thorough and homogeneous investigation of all available data, notably revisiting the times of primary minimum in photometry. Results: In the X-ray domain, XMM-Newton provides scattered exposures over 5000 d whilst Swift provides a nearly continuous monitoring for the last couple of years. Although the X-ray light curve reveals clear variability, no significant period can be found hence the high-energy emission cannot be explained solely in terms of colliding winds varying along either the short or intermediate orbits. The optical data reveal for the first time clear signs of reflex motion. The photometry indicates the presence of a 2366 d (i.e. 6.5 yr) period while the associated radial velocity changes are detected at the 3σ level in the systemic velocity of the He II λ 4686 emission line. With the revised period, the radio light curve is interpreted consistently in terms of a wind interaction between the inner binary and the tertiary star. From these optical and radio data, we derive constraints on the physical properties of the tertiary star and its orbit. Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/627/A2">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/627/A2</A>Based on spectra obtained with the TIGRE telescope, located at La Luz observatory, Mexico (TIGRE is a collaboration of the Hamburger Sternwarte, the Universities of Hamburg, Guanajuato, and Liège), as well as data collected at the Observatoire de Haute Provence, with the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, and with XMM- Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA). [less ▲]

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See detailHD 96446: a long-period binary with a strongly magnetic He-rich primary with β Cephei pulsations
González, J. F.; Briquet, M.; Przybilla, N. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 626

<BR /> Aims: HD 96446 is a magnetic B2p He-strong star that has been reported to be a β Cep pulsator. We present a detailed spectroscopic analysis of this object based on an intensive observational data ... [more ▼]

<BR /> Aims: HD 96446 is a magnetic B2p He-strong star that has been reported to be a β Cep pulsator. We present a detailed spectroscopic analysis of this object based on an intensive observational data set obtained in a multisite campaign with the spectrographs CORALIE, FEROS, and HARPS (La Silla); UVES (Paranal); HERCULES (Mt. John Observatory); and GIRAFFE (SAAO). <BR /> Methods: Radial velocities were measured by cross-correlations and analysed to detect periodic variations. On the other hand, the mean spectrum was fit with spectral synthesis to derive atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances. <BR /> Results: From the analysis of radial velocities, HD 96446 was found to be a spectroscopic binary with a period of 799 days. The stellar companion, which contributes only ̃5% of the total flux, is an A0-type star. A frequency analysis of the radial velocities allowed us to detect two pulsational modes with periods 2.23 h and 2.66 h. The main mode is most probably a low-inclination, dipole mode (l, m) = (1, 0), and the second pulsation mode corresponds to (l, m) = (2, 2) or to a pole-on (l, m) = (3, 2) configuration. In addition to radial velocities, the main pulsation mode is evidenced through small variations in the spectral morphology (temperature variations) and the light flux. The rotation period of 23.4 d, was detected through the variation in line intensities. Chemical abundances are unevenly distributed over the stellar surface, with helium concentrated at the negative magnetic pole and most metals strengthened at lower latitudes. The mean chemical abundance of helium is strongly abnormal, reaching a value of 0.60 (number fraction). Table 3 (RV data) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/626/A94">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/626/A94</A> [less ▲]

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See detailγ Doradus stars as test of angular momentum transport models
Ouazzani, R-M; Marques, J P; Goupil, M-J et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 626

Helioseismology and asteroseismology of red giant stars have shown that the distribution of angular momentum in stellar interiors, and its evolution with time remains an open issue in stellar physics ... [more ▼]

Helioseismology and asteroseismology of red giant stars have shown that the distribution of angular momentum in stellar interiors, and its evolution with time remains an open issue in stellar physics. Owing to the unprecedented quality of Kepler photometry, we are able to seismically infer internal rotation rates in γDoradus stars, which provide the MS counterpart to the red-giants puzzle. We confront these internal rotation rates to stellar evolution models with rotationally induced transport of angular momentum, in order to test angular momentum transport mechanisms. We used a stellar model-independent method developed by Christophe et al. in order to obtain seismically inferred, buoyancy radii and near-core rotation for 37 γ Doradus stars observed by Kepler. We show that the buoyancy radius can be used as a reliable evolution indicator for field stars on the MS. We computed rotating evolutionary models including transport of angular momentum in radiative zones, following Zahn and Maeder, with the CESTAM code. This code calculates the rotational history of stars from the birth line to the tip of the RGB. The initial angular momentum content has to be set initially, which is done by fitting rotation periods in young stellar clusters. We show a clear disagreement between the near-core rotation rates measured in the sample and the rotation rates obtained from evolutionary models including rotationally induced transport following Zahn (1992). These results show a disagreement similar to that of the Sun and red giant stars. This suggests the existence of missing mechanisms responsible for the braking of the core before and along the MS. The efficiency of the missing mechanisms is investigated. The transport of angular momentum as formalized by Zahn and Maeder cannot explain the measurements of near-core rotation in main-sequence intermediate-mass stars we have at hand. [less ▲]

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See detailRotation rate of the solar core as a key constraint to magnetic angular momentum transport in stellar interiors
Eggenberger, P.; Buldgen, Gaël ULiege; Salmon, Sébastien ULiege

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 626

Context. The internal rotation of the Sun constitutes a fundamental constraint when modelling angular momentum transport in stellar interiors. In addition to the more external regions of the solar ... [more ▼]

Context. The internal rotation of the Sun constitutes a fundamental constraint when modelling angular momentum transport in stellar interiors. In addition to the more external regions of the solar radiative zone probed by pressure modes, measurements of rotational splittings of gravity modes would offer an invaluable constraint on the rotation of the solar core. Aims. We study the constraints that a measurement of the core rotation rate of the Sun could bring on magnetic angular momentum transport in stellar radiative zones. Methods. Solar models accounting for angular momentum transport by hydrodynamic and magnetic instabilities were computed for different initial velocities and disc lifetimes on the pre-main sequence to reproduce the surface rotation velocities observed for solar-type stars in open clusters. The internal rotation of these solar models was then compared to helioseismic measurements. Results. We first show that models computed with angular momentum transport by magnetic instabilities and a recent prescription for the braking of the stellar surface by magnetized winds can reproduce the observations of surface velocities of stars in open clusters. These solar models predict both a flat rotation profile in the external part of the solar radiative zone probed by pressure modes and an increase in the rotation rate in the solar core, where the stabilizing effect of chemical gradients plays a key role. A rapid rotation of the core of the Sun, as suggested by reported detections of gravity modes, is thus found to be compatible with angular momentum transport by magnetic instabilities. Moreover, we show that the efficiency of magnetic angular momentum transport in regions of strong chemical gradients can be calibrated by the solar core rotation rate independently from the unknown rotational history of the Sun. In particular, we find that a recent revised prescription for the transport of angular momentum by the Tayler instability can be easily distinguished from the original Tayler-Spruit dynamo, with a faster rotating solar core supporting the original prescription. Conclusions. By calibrating the efficiency of magnetic angular momentum transport in regions of strong chemical gradients, a determination of the solar core rotation rate through gravity modes is of prime relevance not only for the Sun, but for stars in general, since radial differential rotation precisely develops in these regions during the more advanced stages of evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailPolarization of changing-look quasars
Hutsemekers, Damien ULiege; Agis-Gonzalez, Beatriz ULiege; Marin, F. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 625

If the disappearance of the broad emission lines observed in changing- look quasars originates from the obscuration of the quasar core by dusty clouds moving in the torus, high linear optical polarization ... [more ▼]

If the disappearance of the broad emission lines observed in changing- look quasars originates from the obscuration of the quasar core by dusty clouds moving in the torus, high linear optical polarization would be expected in those objects. We then measured the rest-frame UV-blue linear polarization of a sample of 13 changing-look quasars, 7 of them being in a type 1.9-2 state. For all quasars but one the polarization degree is lower than 1%. This suggests that the disappearance of the broad emission lines cannot be attributed to dust obscuration, and supports the scenario in which changes of look are caused by a change in the rate of accretion onto the supermassive black hole. Such low polarization degrees also indicate that these quasars are seen under inclinations close to the system axis. One type 1.9-2 quasar in our sample shows a high polarization degree of 6.8%. While this polarization could be ascribed to obscuration by a moving dusty cloud, we argue that this is unlikely given the very long time needed for a cloud from the torus to eclipse the broad emission line region of that object. We propose that the high polarization is due to the echo of a past bright phase seen in polar-scattered light. This interpretation raises the possibility that broad emission lines observed in the polarized light of some type 2 active galactic nuclei can be echoes of past type 1 phases and not evidence of hidden broad emission line regions. Based on observations made with the William Herschel telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias and observations made with ESO Very Large Telescope at the Paranal Observatory under program ID 101.B-0209. [less ▲]

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See detailLower atmosphere and pressure evolution on Pluto from ground-based stellar occultations, 1988-2016
Meza, E.; Sicardy, B.; Assafin, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 625(A42), 21

Context. The tenuous nitrogen (N[SUB]2[/SUB]) atmosphere on Pluto undergoes strong seasonal effects due to high obliquity and orbital eccentricity, and has recently (July 2015) been observed by the New ... [more ▼]

Context. The tenuous nitrogen (N[SUB]2[/SUB]) atmosphere on Pluto undergoes strong seasonal effects due to high obliquity and orbital eccentricity, and has recently (July 2015) been observed by the New Horizons spacecraft. <BR /> Aims: The main goals of this study are (i) to construct a well calibrated record of the seasonal evolution of surface pressure on Pluto and (ii) to constrain the structure of the lower atmosphere using a central flash observed in 2015. <BR /> Methods: Eleven stellar occultations by Pluto observed between 2002 and 2016 are used to retrieve atmospheric profiles (density, pressure, temperature) between altitude levels of 5 and 380 km (i.e. pressures from 10 μbar to 10 nbar). <BR /> Results: (i) Pressure has suffered a monotonic increase from 1988 to 2016, that is compared to a seasonal volatile transport model, from which tight constraints on a combination of albedo and emissivity of N[SUB]2[/SUB] ice are derived. (ii) A central flash observed on 2015 June 29 is consistent with New Horizons REX profiles, provided that (a) large diurnal temperature variations (not expected by current models) occur over Sputnik Planitia; and/or (b) hazes with tangential optical depth of 0.3 are present at 4-7 km altitude levels; and/or (c) the nominal REX density values are overestimated by an implausibly large factor of 20%; and/or (d) higher terrains block part of the flash in the Charon facing hemisphere. [less ▲]

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See detailDust properties of double-tailed active asteroid (6478) Gault
Moreno, F.; Jehin, Emmanuel ULiege; Licandro, J. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 624(L14), 11

Context. Asteroid (6478) Gault was discovered to exhibit a comet-like tail in observations from December 2018, becoming a new member of the so-called active asteroid population in the main asteroid belt ... [more ▼]

Context. Asteroid (6478) Gault was discovered to exhibit a comet-like tail in observations from December 2018, becoming a new member of the so-called active asteroid population in the main asteroid belt. <BR /> Aims: We seek to investigate the grain properties of the dust ejected from asteroid (6478) Gault and to give insight into the activity mechanism(s). <BR /> Methods: We use a Monte Carlo dust tail brightness code to retrieve the dates of dust ejection, the physical properties of the grains, and the total dust mass losses during each event. The code takes into account the brightness contribution of the asteroid itself. The model is applied to a large data set of images spanning the period from 2019 January 11 to 2019 March 13. In addition, we carried out both short- and long-term photometric measurements of the asteroid. <BR /> Results: It is shown that, to date, asteroid (6478) Gault has experienced two episodes of impulsive dust ejection, which took place around 2018 November 5 and 2019 January 2. These two episodes released at least 1.4 × 10[SUP]7[/SUP] kg and 1.6 × 10[SUP]6[/SUP] kg of dust, respectively, at escape speeds. The size distribution, consisting of particles in the 1 μm-1 cm radius range, follows a broken power law with bending points near 15 μm and 870 μm. On the other hand, the photometric series indicate a nearly constant magnitude over several 5-7.3 h periods, which is a possible effect of the masking of a rotational light curve by the dust. <BR /> Conclusions: The dust particles forming Gault's tails were released from the asteroid at escape speeds, but the specific ejection mechanism is unclear until photometry of the dust-free asteroid are conducted to assess whether this was related to rotational disruption or to other possible causes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe shape of (7) Iris as evidence of an ancient large impact?
Hanuš, J.; Marsset, M.; Vernazza, P. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 624(A121), 17

Context. Asteroid (7) Iris is an ideal target for disk-resolved imaging owing to its brightness (V 7-8) and large angular size of 0.33'' during its apparitions. Iris is believed to belong to the category ... [more ▼]

Context. Asteroid (7) Iris is an ideal target for disk-resolved imaging owing to its brightness (V 7-8) and large angular size of 0.33'' during its apparitions. Iris is believed to belong to the category of large unfragmented asteroids that avoided internal differentiation, implying that its current shape and topography may record the first few 100 Myr of the solar system's collisional evolution. <BR /> Aims: We recovered information about the shape and surface topography of Iris from disk-resolved VLT/SPHERE/ZIMPOL images acquired in the frame of our ESO large program. <BR /> Methods: We used the All-Data Asteroid Modeling (ADAM) shape reconstruction algorithm to model the 3D shape of Iris, using optical disk-integrated data and disk-resolved images from SPHERE and earlier AO systems as inputs. We analyzed the SPHERE images and our model to infer the asteroid's global shape and the morphology of its main craters. <BR /> Results: We present the 3D shape, volume-equivalent diameter D[SUB]eq[/SUB] = 214 ± 5 km, and bulk density ρ = 2.7 ± 0.3 g cm[SUP]-3[/SUP] of Iris. Its shape appears to be consistent with that of an oblate spheroid with a large equatorial excavation. We identified eight putative surface features 20-40 km in diameter detected at several epochs, which we interpret as impact craters, and several additional crater candidates. Craters on Iris have depth-to-diameter ratios that are similar to those of analogous 10 km craters on Vesta. <BR /> Conclusions: The bulk density of Iris is consistent with that of its meteoritic analog based on spectroscopic observations, namely LL ordinary chondrites. Considering the absence of a collisional family related to Iris and the number of large craters on its surface, we suggest that its equatorial depression may be the remnant of an ancient (at least 3 Gyr) impact. Iris's shape further opens the possibility that large planetesimals formed as almost perfect oblate spheroids. Finally, we attribute the difference in crater morphology between Iris and Vesta to their different surface gravities, and the absence of a substantial impact-induced regolith on Iris. The reduced images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/624/A121">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/624/A121</A>Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme ID 199.C-0074 (PI: P. Vernazza) and 086.C-0785 (PI: B. Carry). [less ▲]

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See detailHigh resolution optical spectroscopy of the N2-rich comet C/2016 R2 (PanSTARRS)
Opitom, C.; Hutsemekers, Damien ULiege; Jehin, Emmanuel ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 624

Context. Early observations of comet C/2016 R2 (PanSTARRS) have shown that the composition of this comet is very peculiar. Radio observations have revealed a CO-rich and HCN-poor comet and an optical coma ... [more ▼]

Context. Early observations of comet C/2016 R2 (PanSTARRS) have shown that the composition of this comet is very peculiar. Radio observations have revealed a CO-rich and HCN-poor comet and an optical coma dominated by strong emission bands of CO[SUP]+[/SUP] and, more surprisingly, N[SUB]2[/SUB][SUP]+[/SUP]. <BR /> Aims: The strong detection of N[SUB]2[/SUB][SUP]+[/SUP] in the coma of C/2016 R2 provided an ideal opportunity to measure the [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N isotopic ratio directly from N[SUB]2[/SUB][SUP]+[/SUP] for the first time, and to estimate the N[SUB]2[/SUB]/CO ratio, which is an important diagnostic to constrain formation models of planetesimals, in addition to the more general study of coma composition. <BR /> Methods: We obtained high resolution spectra of the comet in February 2018 when it was at 2.8 au from the Sun. We used the UVES spectrograph of the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, complemented with narrowband images obtained with the TRAPPIST telescopes. <BR /> Results: We detect strong emissions from the N[SUB]2[/SUB][SUP]+[/SUP] and CO[SUP]+[/SUP] ions, but also CO[SUB]2[/SUB][SUP]+[/SUP], emission lines from the CH radical, and much fainter emissions of the CN, C[SUB]2[/SUB], and C[SUB]3[/SUB] radicals that were not detected in previous observations of this comet. We do not detect OH or H[SUB]2[/SUB]O[SUP]+[/SUP], and we derive an upper limit of the H[SUB]2[/SUB]O[SUP]+[/SUP]/CO[SUP]+[/SUP] ratio of 0.4, implying that the comet has a low water abundance. We measure a N[SUB]2[/SUB][SUP]+[/SUP]/CO[SUP]+[/SUP] ratio of 0.06 ± 0.01. The non-detection of NH[SUB]2[/SUB] indicates that most of the nitrogen content of the comet is in N[SUB]2[/SUB]. Together with the high N[SUB]2[/SUB][SUP]+[/SUP]/CO[SUP]+[/SUP] ratio, this could indicate a low formation temperature of the comet or that the comet is a fragment of a large differentiated Kuiper Belt object. The CO[SUB]2[/SUB][SUP]+[/SUP]/CO[SUP]+[/SUP] ratio is 1.1 ± 0.3. We do not detect [SUP]14[/SUP]N[SUP]15[/SUP]N[SUP]+[/SUP] lines and can only put a lower limit on the [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N ratio (measured from N[SUB]2[/SUB][SUP]+[/SUP]) of about 100, which is compatible with measurements of the same isotopic ratio for NH[SUB]2[/SUB] and CN in other comets. Finally, in addition to the [OI] and [CI] forbidden lines, we detect for the first time the forbidden nitrogen lines [NI] doublet at 519.79 and 520.03 nm in the coma of a comet. [less ▲]

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See detailClosing the gap between Earth-based and interplanetary mission observations: Vesta seen by VLT/SPHERE
Fétick, R. J. L.; Jorda, L.; Vernazza, P. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 623

Context. Over the past decades, several interplanetary missions have studied small bodies in situ, leading to major advances in our understanding of their geological and geophysical properties. These ... [more ▼]

Context. Over the past decades, several interplanetary missions have studied small bodies in situ, leading to major advances in our understanding of their geological and geophysical properties. These missions, however, have had a limited number of targets. Among them, the NASA Dawn mission has characterised in detail the topography and albedo variegation across the surface of asteroid (4) Vesta down to a spatial resolution of 20 m pixel[SUP]-1[/SUP] scale. <BR /> Aims: Here our aim was to determine how much topographic and albedo information can be retrieved from the ground with VLT/SPHERE in the case of Vesta, having a former space mission (Dawn) providing us with the ground truth that can be used as a benchmark. <BR /> Methods: We observed Vesta with VLT/SPHERE/ZIMPOL as part of our ESO large programme (ID 199.C-0074) at six different epochs, and deconvolved the collected images with a parametric point spread function (PSF). We then compared our images with synthetic views of Vesta generated from the 3D shape model of the Dawn mission, on which we projected Vesta's albedo information. <BR /> Results: We show that the deconvolution of the VLT/SPHERE images with a parametric PSF allows the retrieval of the main topographic and albedo features present across the surface of Vesta down to a spatial resolution of 20-30 km. Contour extraction shows an accuracy of 1 pixel (3.6 mas). The present study provides the very first quantitative estimate of the accuracy of ground-based adaptive-optics imaging observations of asteroid surfaces. <BR /> Conclusions: In the case of Vesta, the upcoming generation of 30-40 m telescopes (ELT, TMT, GMT) should in principle be able to resolve all of the main features present across its surface, including the troughs and the north-south crater dichotomy, provided that they operate at the diffraction limit. Reduced images of Table A.1 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/623/A6">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/623/A6</A>Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme ID 199.C-0074 (PI: P. Vernazza). [less ▲]

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See detailHints about the multiplicity of WR 133 based on multiepoch radio observations
De Becker, Michaël ULiege; Isequilla, Natacha L.; Benaglia, Paula

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 623

Several tens of massive binary systems display indirect, or even strong evidence for non-thermal radio emission, hence their particle accelerator status. These objects are referred to as particle ... [more ▼]

Several tens of massive binary systems display indirect, or even strong evidence for non-thermal radio emission, hence their particle accelerator status. These objects are referred to as particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries (PACWBs). WR 133 is one of the shortest period Wolf-Rayet + O systems in this category, and is therefore critical to characterize the boundaries of the parameter space adequate for particle acceleration in massive binaries. Our methodology consists in analyzing JVLA observations of WR 133 at different epochs to search for compelling evidence for a phase-locked variation attributable to synchrotron emission produced in the colliding-wind region. New data obtained during two orbits reveal a steady and thermal emission spectrum, in apparent contradiction with the previous detection of non-thermal emission. The thermal nature of the radio spectrum along the 112.4-d orbit is supported by the strong free-free absorption by the dense stellar winds, and shows that the simple binary scenario cannot explain the non-thermal emission reported previously. Alternatively, a triple system scenario with a wide, outer orbit would fit with the observational facts reported previously and in this paper, albeit no hint for the existence of a third component exists to date. The epoch-dependent nature of the identification of synchrotron radio emission in WR 133 emphasizes the issue of observational biases in the identification of PACWBs, that undoubtedly affect the present census of PACWB among colliding-wind binaries. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Solar Orbiter Heliospheric Imager (SoloHI)
Howard, R.A.; Rochus, Pierre ULiege

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019)

Aims. We present the design and pre-launch performance of the Solar Orbiter Heliospheric Imager (SoloHI) which is an instrument prepared for inclusion on the ESA/NASA Solar Orbiter mission, currently ... [more ▼]

Aims. We present the design and pre-launch performance of the Solar Orbiter Heliospheric Imager (SoloHI) which is an instrument prepared for inclusion on the ESA/NASA Solar Orbiter mission, currently scheduled for launch in 2020. Methods. The goal of this paper is to provide details of the SoloHI instrument concept, design and pre-flight performance to give a potential user of the data a better understanding of how the observations are collected and the sources that contribute to the signal. Results. The paper discusses the science objectives, including the SoloHI-specific aspects, before presenting the design concepts, including the optics, mechanical, thermal, electrical, and ground processing. Finally, the list of planned data products is also presented. Conclusions. The performance measurements of the various instrument parameters meet or exceed the requirements derived from the mission science objectives. SoloHI is poised to take its place as a vital contributor to the science success of the Solar Orbiter mission. [less ▲]

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See detailGaia Data Release 2: Properties and validation of the radial velocities
Katz, D.; Sartoretti, P.; Cropper, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 622

Context. For Gaia DR2, 280 million spectra collected by the Radial Velocity Spectrometer instrument on board Gaia were processed, and median radial velocities were derived for 9.8 million sources brighter ... [more ▼]

Context. For Gaia DR2, 280 million spectra collected by the Radial Velocity Spectrometer instrument on board Gaia were processed, and median radial velocities were derived for 9.8 million sources brighter than GRVS = 12 mag. Aims. This paper describes the validation and properties of the median radial velocities published in Gaia DR2. Methods. Quality tests and filters were applied to select those of the 9.8 million radial velocities that have the quality to be published in Gaia DR2. The accuracy of the selected sample was assessed with respect to ground-based catalogues. Its precision was estimated using both ground-based catalogues and the distribution of the Gaia radial velocity uncertainties. Results. Gaia DR2 contains median radial velocities for 7 224 631 stars, with Teff in the range [3550; 6900] K, which successfully passed the quality tests. The published median radial velocities provide a full-sky coverage and are complete with respect to the astrometric data to within 77.2% (for G ≤ 12:5 mag). The median radial velocity residuals with respect to the ground-based surveys vary from one catalogue to another, but do not exceed a few 100 m s-1. In addition, the Gaia radial velocities show a positive trend as a function of magnitude, which starts around GRVS ∼ 9 mag and reaches about +500 m s-1 at GRVS = 11:75 mag. The origin of the trend is under investigation, with the aim to correct for it in Gaia DR3. The overall precision, estimated from the median of the Gaia radial velocity uncertainties, is 1.05 km s-1. The radial velocity precision is a function of many parameters, in particular, the magnitude and effective temperature. For bright stars, GRVS 2 [4; 8] mag, the precision, estimated using the full dataset, is in the range 220-350 m s-1, which is about three to five times more precise than the pre-launch specification of 1 km s-1. At the faint end, GRVS = 11:75 mag, the precisions for Teff = 5000 and 6500 K are 1.4 and 3.7 km s-1, respectively. © 2018 Springer Verlag. All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCalibration of mixing-length parameter α for MLT and FST models by matching with CO[SUP]5[/SUP]BOLD models
Sonoi, T.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 621

Context. Space observations by the CoRoT and Kepler missions have provided a wealth of high-quality seismic data for a large number of stars from the main sequence to the red giant phases. One main goal ... [more ▼]

Context. Space observations by the CoRoT and Kepler missions have provided a wealth of high-quality seismic data for a large number of stars from the main sequence to the red giant phases. One main goal of these missions is to take advantage of the rich spectra of solar-like oscillations to perform precise determinations of stellar characteristic parameters. To make the best of such data, we need theoretical stellar models with a precise near-surface structure since a near-surface structure of a solar-like star has significant influence on solar-like oscillation frequencies. The mixing-length parameter is a key factor to determine the near-surface structure of stellar models. In current versions of the convection formulations used in stellar evolution codes, the mixing-length parameter is a free parameter that needs to be properly specified. <BR /> Aims: We aim at determining appropriate values of the mixing-length parameter, α, to be used consistently with the adopted convection formulation when computing stellar evolution models across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This determination is based on 3D hydrodynamical simulation models. <BR /> Methods: We calibrated α values by matching entropy profiles of 1D envelope models with those of hydrodynamical 3D models of solar-like stars produced by the CO[SUP]5[/SUP]BOLD code. For such calibration, previous works concentrated on the classical mixing-length theory (MLT). We also analyzed full spectrum turbulence (FST) models. To construct the atmosphere in the 1D models, we used the Eddington gray T(τ) relation and that with the solar-calibrated Hopf-like function. <BR /> Results: For both MLT and FST models with a mixing length l = αH[SUB]p[/SUB], calibrated α values increase with increasing surface gravity or decreasing effective temperature. For the FST models, we carried out an additional calibration using an α[SUP]*[/SUP] value defined as l = r[SUB]top[/SUB] - r + α[SUP]*[/SUP]H[SUB]p, top[/SUB], where α[SUP]*[/SUP] is found to increase with surface gravity and effective temperature. We provide tables of the calibrated α values across the T[SUB]eff[/SUB]-log g plane for solar metallicity. By computing stellar evolution with varying α based on our 3D α calibration, we find that the change from solar α to varying α shifts evolutionary tracks particularly for the FST model. As for the correspondence to the 3D models, the solar Hopf-like function generally gives a photospheric-minimum entropy closer to a 3D model than the Eddington T(τ). The structure below the photosphere depends on the adopted convection model. However, we cannot obtain a definitive conclusion about which convection model gives the best correspondence to the 3D models. This is because each 1D physical quantity is related via an equation of state (EoS), but it is not the case for the averaged 3D quantities. Although the FST models with l = r[SUB]top[/SUB] - r + α[SUP]*[/SUP]H[SUB]p, top[/SUB] are found to give the oscillation frequencies closest to the solar observed frequencies, their acoustic cavities are formed with compensatory effects between deviating density and temperature profiles near the top of the convective envelope. In future work, an appropriate treatment of the top part of the 1D convective envelope is necessary, for example, by considering turbulent pressure and overshooting. [less ▲]

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See detailThe homogeneous internal structure of CM-like asteroid (41) Daphne
Carry, B.; Vachier, F.; Berthier, J. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 623(A132),

Context. CM-like asteroids (Ch and Cgh classes) are a major population within the broader C-complex, encompassing about 10% of the mass of the main asteroid belt. Their internal structure has been ... [more ▼]

Context. CM-like asteroids (Ch and Cgh classes) are a major population within the broader C-complex, encompassing about 10% of the mass of the main asteroid belt. Their internal structure has been predicted to be homogeneous, based on their compositional similarity as inferred from spectroscopy (Vernazza et al., 2016, AJ 152, 154) and numerical modeling of their early thermal evolution (Bland & Travis, 2017, Sci. Adv. 3, e1602514). Aims. Here we aim to test this hypothesis by deriving the density of the CM-like asteroid (41) Daphne from detailed modeling of its shape and the orbit of its small satellite. Methods. We observed Daphne and its satellite within our imaging survey with the Very Large Telescope extreme adaptive-optics SPHERE/ZIMPOL camera (ID 199.C-0074, PI P. Vernazza) and complemented this data set with earlier Keck/NIRC2 and VLT/NACO observations. We analyzed the dynamics of the satellite with our Genoid meta-heuristic algorithm. Combining our high-angular resolution images with optical lightcurves and stellar occultations, we determine the spin period, orientation, and 3-D shape, using our ADAM shape modeling algorithm. Results. The satellite orbits Daphne on an equatorial, quasi-circular, prograde orbit, like the satellites of many other large main-belt asteroids. The shape model of Daphne reveals several large flat areas that could be large impact craters. The mass determined from this orbit combined with the volume computed from the shape model implies a density for Daphne of 1.77+/-0.26 g/cm3 (3 {\sigma}). This density is consistent with a primordial CM-like homogeneous internal structure with some level of macroporosity (~17%). Conclusions. Based on our analysis of the density of Daphne and 75 other Ch/Cgh-type asteroids gathered from the literature, we conclude that the primordial internal structure of the CM parent bodies was homogeneous. [less ▲]

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See detailCombining multiple structural inversions to constrain the solar modelling problem
Buldgen, Gaël ULiege; Salmon, Sébastien ULiege; Noels-Grötsch, Arlette ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 621

Context. The Sun is the most studied of all stars, which serves as a reference for all other observed stars in the Universe. Furthermore, it also serves the role of a privileged laboratory of fundamental ... [more ▼]

Context. The Sun is the most studied of all stars, which serves as a reference for all other observed stars in the Universe. Furthermore, it also serves the role of a privileged laboratory of fundamental physics and can help us better understand processes occuring in conditions irreproducible on Earth. However, our understanding of our star is currently lessened by the so-called solar modelling problem, resulting from comparisons of theoretical solar models to helioseismic constraints. These discrepancies can stem from various causes, such as the radiative opacities, the equation of state as well as the mixing of the chemical elements. <BR /> Aims: By analysing the potential of combining information from multiple seismic inversions, our aim is to help disentangle the origins of the solar modelling problem. <BR /> Methods: We combined inversions of the adiabatic sound speed, an entropy proxy and the Ledoux discriminant with other constraints such as the position of the base of the convective zone and the photospheric helium abundance. First, we tested various combinations of standard ingredients available for solar modelling such as abundance tables, equation of state, formalism for convection and diffusion and opacity tables. Second, we studied the diagnostic potential of the inversions on models including ad hoc modifications of the opacity profile and additional mixing below the convective envelope. <BR /> Results: We show that combining inversions provides stringent constraints on the required modifications to the solar ingredients, far beyond what can be achieved from sound speed inversions alone. We constrain the form and amplitude of the opacity increase required in solar models and show that a 15% increase at log T = 6.35 provides a significant improvement, but is insufficient on its own. A more global increase in the opacity, within the uncertainties of the current tables, coupled with a localized additional mixing at the bottom of the convective zone provides the best agreement for low-metallicity models. We show that high-metallicity models do not satisfy all the inversion results. We conclude that the solar modelling problem likely occurs from multiple small contributors, as other ingredients such as the equation of state or the formalism of convection can induce small but significant changes in the models and that using phase shift analyses combined with our approach is the next step for a better understanding of the inaccuracies of solar models just below the convective envelope. [less ▲]

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See detailBRITE photometry of the massive post-RLOF system HD149 404
Rauw, Grégor ULiege; Pigulski, A.; Nazé, Yaël ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 621

Context. HD 149 404 is an evolved non-eclipsing O-star binary that has previously undergone a Roche lobe overflow interaction. <BR /> Aims: Understanding some key properties of the system requires a ... [more ▼]

Context. HD 149 404 is an evolved non-eclipsing O-star binary that has previously undergone a Roche lobe overflow interaction. <BR /> Aims: Understanding some key properties of the system requires a determination of the orbital inclination and of the dimensions of the components. <BR /> Methods: The BRITE-Heweliusz satellite was used to collect photometric data of HD 149 404. Additional photometry was retrieved from the SMEI archive. These data were analysed using a suite of period search tools. The orbital part of the lightcurve was modelled with the nightfall binary star code. The Gaia-DR2 parallax of HD 149 404 was used to provide additional constraints. <BR /> Results: The periodograms reveal a clear orbital modulation of the lightcurve with a peak-to-peak amplitude near 0.04 mag. The remaining non-orbital part of the variability is consistent with red noise. The lightcurve folded with the orbital period reveals ellipsoidal variations, but no eclipses. The minimum when the secondary star is in inferior conjunction is deeper than the other minimum due to mutual reflection effects between the stars. Combined with the Gaia-DR2 parallaxes, the photometric data indicate an orbital inclination in the range of 23°-31° and a Roche lobe filling factor of the secondary larger than or equal to 0.96. <BR /> Conclusions: The luminosity of the primary star is consistent with its present-day mass, whereas the more evolved secondary appears overluminous for its mass. We confirm that the primary's rotation period is about half the orbital period. Both features most probably stem from the past Roche lobe overflow episode. Based on data collected by the BRITE-Constellation satellite mission, designed, built, launched, operated and supported by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG), the University of Vienna, the Technical University of Graz, the University of Innsbruck, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS), the Foundation for Polish Science & Technology (FNiTP MNiSW), and the National Science Centre (NCN). [less ▲]

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See detailAsteroseismology of evolved stars to constrain the internal transport of angular momentum. I. Efficiency of transport during the subgiant phase
Eggenberger, P.; Deheuvels, S.; Miglio, A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 621

Context. The observations of solar-like oscillations in evolved stars have brought important constraints on their internal rotation rates. To correctly reproduce these data, an efficient transport ... [more ▼]

Context. The observations of solar-like oscillations in evolved stars have brought important constraints on their internal rotation rates. To correctly reproduce these data, an efficient transport mechanism is needed in addition to the transport of angular momentum by meridional circulation and shear instability. The efficiency of this undetermined process is found to increase both with the mass and the evolutionary stage during the red giant phase. <BR /> Aims: We study the efficiency of the transport of angular momentum during the subgiant phase. <BR /> Methods: The efficiency of the unknown transport mechanism is determined during the subgiant phase by comparing rotating models computed with an additional corresponding viscosity to the asteroseismic measurements of both core and surface-rotation rates for six subgiants observed by the Kepler spacecraft. We then investigate the change in the efficiency of this transport of angular momentum with stellar mass and evolution during the subgiant phase. <BR /> Results: The precise asteroseismic measurements of both core and surface-rotation rates available for the six Kepler targets enable a precise determination of the efficiency of the transport of angular momentum needed for each of these subgiants. These results are found to be insensitive to all the uncertainties related to the modelling of rotational effects before the post-main sequence (poMS) phase. An interesting exception in this context is the case of young subgiants (typical values of log(g) close to 4), because their rotational properties are sensitive to the degree of radial differential rotation on the main sequence (MS). These young subgiants constitute therefore perfect targets to constrain the transport of angular momentum on the MS from asteroseismic observations of evolved stars. As for red giants, we find that the efficiency of the additional transport process increases with the mass of the star during the subgiant phase. However, the efficiency of this undetermined mechanism decreases with evolution during the subgiant phase, contrary to what is found for red giants. Consequently, a transport process with an efficiency that increases with the degree of radial differential rotation cannot account for the core-rotation rates of subgiants, while it correctly reproduces the rotation rates of red giant stars. This suggests that the physical nature of the additional mechanism needed for the internal transport of angular momentum may be different in subgiant and red giant stars. [less ▲]

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See detailPlasma environment effects on K-lines of astrophysical interest. I. Atomic structure, radiative rates and Auger widths of oxygen ions
Deprince, J.; Bautista, M.A.; Fritzsche, S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 624

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See detailCombined asteroseismology, spectroscopy, and astrometry of the CoRoT B2V target HD 170580
Aerts, C.; Pedersen, M. G.; Vermeyen, E. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 624

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