References of "Jehin, Emmanuel"
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See detailIsotopic ratios in outbursting comet C/2015 ER61
Yang, Bin; Hutsemekers, Damien ULiege; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 609

Isotopic ratios in comets are critical to understanding the origin of cometary material and the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar nebula. Comet C/2015 ER61 (PANSTARRS) underwent an ... [more ▼]

Isotopic ratios in comets are critical to understanding the origin of cometary material and the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar nebula. Comet C/2015 ER61 (PANSTARRS) underwent an outburst with a total brightness increase of 2 magnitudes on the night of 2017 April 4. The sharp increase in brightness offered a rare opportunity to measure the isotopic ratios of the light elements in the coma of this comet. We obtained two high-resolution spectra of C/2015 ER61 with UVES/VLT on the nights of 2017 April 13 and 17. At the time of our observations, the comet was fading gradually following the outburst. We measured the nitrogen and carbon isotopic ratios from the CN violet (0, 0) band and found that [SUP]12[/SUP]C/[SUP]13[/SUP]C = 100 ± 15, [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N = 130 ± 15. In addition, we determined the [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N ratio from four pairs of NH[SUB]2[/SUB] isotopolog lines and measured [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N = 140 ± 28. The measured isotopic ratios of C/2015 ER61 do not deviate significantly from those of other comets. [less ▲]

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See detailThe First Post-Kepler Brightness Dips of KIC 8462852
Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Alonso, Roi; Ammerman, Alex et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

We present a photometric detection of the first brightness dips of the unique variable star KIC 8462852 since the end of the Kepler space mission in 2013 May. Our regular photometric surveillance started ... [more ▼]

We present a photometric detection of the first brightness dips of the unique variable star KIC 8462852 since the end of the Kepler space mission in 2013 May. Our regular photometric surveillance started in October 2015, and a sequence of dipping began in 2017 May continuing on through the end of 2017, when the star was no longer visible from Earth. We distinguish four main 1-2.5% dips, named "Elsie," "Celeste," "Skara Brae," and "Angkor", which persist on timescales from several days to weeks. Our main results so far are: (i) there are no apparent changes of the stellar spectrum or polarization during the dips; (ii) the multiband photometry of the dips shows differential reddening favoring non-grey extinction. Therefore, our data are inconsistent with dip models that invoke optically thick material, but rather they are in-line with predictions for an occulter consisting primarily of ordinary dust, where much of the material must be optically thin with a size scale <<1um, and may also be consistent with models invoking variations intrinsic to the stellar photosphere. Notably, our data do not place constraints on the color of the longer-term "secular" dimming, which may be caused by independent processes, or probe different regimes of a single process. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly 2017 observations of TRAPPIST-1 with $\textit{Spitzer}$
Delrez, Laetitia; Gillon, Michaël ULiege; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J. et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

The recently detected TRAPPIST-1 planetary system, with its seven planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star, offers the first opportunity to perform comparative exoplanetology of temperate Earth ... [more ▼]

The recently detected TRAPPIST-1 planetary system, with its seven planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star, offers the first opportunity to perform comparative exoplanetology of temperate Earth-sized worlds. To further advance our understanding of these planets' compositions, energy budgets, and dynamics, we are carrying out an intensive photometric monitoring campaign of their transits with the $\textit{Spitzer Space Telescope}$. In this context, we present 60 new transits of the TRAPPIST-1 planets observed with $\textit{Spitzer}$/IRAC in February and March 2017. We combine these observations with previously published $\textit{Spitzer}$ transit photometry and perform a global analysis of the resulting extensive dataset. This analysis refines the transit parameters and provides revised values for the planets' physical parameters, notably their radii, using updated properties for the star. As part of our study, we also measure precise transit timings that will be used in a companion paper to refine the planets' masses and compositions using the transit timing variations method. TRAPPIST-1 shows a very low level of low-frequency variability in the IRAC 4.5-$\mu$m band, with a photometric RMS of only 0.11$\%$ at a 123-s cadence. We do not detect any evidence of a (quasi-)periodic signal related to stellar rotation. We also analyze the transit light curves individually, to search for possible variations in the transit parameters of each planet due to stellar variability, and find that the $\textit{Spitzer}$ transits of the planets are mostly immune to the effects of stellar variations. These results are encouraging for forthcoming transmission spectroscopy observations of the TRAPPIST-1 planets with the $\textit{James Webb Space Telescope}$. [less ▲]

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See detailStellar parameters for TRAPPIST-1
Van Grootel, Valérie ULiege; Silva Fernandes, Catarina ULiege; Gillon, Michaël ULiege et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2018), 853

TRAPPIST-1 is an ultracool dwarf star transited by seven Earth-sized planets, for which thorough characterization of atmospheric properties, surface conditions encompassing habitability and internal ... [more ▼]

TRAPPIST-1 is an ultracool dwarf star transited by seven Earth-sized planets, for which thorough characterization of atmospheric properties, surface conditions encompassing habitability and internal compositions is possible with current and next generation telescopes. Accurate modeling of the star is essential to achieve this goal. We aim to obtain updated stellar parameters for TRAPPIST- 1 based on new measurements and evolutionary models, compared to those used in discovery studies. We present a new measurement for the parallax of TRAPPIST-1, 82.4 $\pm$ 0.8 mas, based on 188 epochs of observations with the TRAPPIST and Liverpool Telescopes from 2013 to 2016. This revised parallax yields an updated luminosity of $L_*=(5.22\pm0.19)\times 10^{-4} L_{\odot}$, very close to the previous estimate but almost twice more precise. We next present an updated estimate for TRAPPIST-1 stellar mass, based on two approaches: mass from stellar evolution modeling, and empirical mass derived from dynamical masses of equivalently classified ultracool dwarfs in astrometric binaries. We combine them through a Monte-Carlo approach to derive a semi-empirical estimate for the mass of TRAPPIST-1. We also derive estimate for the radius by combining this mass with stellar density inferred from transits, as well as estimate for the effective temperature from our revised luminosity and radius. Our final results are $M_*=0.089 \pm 0.006 M_{\odot}$, $R_* = 0.121 \pm 0.003 R_{\odot}$, and $T_{\rm eff} =$ 2516 $\pm$ 41 K. Considering the degree to which TRAPPIST-1 system will be scrutinized in coming years, these revised and more precise stellar parameters should be considered when assessing the properties of TRAPPIST-1 planets. [less ▲]

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See detailIsotopic ratios in outbursting comet C/2015 ER61
Yang, Bin; Hutsemekers, Damien ULiege; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu et al

E-print/Working paper (2017)

Isotopic ratios in comets are critical to understanding the origin of cometary material and the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar nebula. Comet C/2015 ER61 (PANSTARRS) underwent an ... [more ▼]

Isotopic ratios in comets are critical to understanding the origin of cometary material and the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar nebula. Comet C/2015 ER61 (PANSTARRS) underwent an outburst with a total brightness increase of 2 magnitudes on the night of 2017 April 4. The sharp increase in brightness offered a rare opportunity to measure the isotopic ratios of the light elements in the coma of this comet. We obtained two high-resolution spectra of C/2015 ER61 with UVES/VLT on the nights of 2017 April 13 and 17. At the time of our observations, the comet was fading gradually following the outburst. We measured the nitrogen and carbon isotopic ratios from the CN violet (0,0) band and found that $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C=100 $\pm$ 15, $^{14}$N/$^{15}$N=130 $\pm$ 15. In addition, we determined the $^{14}$N/$^{15}$N ratio from four pairs of NH$_2$ isotopolog lines and measured $^{14}$N/$^{15}$N=140 $\pm$ 28. The measured isotopic ratios of C/2015 ER61 do not deviate significantly from those of other comets. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-precision multi-wavelength eclipse photometry of the ultra-hot gas giant exoplanet WASP-103 b
Delrez, L.; Madhusudhan, N.; Lendl, M. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 474(2), 2334-2351

We present sixteen occultation and three transit light curves for the ultra-short period hot Jupiter WASP-103 b, in addition to five new radial velocity measurements. We combine these observations with ... [more ▼]

We present sixteen occultation and three transit light curves for the ultra-short period hot Jupiter WASP-103 b, in addition to five new radial velocity measurements. We combine these observations with archival data and perform a global analysis of the resulting extensive dataset, accounting for the contamination from a nearby star. We detect the thermal emission of the planet in both the $z'$ and $K_{\mathrm{S}}$-bands, the measured occultation depths being 699$\pm$110 ppm (6.4-$\sigma$) and $3567_{-350}^{+400}$ ppm (10.2-$\sigma$), respectively. We use these two measurements together with recently published HST/WFC3 data to derive joint constraints on the properties of WASP-103 b's dayside atmosphere. On one hand, we find that the $z'$-band and WFC3 data are best fit by an isothermal atmosphere at 2900 K or an atmosphere with a low H$_2$O abundance. On the other hand, we find an unexpected excess in the $K_{\mathrm{S}}$-band measured flux compared to these models, which requires confirmation with additional observations before any interpretation can be given. From our global data analysis, we also derive a broad-band optical transmission spectrum that shows a minimum around 700 nm and increasing values towards both shorter and longer wavelengths. This is in agreement with a previous study based on a large fraction of the archival transit light curves used in our analysis. The unusual profile of this transmission spectrum is poorly matched by theoretical spectra and is not confirmed by more recent observations at higher spectral resolution. Additional data, both in emission and transmission, are required to better constrain the atmospheric properties of WASP-103 b. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Structure of Chariklo’s Rings from Stellar Occultations
Bérard, D.; Sicardy, B.; Camargo, J. I. B. et al

in Astronomical Journal (The) (2017), 154

Two narrow and dense rings (called C1R and C2R) were discovered around the Centaur object (10199) Chariklo during a stellar occultation observed on 2013 June 3. Following this discovery, we planned ... [more ▼]

Two narrow and dense rings (called C1R and C2R) were discovered around the Centaur object (10199) Chariklo during a stellar occultation observed on 2013 June 3. Following this discovery, we planned observations of several occultations by Chariklo’s system in order to better characterize the physical properties of the ring and main body. Here, we use 12 successful occulations by Chariklo observed between 2014 and 2016. They provide ring profiles (physical width, opacity, edge structure) and constraints on the radii and pole position. Our new observations are currently consistent with the circular ring solution and pole position, to within the ±3.3 km formal uncertainty for the ring radii derived by Braga-Ribas et al. The six resolved C1R profiles reveal significant width variations from ∼5 to 7.5 km. The width of the fainter ring C2R is less constrained, and may vary between 0.1 and 1 km. The inner and outer edges of C1R are consistent with infinitely sharp boundaries, with typical upper limits of one kilometer for the transition zone between the ring and empty space. No constraint on the sharpness of C2R’s edges is available. A 1σ upper limit of ∼20 m is derived for the equivalent width of narrow (physical width < 4 km) rings up to distances of 12,000 km, counted in the ring plane. [less ▲]

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See detailSPECULOOS exoplanet search and its prototype on TRAPPIST
Burdanov, Artem ULiege; Delrez, Laetitia; Gillon, Michaël ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2017)

One of the most significant goals of modern science is establishing whether life exists around other suns. The most direct path towards its achievement is the detection and atmospheric characterization of ... [more ▼]

One of the most significant goals of modern science is establishing whether life exists around other suns. The most direct path towards its achievement is the detection and atmospheric characterization of terrestrial exoplanets with potentially habitable surface conditions. The nearest ultracool dwarfs (UCDs), i.e. very-low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with effective temperatures lower than 2700 K, represent a unique opportunity to reach this goal within the next decade. The potential of the transit method for detecting potentially habitable Earth-sized planets around these objects is drastically increased compared to Earth-Sun analogs. Furthermore, only a terrestrial planet transiting a nearby UCD would be amenable for a thorough atmospheric characterization, including the search for possible biosignatures, with near-future facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. In this chapter, we first describe the physical properties of UCDs as well as the unique potential they offer for the detection of potentially habitable Earth-sized planets suitable for atmospheric characterization. Then, we present the SPECULOOS ground-based transit survey, that will search for Earth-sized planets transiting the nearest UCDs, as well as its prototype survey on the TRAPPIST telescopes. We conclude by discussing the prospects offered by the recent detection by this prototype survey of a system of seven temperate Earth-sized planets transiting a nearby UCD, TRAPPIST-1. [less ▲]

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See detailIsotopic Ratios in a Peculiar Outbursting Comet
Yang, Bin; Hutsemekers, Damien ULiege; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu et al

in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (2017, October 01), 49

Isotopic ratios in comets provide keys for the understanding of the origin of cometary material, and the physical and chemical conditions in the early Solar Nebula. A newly discovered peculiar comet, C ... [more ▼]

Isotopic ratios in comets provide keys for the understanding of the origin of cometary material, and the physical and chemical conditions in the early Solar Nebula. A newly discovered peculiar comet, C/2015 ER61, underwent an outburst with a total brightness increase of 2 magnitudes on the night of April 4th, 2017. The sharp increase in brightness offers a rare opportunity to measure the isotopic ratios of the light elements of this comet. We obtained two high-resolution spectra of C/2015 ER61 with UVES on Apr. 13 and Apr. 17 respectively. At the time of our observations, the comet was fading gradually since the outburst. We measured the 12C/13C and 14N/15N isotopic ratios from the CN Violet (0,0) band. In addition, we determined the 14N/15N ratio in NH2 for C/2015 ER61 from four pairs of NH2 isotopologue lines. Some 18OH lines were detected but the S/N of these lines is too low to derive a reliable 18O/16O estimate. We will present our UVES spectra of C/2015 ER61, obtained shortly after the outburst. We will also present the comparison of the Isotopic ratios of C/2015 ER61 with those of other comets. [less ▲]

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See detailTemporal Evolution of the High-energy Irradiation and Water Content of TRAPPIST-1 Exoplanets
Bourrier, V.; de Wit, J.; Bolmont, E. et al

in Astronomical Journal (The) (2017), 154

The ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 hosts seven Earth-size transiting planets, some of which could harbor liquid water on their surfaces. Ultraviolet observations are essential to measuring their high ... [more ▼]

The ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 hosts seven Earth-size transiting planets, some of which could harbor liquid water on their surfaces. Ultraviolet observations are essential to measuring their high-energy irradiation and searching for photodissociated water escaping from their putative atmospheres. Our new observations of the TRAPPIST-1 Lyα line during the transit of TRAPPIST-1c show an evolution of the star emission over three months, preventing us from assessing the presence of an extended hydrogen exosphere. Based on the current knowledge of the stellar irradiation, we investigated the likely history of water loss in the system. Planets b to d might still be in a runaway phase, and planets within the orbit of TRAPPIST-1g could have lost more than 20 Earth oceans after 8 Gyr of hydrodynamic escape. However, TRAPPIST-1e to h might have lost less than three Earth oceans if hydrodynamic escape stopped once they entered the habitable zone (HZ). We caution that these estimates remain limited by the large uncertainty on the planet masses. They likely represent upper limits on the actual water loss because our assumptions maximize the X-rays to ultraviolet-driven escape, while photodissociation in the upper atmospheres should be the limiting process. Late-stage outgassing could also have contributed significant amounts of water for the outer, more massive planets after they entered the HZ. While our results suggest that the outer planets are the best candidates to search for water with the JWST, they also highlight the need for theoretical studies and complementary observations in all wavelength domains to determine the nature of the TRAPPIST-1 planets and their potential habitability. [less ▲]

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See detailThe discoveries of WASP-91b, WASP-105b and WASP-107b: Two warm Jupiters and a planet in the transition region between ice giants and gas giants
Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 604

We report the discoveries of three transiting exoplanets. WASP-91b is a warm Jupiter (1.34 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], 1.03 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) in a 2.8-day orbit around a metal-rich K3 star. WASP-105b is a warm ... [more ▼]

We report the discoveries of three transiting exoplanets. WASP-91b is a warm Jupiter (1.34 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], 1.03 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) in a 2.8-day orbit around a metal-rich K3 star. WASP-105b is a warm Jupiter (1.8 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], 0.96 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) in a 7.9-day orbit around a metal-rich K2 star. WASP-107b is a warm super-Neptune/sub-Saturn (0.12 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], 0.94 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) in a 5.7-day orbit around a solar-metallicity K6 star. Considering that giant planets seem to be more common around stars of higher metallicity and stars of higher mass, it is notable that the hosts are all metal-rich, late-type stars. With orbital separations that place both WASP-105b and WASP-107b in the weak-tide regime, measurements of the alignment between the planets' orbital axes and their stars' spin axes may help us to understand the inward migration of short-period, giant planets. The mass of WASP-107b (2.2 M[SUB]Nep[/SUB], 0.40 M[SUB]Sat[/SUB]) places it in the transition region between the ice giants and gas giants of the Solar System. Its radius of 0.94 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB] suggests that it is a low-mass gas giant with a H/He-dominated composition. The planet thus sets a lower limit of 2.2 M[SUB]Nep[/SUB] on the planetary mass above which large gaseous envelopes can be accreted and retained by proto-planets on their way to becoming gas giants. We may discover whether WASP-107b more closely resembles an ice giant or a gas giant by measuring its atmospheric metallicity via transmission spectroscopy, for which WASP-107b is a very good target. Based on observations made with: the WASP-South photometric survey instrument, the 0.6-m TRAPPIST robotic imager, and the EulerCam camera and the CORALIE spectrograph mounted on the 1.2-m Euler-Swiss telescope.The photometric time-series and radial-velocity data used in this work are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (<A href="http://130.79.128.5">http://130.79.128.5</A>) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/A110">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/A110</A> [less ▲]

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See detailThe EBLM project. III. A Saturn-size low-mass star at the hydrogen-burning limit
von Boetticher, Alexander; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Queloz, Didier et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 604

We report the discovery of an eclipsing binary system with mass-ratio q ˜ 0.07. After identifying a periodic photometric signal received by WASP, we obtained CORALIE spectroscopic radial velocities and ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of an eclipsing binary system with mass-ratio q ˜ 0.07. After identifying a periodic photometric signal received by WASP, we obtained CORALIE spectroscopic radial velocities and follow-up light curves with the Euler and TRAPPIST telescopes. From a joint fit of these data we determine that EBLM J0555-57 consists of a sun-like primary star that is eclipsed by a low-mass companion, on a weakly eccentric 7.8-day orbit. Using a mass estimate for the primary star derived from stellar models, we determine a companion mass of 85 ± 4 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] (0.081 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB]) and a radius of 0.84[SUP]+ 0.14[/SUP][SUB]-0.04[/SUB]R[SUB]Jup[/SUB] (0.084 R[SUB]⊙[/SUB]) that is comparable to that of Saturn. EBLM J0555-57Ab has a surface gravity log g[SUB]2[/SUB] =5.50[SUP]+ 0.03[/SUP][SUB]-0.13[/SUB] and is one of the densest non-stellar-remnant objects currently known. These measurements are consistent with models of low-mass stars. The photometry tables and radial velocities are only available at the CDS and on demand via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (<A href="http://130.79.128.5">http://130.79.128.5</A>) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/L6">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/L6</A> [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based monitoring of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko gas activity throughout the Rosetta mission
Opitom, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Fitzsimmons, A. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 469

Simultaneously to the ESA Rosetta mission, a world-wide ground-based campaign provided measurements of the large scale activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko through measurement of optically active ... [more ▼]

Simultaneously to the ESA Rosetta mission, a world-wide ground-based campaign provided measurements of the large scale activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko through measurement of optically active gas species and imaging of the overall dust coma. We present more than 2 yr of observations performed with the FORS2 low-resolution spectrograph at the VLT, TRAPPIST and ACAM at the WHT. We focus on the evolution of the CN production as a tracer of the comet activity. We find that it is asymmetric with respect to perihelion and different from that of the dust. The CN emission is detected for the first time at 1.34 au pre-perihelion and production rates then increase steeply to peak about 2 weeks after perihelion at (1.00 ± 0.10) × 10[SUP]25[/SUP] molecules s[SUP]-1[/SUP], while the post-perihelion decrease is more shallow. The evolution of the comet activity is strongly influenced by seasonal effects with enhanced CN production when the Southern hemisphere is illuminated. [less ▲]

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See detailElectron/molecular-cation collisions in cold plasmas: super-excited states at "zero" energy
Mezei, J. Zs; Colboc, F; Moulane, Youssef ULiege et al

Conference (2017, July)

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See detailMonitoring of comets activity and composition with the TRAPPIST-North telescope
Moulane, Youssef ULiege; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Jehin, Emmanuel ULiege et al

in Journal of Physics: Conference Series (2017, July), 869

TRAPPIST-North (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope) is a 60-cm robotic telescope that was installed in May 2016 at the Oukaimeden Observatory. The project is led by the University of ... [more ▼]

TRAPPIST-North (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope) is a 60-cm robotic telescope that was installed in May 2016 at the Oukaimeden Observatory. The project is led by the University of Liège (Belgium) and the Caddi Ayad University of Marrakech (Morocco). This telescope is a twin of the TRAPPIST-South telescope, which was installed at the ESO La Silla Observatory in 2010. The TRAPPIST telescopes are dedicated to the detection and characterization of planets orbiting stars other than our Sun (exoplanets) and the study of comets and other small bodies in our solar system. For the comets research, these telescopes have very sensitive CCD cameras with complete sets of narrow band filters to measure the production rates of several gases (OH, NH, CN, C3 and C2) and the dust. With TRAPPIST-North we can also observe comets that would not be visible in the southern hemisphere. Therfore, with these two telescopes, we can now observe continuously the comets around their orbit. We project to study individually the evolution of the activity, chemical composition, dust properties, and coma morphology of several comets per year and of different origins (New comets and Jupiter Family comets) over a wide range of heliocentric distances, and on both sides of perihelion. We measure the production rates of each daughter molecules using a Haser model, in addition to the Afρ parameter to estimate the dust production in the coma. In this work, we present the first measurements of the production rates of comet C/2013 X1 (PANSTARRS) observed with TN in June 2016, and the measurements of comet C/2013 V5 (Oukaimeden) observed in 2014 with TRAPPIST-South. [less ▲]

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See detailA seven-planet resonant chain in TRAPPIST-1
Luger, Rodrigo; Sestovic, Marko; Kruse, Ethan et al

in Nature Astronomy (2017), 1

The TRAPPIST-1 system is the first transiting planet system found orbiting an ultracool dwarf star[SUP] 1 [/SUP]. At least seven planets similar in radius to Earth were previously found to transit this ... [more ▼]

The TRAPPIST-1 system is the first transiting planet system found orbiting an ultracool dwarf star[SUP] 1 [/SUP]. At least seven planets similar in radius to Earth were previously found to transit this host star[SUP] 2 [/SUP]. Subsequently, TRAPPIST-1 was observed as part of the K2 mission and, with these new data, we report the measurement of an 18.77 day orbital period for the outermost transiting planet, TRAPPIST-1 h, which was previously unconstrained. This value matches our theoretical expectations based on Laplace relations[SUP] 3 [/SUP] and places TRAPPIST-1 h as the seventh member of a complex chain, with three-body resonances linking every member. We find that TRAPPIST-1 h has a radius of 0.752 R [SUB]⊕[/SUB] and an equilibrium temperature of 173 K. We have also measured the rotational period of the star to be 3.3 days and detected a number of flares consistent with a low-activity, middle-aged, late M dwarf. [less ▲]

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See detailReactive collisions of electrons with CO+ and H2+ in cometary coma
Moulane, Youssef ULiege; Schneider, Ioan; Jehin, Emmanuel ULiege et al

Conference (2017, May 26)

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See detail3D shape of asteroid (6)~Hebe from VLT/SPHERE imaging: Implications for the origin of ordinary H chondrites
Marsset, M.; Carry, B.; Dumas, C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 604

Context. The high-angular-resolution capability of the new-generation ground-based adaptive-optics camera SPHERE at ESO VLT allows us to assess, for the very first time, the cratering record of medium ... [more ▼]

Context. The high-angular-resolution capability of the new-generation ground-based adaptive-optics camera SPHERE at ESO VLT allows us to assess, for the very first time, the cratering record of medium-sized (D~100-200 km) asteroids from the ground, opening the prospect of a new era of investigation of the asteroid belt's collisional history. Aims. We investigate here the collisional history of asteroid (6) Hebe and challenge the idea that Hebe may be the parent body of ordinary H chondrites, the most common type of meteorites found on Earth (~34% of the falls). Methods. We observed Hebe with SPHERE as part of the science verification of the instrument. Combined with earlier adaptive-optics images and optical light curves, we model the spin and three-dimensional (3D) shape of Hebe and check the consistency of the derived model against available stellar occultations and thermal measurements. Results. Our 3D shape model fits the images with sub-pixel residuals and the light curves to 0.02 mag. The rotation period (7.274 47 h), spin (343 deg,+47 deg), and volume-equivalent diameter (193 +/- 6km) are consistent with previous determinations and thermophysical modeling. Hebe's inferred density is 3.48 +/- 0.64 g.cm-3 , in agreement with an intact interior based on its H-chondrite composition. Using the 3D shape model to derive the volume of the largest depression (likely impact crater), it appears that the latter is significantly smaller than the total volume of close-by S-type H-chondrite-like asteroid families. Conclusions. Our results imply that (6) Hebe is not the most likely source of H chondrites. Over the coming years, our team will collect similar high-precision shape measurements with VLT/SPHERE for ~40 asteroids covering the main compositional classes, thus providing an unprecedented dataset to investigate the origin and collisional evolution of the asteroid belt. [less ▲]

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