References of "Majerus, Steve"
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See detailCommon neural patterns for serial order coding in working memory, number and letter domains: A multi-voxel pattern analysis approach
Leroy, Nathan ULiege; Attout, Lucie ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2019, October 04)

Background – The retention of serial order information allows for the structured encoding and maintenance of the sequential order of events and stimuli (Attout & Majerus, 2018). It’s a fundamental ... [more ▼]

Background – The retention of serial order information allows for the structured encoding and maintenance of the sequential order of events and stimuli (Attout & Majerus, 2018). It’s a fundamental component of working memory strongly associated with numerical and alphabetical abilities and critical for success in many different cognitive tasks. The codes used to represent serial order remain however poorly understood. Aims – By using a functional neuroimaging approach (fMRI), we assessed the hypothesis that serial order information is coded using domain general ordinal representations that support serial order coding also in other domains characterized by sequential processing such as numbers and letters. Methods – Twenty-five healthy young adults were invited to perform a set of four tasks in a 3T MRI scanner. The tasks were comprised of three ordinal judgement tasks (alphabetical, numerical and verbal working memory tasks) with further manipulation of ordinal distance effects, and a luminance comparison control task. Results – Multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPA), both at the whole brain level and in regions-of-interest within the parietal cortex, revealed robust ordinal distance effects for all tasks as neural patterns associated with high versus small ordinal distances could be reliably identified within each task. Critically, MVPA further showed greater than-chance-level classification when predicting ordinal distance between tasks. Luminance distance in the control task could not be decoded by ordinal distance neural patterns, indicating that the results are specific to ordinal processing, and not to distance per se. Conclusion – These results provide support for theoretical accounts considering the existence of domain general serial order coding. [less ▲]

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See detailDo serial order working memory abilities decline in healthy aging?
Gregoire, Coline ULiege; Fay, Séverine; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2019, September 27)

The preservation of the ability to maintain information over the short-term in healthy aging remains a controversial question. We assessed verbal working memory abilities in 30 young and 30 older adults ... [more ▼]

The preservation of the ability to maintain information over the short-term in healthy aging remains a controversial question. We assessed verbal working memory abilities in 30 young and 30 older adults by focusing directly on the maintenance of serial order information, an aspect rarely considered in previous studies. Participants heard and repeated in correct serial order word or nonword sequences of increasing list length. Bayesian statistics showed moderate evidence for an absence of group effect on item recall performance (BF01 = 3,25 for words, BF01 = 1,26 for nonwords). When focusing directly on serial order recall performance, we observed anecdotal evidence in favor of a group effect (BF10 = 2,9 for words; BF10 = 0,5 for nonwords). These results suggest that if there is any reduction of verbal WM abilities in healthy aging, it is very small and may be limited to the maintenance of serial order information. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing phonetic and phonological working memory precision
Bouffier, Marion ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2019, September 26)

Only few studies have investigated auditory-verbal working memory (WM) precision, which is the resolution at which verbal items are maintained in WM. The aim of this study was to explore WM precision ... [more ▼]

Only few studies have investigated auditory-verbal working memory (WM) precision, which is the resolution at which verbal items are maintained in WM. The aim of this study was to explore WM precision using a phonetic-phonological similarity gradient in a recognition task. Lists of non-words were presented auditorily. After each list, a probe non-word was presented, and participants had to decide whether or not that item had been in the list. At the phonetic level, we modified the onset of the initial phoneme of one of the memoranda to render it phonetically ambiguous. At the phonological level, probe items differed from the memoranda by close (/p/-/b/) or more distinct (/p/-/t/) phonological contrasts. We observed an influence of both phonetic and phonological contrasts, which furthermore interacted with the serial position of the memoranda. This study suggests that WM precision is influenced by the level of linguistic abstraction and by serial position. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term memory effects in working memory are not always automatic: evidence from the imageability effect
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Van Akelyen, Dylan ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2019, September 26)

Verbal working memory (WM) is influenced by linguistic knowledge; this influence is considered to reflect non-strategic linguistic activation during WM. This may however not be true for the influence of ... [more ▼]

Verbal working memory (WM) is influenced by linguistic knowledge; this influence is considered to reflect non-strategic linguistic activation during WM. This may however not be true for the influence of semantic knowledge as involved in the imageability effect (recall of high vs. low imageability words). We assessed the role of controlled processes such as semantic elaboration in the occurrence of the imageability effect. Sixty participants recalled six-item lists composed of high or low imageability words, with an interfering task presented during encoding for half of trials. The interfering task either involved semantic judgment supposed to prevent semantic elaboration processes, or similarly demanding visuo-spatial judgement processes. We observed robust evidence for a reduced word imageability effect in the semantic but not in the visuo-spatial interfering condition. These results suggest that the occurrence of the imageability effect in WM tasks relies partially on semantic elaboration strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailLANGUAGE CONTROL PROCESSES: DOMAIN GENERAL OR DOMAIN-SPECIFIC?
Attout, Lucie ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Conference (2019, September 26)

There remain major doubts about the nature and domain specificity of inhibitory control processes, both within and between cognitive domains. The present fMRI study assessed the neural substrates ... [more ▼]

There remain major doubts about the nature and domain specificity of inhibitory control processes, both within and between cognitive domains. The present fMRI study assessed the neural substrates associated with inhibitory control processes within in the language domain, by comparing phonological versus semantic control processes. Thirty-four elderly participants (59.6 ± 6.1 years old) performed phonological similarity and semantic similarity judgment tasks involving the inhibition of highly or weakly interfering stimuli. A direct contrast between the two task conditions revealed two distinct networks : a temporo-parietal network for phonological control and a temporo-frontal network for semantic control. Common activity was observed in a large dorsal attention network including bilaterally the insula. Moreover, multivariate voxel pattern analysis showed reliable decoding of neural patterns associated with high versus weak inhibitory control in both tasks. These results provide novel evidence for a dissociation between phonological and semantic language control processes. [less ▲]

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See detailNature of inhibition abilities in aging: A multimodal working memory approach. Preliminary results.
Gregoire, Coline ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2019, September 12)

Le vieillissement normal entraine une diminution des fonctions cognitives et notamment de l’inhibition. Cependant, la question fondamentale du caractère unitaire versus non-unitaire des capacités ... [more ▼]

Le vieillissement normal entraine une diminution des fonctions cognitives et notamment de l’inhibition. Cependant, la question fondamentale du caractère unitaire versus non-unitaire des capacités d’inhibition demeure non résolue: les difficultés d’inhibition concernent-elles toutes les informations ou sont-elles plus importantes dans certains domaines (e.g. langage) que d’autres (e.g. informations visuelles)? Cette étude constitue une première approche de la nature des difficultés d’inhibition en étudiant les différences interindividuelles entre adultes jeunes et âgés pour trois processus d’inhibition : visuel, verbal sémantique, verbal phonologique. 25 adultes jeunes (20-40 ans) et 25 adultes âgés (60-80 ans) ont mémorisé des séries de 4 mots ou signes visuels. À la fin de la liste, un item-test était présenté et les sujets devaient décider s’il faisait partie des 4 items mémorisés ou non. Les items-tests négatifs étaient très proches de l’item-cible soit au niveau phonologique (e.g. dessert-désert), sémantique (e.g. lettre-timbre) ou visuel (e.g. -) recrutant des processus d’inhibition pour leur rejet correct. Pour chaque modalité, 30 essais nécessitant de l’inhibition, 30 essais contrôle-neutre (e.g. lampe-dessert, lettre-biche, -) et 30 essais contrôle-positif (e.g. dessert-dessert, lettre-lettre, -) étaient présentés. Afin d’éviter que des processus visuels n’affectent les tâches verbales, celles-ci étaient présentées de manière auditive. L’analyse des résultats est en cours. Le coût de l’inhibition sera calculé en soustrayant les performances moyennes (temps de réponse, réponses correctes) pour les essais « contrôle » des performances aux essais « inhibition », et ceci de manière séparée pour les essais visuels, phonologiques et sémantiques. Si les mécanismes d’inhibition et leur déclin sont unitaires, alors aucune dissociation entre domaines ne devrait être observée. Nous utiliserons des statistiques Bayesiennes qui permettent d’évaluer la quantité d’évidence à la fois pour et contre la présence d’un effet. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction aux statistiques bayésiennes. Application dans le vieillissement avec JASP.
Gregoire, Coline ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Diverse speeche and writing (2019)

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See detailWhere does the imageability effect in working memory come from?
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Van Akelyen, Dylan ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2019, May 14)

Working memory is influenced by several linguistic long-term memory factors. One of these factors is the imageability effect, in which concrete or high imageability words (e.g. cat, tree) are better ... [more ▼]

Working memory is influenced by several linguistic long-term memory factors. One of these factors is the imageability effect, in which concrete or high imageability words (e.g. cat, tree) are better recalled as compared to abstract or low imageability words (e.g. phase, doubt). The precise origin of this effect is however a matter of debate. In this study, we assessed the hypothesis that the occurrence of the imageability effect in WM tasks is conditioned to the implementation of semantic elaborative processes. Thirty-nine young healthy adult participants were invited to encode and immediately recall six-items lists composed of either high or low imageability words. In half of the trials, participants had to perform a secondary interfering task involving an animal classification judgement task aimed at preventing the implementation of semantic elaborative processes on the memoranda. We found a very strong impact of the imageability dimension and the interfering task (BF10 > 100) on recall accuracy but there was no reliable evidence for a reduction of the imageability effect in the interfering condition (BF10 = .833). Our results suggest that semantic elaborative processes are not a necessary condition for the observation of imageability effects in WM. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural patterns in linguistic cortices discriminate the content of verbal working memory
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Van Calster, Laurens ULiege; Attout, Lucie ULiege et al

Conference (2019, May 14)

Verbal working memory (WM) is characterized by the presence of psycholinguistic effects, whereby items associated with richer linguistic representations are usually better recalled, such as words vs ... [more ▼]

Verbal working memory (WM) is characterized by the presence of psycholinguistic effects, whereby items associated with richer linguistic representations are usually better recalled, such as words vs. nonwords (lexicality effect). This effect is accounted for by language-based models, assuming a direct and obligatory involvement of lexical linguistic knowledge at all stages of WM processing or by redintegration models considering that lexical linguistic knowledge only intervenes during post-memory trace reconstructive processes. We contrasted these two accounts in functional neuroimaging experiment by assessing to what extent and at what WM stage word and nonword memoranda can be distinguished based on their multivariate neural patterns in linguistic cortices. fMRI scans were obtained from 28 healthy young adult participants. The participants were invited to encode lists composed of word or nonword items presented at a very fast rate (2 items/s) and to maintain the items over a 6-second delay or not, followed by a probe recognition phase. Multivariate voxel pattern analyses successfully decoded word and nonword stimuli during the encoding phase in all conditions, as well as during the maintenance phase but only during the active maintenance condition. This study supports language-based WM models assuming continuous support of linguistic knowledge during all WM stages. [less ▲]

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See detailHow precise are verbal working memory representations? Evidence from phonological and semantic similarity
Bouffier, Marion ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Conference (2019, May 14)

In contrast with the visual working memory (WM) domain, the notion of WM precision has been poorly explored in the verbal WM domain. WM precision is defined as the resolution at which items are ... [more ▼]

In contrast with the visual working memory (WM) domain, the notion of WM precision has been poorly explored in the verbal WM domain. WM precision is defined as the resolution at which items are represented in WM, in addition to the quantity of items that can be maintained. In this study, which included 51 young adults, we assessed the sensitivity to different degrees of phonological (Task 1) and semantic (Task 2) proximity between memory and probe items as a potential index of verbal WM precision. In both tasks, the participants were presented auditory lists of 6 words. After each list, a probe word was presented, and the participants had to decide whether or not it had been in the list. In Task 1, negative probes showed different degrees of phonological proximity with the target memoranda, while in Task 2, negative probes showed different degrees of semantic proximity with the target item. Using Bayesian ANOVA, we observed robust evidence for a gradual influence of phonological proximity on recognition performance. This was also observed, although to a lesser extent, for semantic proximity. This study indicates that phonological and semantic proximity may be promising tools for exploring WM precision in the verbal domain. [less ▲]

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See detailIs there a reduction in serial order working memory abilities in healthy aging?
Gregoire, Coline ULiege; Fay, Séverine; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2019, May 14)

The preservation of the ability to maintain information over the short-term in healthy aging remains a controversial question. Here we focused on one of the most challenging aspects of verbal working ... [more ▼]

The preservation of the ability to maintain information over the short-term in healthy aging remains a controversial question. Here we focused on one of the most challenging aspects of verbal working memory (WM), the ability to not only maintain verbal events but to also maintain their serial order of occurrence. An immediate serial recall task was administered to 30 young adults (18-30 years) and 30 older adults (60-80 years). Participants had to recall sequences of words or nonwords, from 2 to 7 items per sequence. They were matched for level of education and verbal intellectual efficiency Bayesian statistics showed moderate evidence for an absence of group effect for the total number of items recalled irrespectively of the items’ serial position (BF01 = 3,25 for words, BF01 = 1,26 for nonwords). When also scoring serial position information, we observed anecdotal evidence in favor of a group effect (BF10 = 2,9 for words; BF10 = 0,5 for nonwords). These results suggest that if there is a reduction of verbal WM abilities in healthy aging, it is very small and limited to the maintenance of serial order information. [less ▲]

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See detailInhibition et Vieillissement: Point théorique et application dans une tâche de mémoire de travail.
Gregoire, Coline ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Diverse speeche and writing (2019)

1/ Malgré l’importance des difficultés d’inhibition dans le vieillissement, la littérature ne nous permet pas de connaître la nature précise des difficultés d’inhibition et de leur portée, ce qui sera ... [more ▼]

1/ Malgré l’importance des difficultés d’inhibition dans le vieillissement, la littérature ne nous permet pas de connaître la nature précise des difficultés d’inhibition et de leur portée, ce qui sera développé dans la première partie de cette présentation. 2/ Dans un second temps, nous présenterons une tâche initialement développée pour examiner des dissociations entre inhibition phonologique et sémantique. Elle mesure la capacité à inhiber des informations qui sont proches d’informations cibles à maintenir. Des séries de 4 mots ou signes visuels sont présentées et doivent être mémorisées à court terme ; à la fin de la liste, un item-test est présenté. Cet item-test est soit identique à un item de la liste (pas d’inhibition), soit proche au niveau phonologique, sémantique ou visuel (selon le domaine évalué) d’un item de la liste (condition d’inhibition) [less ▲]

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See detailIs auditory localization a sign of consciousness? Evidence from neuroimaging and electrophysiology
Carrière, Manon ULiege; Cassol, Helena ULiege; Aubinet, Charlène ULiege et al

Conference (2019, March 16)

Background Auditory localization is often part of the clinical evaluation of patients recovering from coma. There is however no clear consensus whether it should be considered as a reflex or as a ... [more ▼]

Background Auditory localization is often part of the clinical evaluation of patients recovering from coma. There is however no clear consensus whether it should be considered as a reflex or as a conscious behavior. For example, auditory localisation corresponds to the diagnosis of unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) in the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised, while it is considered a sign of consciousness in other post-coma scales. This study aims to determine if auditory localization reflects conscious processing in patients with disorders of consciousness. Methods We first evaluated the proportion of patients with and without auditory localisation in 186 patients with severe brain injury, including 64 UWS, 28 minimally conscious minus (MCS-), 71 minimally conscious plus (MCS+), i.e., language relatively preserved) and 23 who emerged from MCS (EMCS). We then measured brain metabolism using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, functional connectivity using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in patients in UWS with and without auditory localization. Findings Auditory localization was observed in 12% of patients in UWS, 46% of patients in MCS-, 62% of patients in MCS+ and 78% of patients in EMCS. Brain metabolism of patients in UWS without auditory localization was mostly restricted to primary areas, whereas a more widespread activity, including associative areas, was observed in patients in UWS with auditory localisation. Brain functional connectivity was also higher in patients in UWS with auditory localisation in the frontoparietal fMRI resting state network, along with higher EEG connectivity in alpha frequency band, compared to patients without auditory localization. Finally, differences were also found regarding the outcome, as the survival rate at two years appeared to be significantly higher in UWS patients with auditory localization as compared to those without auditory localization. Interpretation. Both clinical data in post-comatose patients and neuroimaging examinations in UWS patients with and without auditory localization support the idea that auditory localization should be considered as a sign of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailVers une meilleure compréhension des capacités d'inhibition dans le vieillissement
Gregoire, Coline ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Diverse speeche and writing (2019)

Normal aging leads to a decline in cognitive functions including inhibition. However, despite the importance of inhibition impairment, the current lack of consensus about the nature of inhibitory ... [more ▼]

Normal aging leads to a decline in cognitive functions including inhibition. However, despite the importance of inhibition impairment, the current lack of consensus about the nature of inhibitory processeses makes it difficult to design efficient treatment strategies. The aim of this project is to conduct a multimodal and systematic investigation of the nature of inhibition impairment within different domains (verbal, visual) and subdomains (phonological versus semantics). The multimodal methodological approach of this project will allow for a particularly exhaustive exploration of inhibition impairment in healthy and brain injured older adults, by studying: 1. the inderindividual differences for different inhibitory processes in young and older healthy adults; 2. the possible dissociations regarding inhibitory process in brain injured elderly persons; and 3. the degree of specificity of the neural representations associated with different inhibitory processes. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopmental trajectory of number line estimation and spatial abilities in school age children
Van Calster, Laurens ULiege; Heiz, Julie; Saj, Arnaud et al

Poster (2019)

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See detailTrajectoire développementale de l’estimation de nombre et capacités spatiales chez les enfants scolarisés.
Van Calster, Laurens ULiege; Heiz, Julie; Saj, Arnaud et al

Conference (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULiège)