References of "Vanderplasschen, Alain"
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See detailFish and Amphibian Alloherpesviruses (Herpesviridae)
Boutier, Maxime ULiege; Morvan, Léa ULiege; Delrez, Natacha ULiege et al

in Encyclopedia of Virology (2021)

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See detailBiocontrol in Australia: Can a carp herpesvirus (CyHV-3) deliver safe and effective ecological restoration?
Kopf, Richard Keller; Boutier, Maxime ULiege; Finlayson, C.M. et al

in Biological Invasions (2019)

The Australian Government is considering Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) for biocontrol of invasive common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). We review the evidence-base for its potential ecological risks ... [more ▼]

The Australian Government is considering Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) for biocontrol of invasive common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). We review the evidence-base for its potential ecological risks, benefits and effectiveness. Lower carp abundance may boost native fish biomass and improve water clarity, but there is little evidence available to suggest that the virus, alone or used in combination with other methods, can deliver effective or safe biocontrol. Further, the virus may already be present in Australia. Overseas, the virus has caused sporadic and localized mortalities of carp in lakes and rivers, but has generally had no long-term measurable effect on wild carp or native fish populations. The temperature range of disease (18–28 °C), unknown co-factors causing outbreaks, and predictable re-colonization and recruitment boom of immune and virus-resistant carp, following a biocontrol release, remain formidable and unmitigated barriers to success. CyHV-3 infection trials on Australian biota have unexplained high mortality rates of recreationally-important and threatened fishes, and the role of asymptomatic carriers remains uncertain. Finally, Australia has national and international obligations to ensure that there are no perverse outcomes from biocontrol actions. Despite political pressure, there is no environmental justification to rush the release of this virus. To achieve the Government goals of restoring native biodiversity we advocate that key uncertainties, risks and efficacy barriers first need to be addressed. It is only then that viral biocontrol could be considered a viable tool to complement broader ecological restoration strategies for Australia’s waterways. [less ▲]

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See detailBiocontrol of Carp: The Australian Plan Does Not Stand Up to a Rational Analysis of Safety and Efficacy.
Boutier, Maxime ULiege; Donohoe, Owen ULiege; Kopf, R. Keller et al

in Frontiers in microbiology (2019), 10

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See detailCurrent knowledge and future prospects of vaccines against cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3).
Boutier, Maxime ULiege; Gao, Yuan ULiege; Donohoe, Owen ULiege et al

in Fish & shellfish immunology (2019), 93

Aquaculture is one of the world's most important and fastest growing food production sectors, with an average annual growth of 5.8% during the period 2001-2016. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the ... [more ▼]

Aquaculture is one of the world's most important and fastest growing food production sectors, with an average annual growth of 5.8% during the period 2001-2016. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the main aquatic species produced for human consumption and is the world's third most produced finfish. Koi carp, on the other hand, are grown as a popular ornamental fish. In the late 1990s, both of these sectors were threatened by the emergence of a deadly disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3; initially called koi herpesvirus or KHV). Since then, several research groups have focused their work on developing methods to fight this disease. Despite increasing knowledge about the pathobiology of this virus, there are currently no efficient and cost-effective therapeutic methods available to fight this disease. Facing the lack of efficient treatments, safe and efficacious prophylactic methods such as the use of vaccines represent the most promising approach to the control of this virus. The common carp production sector is not a heavily industrialized production sector and the fish produced have low individual value. Therefore, development of vaccine methods adapted to mass vaccination are more suitable. Multiple vaccine candidates against CyHV-3 have been developed and studied, including DNA, bacterial vector, inactivated, conventional attenuated and recombinant attenuated vaccines. However, there is currently only one vaccine commercially available in limited regions. The present review aims to summarize and evaluate the knowledge acquired from the study of these vaccines against CyHV-3 and provide discussion on future prospects. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro and in vivo assessment of eprociclovir as antiviral treatment against testudinid herpesvirus 3 in Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni)
Gandar, F.; Marlier, Didier ULiege; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULiege

in Research in Veterinary Science (2019), 124

Tortoises belonging to the Testudinidae family are infected by Testudinid herpesviruses. Testudinid herpesvirus 3 (TeHV-3) is considered the most pathogenic and affects several tortoise species ... [more ▼]

Tortoises belonging to the Testudinidae family are infected by Testudinid herpesviruses. Testudinid herpesvirus 3 (TeHV-3) is considered the most pathogenic and affects several tortoise species, particularly those from the Testudo genus. As most species of this genus are endangered contribute to ecological concerns over this virus. Here, we aimed to explore the rational development of an antiviral treatment against TeHV-3 using Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni) as a host model. Ten antiviral compounds were tested in cell culture for their toxicity and their activity against TeHV-3. Eight compounds exhibited different levels of activity against TeHV-3 with either no or only minor cytotoxic effects on cells. Next, eprociclovir (EPV, ciprovir) was selected for further investigations in vivo. Its pharmacokinetic properties were investigated after a single sub-cutaneous administration at 5 or 10 mg/kg. Plasma concentrations remained above half maximal effective concentration (EC 50 ) for 2.2 and 4.4 h after administration at 5 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Finally, EPV toxicity was investigated after administration at the dose of 10 mg/kg, BID for seven consecutive days. As early as one day after initiation of the treatment up to its end, EPV plasma concentration remained under the EC 50. Apathy and anorexia developed after 7 days. Biochemical and anatomopathological examinations revealed nephrotoxic effects of EPV. Altogether, these data suggest that EPV is not a suitable molecule for the treatment of TeHV-3. Further studies are required to determine whether the other molecules identified here for their anti-TeHV-3 activity represent potential candidates for the development of efficacious treatments. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd [less ▲]

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See detailFish and Amphibian Alloherpesviruses
Boutier, Maxime ULiege; Morvan, Léa ULiege; Delrez, Natacha ULiege et al

in Reference Module in Life Sciences (2019)

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See detailRNA-seq analysis of latently-infected CD8+ T lymphocytes during bovine malignant catarrhal fever reveals unconventional TCR cell activation
Myster, Françoise ULiege; Javaux, Justine ULiege; Van Campe, Willem et al

Conference (2018, December 20)

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) persists in wildebeest asymptomatically but induces malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) upon transmission to other ruminant species, including cattle. We have previously ... [more ▼]

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) persists in wildebeest asymptomatically but induces malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) upon transmission to other ruminant species, including cattle. We have previously shown that MCF is a lethal disease resembling a peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) and induced after ORF73-dependent latency establishment in CD8+ T lymphocytes. However, how AlHV-1 infection leads to CD8+ T lymphocyte proliferation and activation remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated viral and cellular transcriptomes of bovine CD8+ T lymphocytes during MCF. Three groups of four 4-month-old calves were mock-infected or infected intranasally with 105 PFU of the virulent C500 wildtype (WT) strain or non-pathogenic ORF73-deficient (73null) AlHV-1 strain. At day 45 after infection (mock and 73null groups) or at time of MCF development (WT group), CD8+ T lymphocytes were isolated from peripheral blood to high purity before RNA extraction. Illumina Truseq stranded mRNA libraries were obtained and subjected to NextSeq500 sequencing. Transcriptomes were analysed for both viral and cellular transcripts. We took advantage of the non-pathogenic 73null strain to differentiate anti-viral effector/memory responses in CD8+ T cells from transcriptomics changes due to latent infection of these cells during MCF. While no viral transcripts could be detected in CD8+ T cells of mock or 73null-infected animals, expression of viral genes of interest in MCF-developing calves was detected including AlHV-1-specific semaphorin-like A3, undefined A4, bZIP protein A6, interleukin 4-like protein A9.5 and undefined glycoprotein A10. When analysing differential cellular gene expression (P < 10−4; change in expression of over fourfold), we observed upregulation of 151 (WT vs Mock) and 72 (WT vs 73null) genes, including Gzma, SerpinB9, Moxd1, Tox2, IL-10, and Cxcr3; and downregulation of 205 (WT vs Mock) and 271 (WT vs 73null) genes, including αv or β3 integrins. Intriguingly, while gene-set enrichment for TCR engagement was observed in CD8+ T cells from MCF-developing calves, supporting T cell activation, we also observed strong downregulation of gene transcripts normally involved in canonical TCR activation such as Cbl, Tec family tyrosine kinases Rlk, Tec, and Itk, and Syk. These data suggest unconventional TCR triggering and provide unprecedented mechanistic insights on how AlHV-1 could induce a PTCL-like disease. Future work should further determine the actual pathway(s) involved and which viral gene(s) drive T cell dysregulation. [less ▲]

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See detailHelminth-induced IL-4 expands bystander memory CD8+ T cells for early control of viral infection
Rolot, Marion; Dougall, Annette; Chetty, Alisha et al

Conference (2018, August)

Infection with parasitic helminths can imprint the immune system to modulate bystander inflammatory processes. Bystander or virtual memory CD8+ T cells (TVM) are non-conventional T cells displaying memory ... [more ▼]

Infection with parasitic helminths can imprint the immune system to modulate bystander inflammatory processes. Bystander or virtual memory CD8+ T cells (TVM) are non-conventional T cells displaying memory properties that can be generated through responsiveness to interleukin (IL)-4. However, it is not clear if helminth-induced type 2 immunity functionally affects the TVM compartment. Here, we show that helminths expand CD44hiCD62LhiCXCR3hiCD49dlo TVM cells through direct IL-4 signaling in CD8+ T cells. Importantly, helminth-mediated conditioning of TVM cells provided enhanced control of acute respiratory infection with the murid gammaherpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4). This enhanced control of MuHV-4 infection could further be explained by an increase in antigen-specific CD8+ T cell effector responses in the lung and was directly dependent on IL-4 signaling. These results demonstrate that IL-4 during helminth infection can non-specifically condition CD8+ T cells, leading to a subsequently raised antigen-specific CD8+ T cell activation that enhanced control of viral infection. [less ▲]

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See detailLa souris, le patient, et le faux expert. Décryptage d'une mystification.
Bakker, Julie ULiege; Balthazart, Jacques ULiege; Baron, Frédéric ULiege et al

Article for general public (2018)

La recherche sur animaux est actuellement encadrée de façon stricte en Wallonie comme dans toute l'Union Européenne (voir l'article de Marc Vandenheede publié dans le Vif). Cette législation et les ... [more ▼]

La recherche sur animaux est actuellement encadrée de façon stricte en Wallonie comme dans toute l'Union Européenne (voir l'article de Marc Vandenheede publié dans le Vif). Cette législation et les contrôles qui y sont associés induisent de nombreuses contraintes pratiques, des charges administratives et des coûts financiers importants que les chercheurs seraient certainement heureux d'éviter s'il existait une alternative à l'expérimentation animale. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse détaillée de la seconde version de l’avant-projet de Code du bien-être animal wallon. Lecture commentée au 21/03/2018 du Chapitre 8 (Expérimentation animale)
Drion, Pierre ULiege; Corhay, Albert ULiege; Haubruge, Eric ULiege et al

Report (2018)

La compétence « bien-être animal », auparavant fédérale, a été régionalisée en juillet 2014. Ce projet de code vise à remplacer les dispositions légales en vigueur (la Loi de 1984 telle que modifiée par ... [more ▼]

La compétence « bien-être animal », auparavant fédérale, a été régionalisée en juillet 2014. Ce projet de code vise à remplacer les dispositions légales en vigueur (la Loi de 1984 telle que modifiée par les décrets du Gouvernement wallon). Certains éléments sont repris tels quels de la Directive 2010/63. Cela est nécessaire car la Directive européenne en tant que telle n’a pas de force obligatoire en Belgique. Elle doit être transcrite par un instrument législatif (avant, la Loi de 1984 et ses modifications, aujourd’hui, le projet de code pour la Région wallonne). Certains aspects semblent flous, mais renvoient à des dispositions que le Gouvernement doit encore prendre (au travers d’arrêtés du Gouvernement wallon, comme le faisaient avant les nombreux arrêtés royaux et du gouvernement qui réglementent la matière). Les arrêtés d’exécution devront obligatoirement tenir compte de la Directive européenne et s’inspirer de dispositions actuellement en vigueur. [less ▲]

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See detailBiocontrol of invasive carp : risks abound
Marshall, J; Davison, A. J.; Kopf, R. K. et al

in Science (2018)

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See detailGenomic and biologic comparisons of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 strains.
Gao, Yuan ULiege; Suarez, Nicolas M.; Wilkie, Gavin S. et al

in Veterinary Research (2018), 49(1), 40

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the archetypal fish alloherpesvirus and the etiologic agent of a lethal disease in common and koi carp. To date, the genome sequences of only four CyHV-3 isolates have ... [more ▼]

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the archetypal fish alloherpesvirus and the etiologic agent of a lethal disease in common and koi carp. To date, the genome sequences of only four CyHV-3 isolates have been published, but no comparisons of the biologic properties of these strains have been reported. We have sequenced the genomes of a further seven strains from various geographical sources, and have compared their growth in vitro and virulence in vivo. The major findings were: (i) the existence of the two genetic lineages previously described as European and Asian was confirmed, but inconsistencies between the geographic origin and genotype of some strains were revealed; (ii) potential inter-lineage recombination was detected in one strain, which also suggested the existence of a third, as yet unidentified lineage; (iii) analysis of genetic disruptions led to the identification of non-essential genes and their potential role in virulence; (iv) comparison of the in vitro and in vivo properties of strains belonging to the two lineages revealed that inter-lineage polymorphisms do not contribute to the differences in viral fitness observed; and (v) a negative correlation was observed among strains between viral growth in vitro and virulence in vivo. This study illustrates the importance of coupling genomic and biologic comparisons of viral strains in order to enhance understanding of viral evolution and pathogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrection to: A gammaherpesvirus provides protection against allergic asthma by inducing the replacement of resident alveolar macrophages with regulatory monocytes (Nature Immunology, (2017), 18, 12, (1310-1320), 10.1038/ni.3857)
Machiels, Bénédicte ULiege; Dourcy, Mickael ULiege; Xiao, X. et al

in Nature Immunology (2018), 19(9), 1035

In the version of this article initially published, the accession code for the RNA-seq data set deposited in the NCBI public repository Sequence Read Archive was missing from the ‘Data availability’ ... [more ▼]

In the version of this article initially published, the accession code for the RNA-seq data set deposited in the NCBI public repository Sequence Read Archive was missing from the ‘Data availability’ subsection of the Methods section. The accession code is SRP125477. © 2017, The Author(s). [less ▲]

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See detailHelminth-induced IL-4 expands bystander memory CD8(+) T cells for early control of viral infection.
Rolot, Marion ULiege; Dougall, Annette M.; Chetty, Alisha et al

in Nature Communications (2018), 9(1), 4516

Infection with parasitic helminths can imprint the immune system to modulate bystander inflammatory processes. Bystander or virtual memory CD8(+) T cells (TVM) are non-conventional T cells displaying ... [more ▼]

Infection with parasitic helminths can imprint the immune system to modulate bystander inflammatory processes. Bystander or virtual memory CD8(+) T cells (TVM) are non-conventional T cells displaying memory properties that can be generated through responsiveness to interleukin (IL)-4. However, it is not clear if helminth-induced type 2 immunity functionally affects the TVM compartment. Here, we show that helminths expand CD44(hi)CD62L(hi)CXCR3(hi)CD49d(lo) TVM cells through direct IL-4 signaling in CD8(+) T cells. Importantly, helminth-mediated conditioning of TVM cells provided enhanced control of acute respiratory infection with the murid gammaherpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4). This enhanced control of MuHV-4 infection could further be explained by an increase in antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell effector responses in the lung and was directly dependent on IL-4 signaling. These results demonstrate that IL-4 during helminth infection can non-specifically condition CD8(+) T cells, leading to a subsequently raised antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell activation that enhances control of viral infection. [less ▲]

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See detailMacavirus latency-associated protein evades immune detection through regulation of protein synthesis in cis depending upon its glycin/glutamate-rich domain
Sorel, Oceane; Chen, Ting; Myster, Françoise ULiege et al

Conference (2017, December 07)

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is a γ-herpesvirus (γ-HV) belonging to the macavirus genus that persistently infects its natural host, the wildebeest, without inducing any clinical sign. However, cross ... [more ▼]

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is a γ-herpesvirus (γ-HV) belonging to the macavirus genus that persistently infects its natural host, the wildebeest, without inducing any clinical sign. However, cross-transmission to other ruminant species causes a deadly lymphoproliferative disease named malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). AlHV-1 ORF73 encodes the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA)-homolog protein (aLANA). Recently, aLANA has been shown to be essential for viral persistence in vivo and induction of MCF, suggesting that aLANA shares key properties of other γ-HV genome maintenance proteins. Here we have investigated the evasion of the immune response by aLANA. We found that a glycin/glutamate (GE)-rich repeat domain was sufficient to inhibit in cis the presentation of an epitope linked to aLANA. Although antigen presentation in absence of GE was dependent upon proteasomal degradation of aLANA, a lack of GE did not affect protein turnover. However, protein self-synthesis de novo was downregulated by aLANA GE, a mechanism directly associated with reduced antigen presentation in vitro. Importantly, codon-modification of aLANA GE resulted in increased antigen presentation in vitro and enhanced induction of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in vivo, indicating that mRNA constraints in GE rather than peptidic sequence are responsible for cis-limitation of antigen presentation. Nonetheless, GE-mediated limitation of antigen presentation in cis of aLANA was dispensable during MCF as rabbits developed the disease after virus infection irrespective of the expression of full-length or GE-deficient aLANA. Altogether, we provide evidence that inhibition in cis of protein synthesis through GE is likely involved in long-term immune evasion of AlHV-1 latent persistence in the wildebeest natural host, but dispensable in MCF pathogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards the development of an effective vaccine against malignant catarrhal fever
Myster, Françoise ULiege; Javaux, Justine ULiege; Van Campe, Willem et al

Conference (2017, December 07)

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) persists in wildebeest asymptomatically but induces malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a fatal lymphoproliferative disease upon transmission to several ruminants ... [more ▼]

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) persists in wildebeest asymptomatically but induces malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a fatal lymphoproliferative disease upon transmission to several ruminants, including cattle. The significant socio-economic impact of MCF in East-Africa urges for the development of new vaccination strategies. We have previously shown using the experimental rabbit model that the latency-associated gene ORF73 was essential for MCF induction while a ORF73-deficient (ORF73−) strain C500 could induce sterile immunity against a wild-type (WT) challenge. In the present study, we first infected 4-month-old calves with WT or ORF73− virus. Intranasal infection with the WT virus induced typical MCF clinical signs and lesions. However, ORF73− virus did not cause any clinical sign but induced a complete protection against an intranasal challenge with the WT virus. These results were encouraging for future prospects of vaccination against MCF. However, AlHV-1 is highly cell-associated and viral titres remain low, potentially hampering effective vaccine production. Interestingly, attenuated strain WC11 of AlHV-1 displays increased viral growth and cell-free infectious particles. Whole-genome sequencing of strain WC11 revealed few genomic changes including full deletion of the gene A7. A7 is a positional homolog of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BZLF2 encoding the C-type lectin-like glycoprotein gp42. Gp42 is expressed in the envelope of EBV virions and mediates entry into B cells. Hence, we used the C500 BAC clone to generate an A7STOP recombinant strain. We observed that a lack of A7 expression resulted in significant increased viral growth in fibroblasts in vitro. Also, the plaque size over time and the morphology of the plaques were modified in absence of A7. Finally, infection of rabbits demonstrated that A7 is essential for the development of MCF. In conclusion, the lack of A7 significantly alters the replication of the virus in vitro and the development of MCF in rabbits. Thus, joined impairments of A7 and ORF73 could lead to an optimized vaccine. [less ▲]

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