References of "Gérard, Jean-Claude"
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See detailEvidence for Auroral Emissions from Callisto's Footprint in HST UV Images
Bhattacharyya, Dolon; Clarke, John T.; Montgomery, Jordan et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (in press)

Auroral emissions are expected from the footprint of Callisto in Jupiter's upper atmosphere owing to the known interaction of its atmosphere with Jupiter's magnetosphere, and from the observed auroral ... [more ▼]

Auroral emissions are expected from the footprint of Callisto in Jupiter's upper atmosphere owing to the known interaction of its atmosphere with Jupiter's magnetosphere, and from the observed auroral emissions from the footprints of the other three Galilean satellites. The mapping of Callisto along modeled magnetic field lines at Jupiter, however, places the expected footprint at the same latitude as the main auroral emissions, making it difficult to detect. We analyzed ultraviolet images of Jupiter taken using the HST/ACS instrument during a large observing campaign in 2007. Using a co-addition method similar to one used for Enceladus, we have identified a strong candidate for the footprint of Callisto on May 24, 2007. We tested this finding by applying the same co-addition technique to a nearly identical auroral configuration on May 30, 2007 when Callisto was behind Jupiter, not visible from Earth (CML = 22°; sub-Callisto system III longitude = 327°). By comparing the two co-added images, we can clearly see the presence of a strongly sub-corotating spot close to the expected Callisto footprint location on 24th May and its absence on 30th May. On the 24th Callisto was located in the current sheet. We also found a probable candidate on 26th May 2007 during which time Callisto was positioned below the current sheet. The measured location and intensity of the auroral emission provides important information about the interaction of Callisto with Jupiter's magnetic field, the corotating plasma, and the neutral and ionized state of the thin atmosphere of Callisto. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Ionospheric Connection Explorer Mission: Mission Goals and Design
Immel, T. J.; England, S. L.; Mende, S. B. et al

in Space Science Reviews (2018), 214(13),

The Ionospheric Connection Explorer, or ICON, is a new NASA Explorer mission that will explore the boundary between Earth and space to understand the physical connection between our world and our space ... [more ▼]

The Ionospheric Connection Explorer, or ICON, is a new NASA Explorer mission that will explore the boundary between Earth and space to understand the physical connection between our world and our space environment. This connection is made in the ionosphere, which has long been known to exhibit variability associated with the sun and solar wind. However, it has been recognized in the 21st century that equally significant changes in ionospheric conditions are apparently associated with energy and momentum propagating upward from our own atmosphere. ICON's goal is to weigh the competing impacts of these two drivers as they influence our space environment. Here we describe the specific science objectives that address this goal, as well as the means by which they will be achieved. The instruments selected, the overall performance requirements of the science payload and the operational requirements are also described. ICON's development began in 2013 and the mission is on track for launch in 2018. ICON is developed and managed by the Space Sciences Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, with key contributions from several partner institutions. [less ▲]

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See detailTemperature estimation from hydroxyl airglow emission in the Venus night side mesosphere
Migliorini, A.; Snels, M.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULiege et al

in Icarus (2018), 300

The temperature of the night side of Venus at about 95 km has been determined by using spectral features of the hydroxyl airglow emission around 3 μm, recorded from July 2006 to July 2008 by VIRTIS ... [more ▼]

The temperature of the night side of Venus at about 95 km has been determined by using spectral features of the hydroxyl airglow emission around 3 μm, recorded from July 2006 to July 2008 by VIRTIS onboard Venus Express. The retrieved temperatures vary from 145.5 to about 198.1 K with an average value of 176.3 ± 14.3 K and are in good agreement with previous ground-based and space observations. The variability with respect to latitude and local time has been studied, showing a minimum of temperature at equatorial latitudes, while temperature values increase toward mid latitudes with a local maximum at about 35°N. The present work provides an independent contribution to the temperature estimation in the transition region between the Venus upper mesosphere and the lower thermosphere, by using the OH emission as a thermometer, following the technique previously applied to the high-resolution O[SUB]2[/SUB](a[SUP]1[/SUP]Δ[SUB]g[/SUB]) airglow emissions observed from ground. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) of Three Spectrometers for the ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter
Korablev, O.; Montmessin, F.; Trokhimovskiy, A. et al

in Space Science Reviews (2018), 214

The Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) package is an element of the Russian contribution to the ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) mission. ACS consists of three separate infrared ... [more ▼]

The Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) package is an element of the Russian contribution to the ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) mission. ACS consists of three separate infrared spectrometers, sharing common mechanical, electrical, and thermal interfaces. This ensemble of spectrometers has been designed and developed in response to the Trace Gas Orbiter mission objectives that specifically address the requirement of high sensitivity instruments to enable the unambiguous detection of trace gases of potential geophysical or biological interest. For this reason, ACS embarks a set of instruments achieving simultaneously very high accuracy (ppt level), very high resolving power (>10,000) and large spectral coverage (0.7 to 17 μm—the visible to thermal infrared range). The near-infrared (NIR) channel is a versatile spectrometer covering the 0.7-1.6 μm spectral range with a resolving power of ˜20,000. NIR employs the combination of an echelle grating with an AOTF (Acousto-Optical Tunable Filter) as diffraction order selector. This channel will be mainly operated in solar occultation and nadir, and can also perform limb observations. The scientific goals of NIR are the measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and dayside or night side airglows. The mid-infrared (MIR) channel is a cross-dispersion echelle instrument dedicated to solar occultation measurements in the 2.2-4.4 μm range. MIR achieves a resolving power of >50,000. It has been designed to accomplish the most sensitive measurements ever of the trace gases present in the Martian atmosphere. The thermal-infrared channel (TIRVIM) is a 2-inch double pendulum Fourier-transform spectrometer encompassing the spectral range of 1.7-17 μm with apodized resolution varying from 0.2 to 1.3 cm[SUP]-1[/SUP]. TIRVIM is primarily dedicated to profiling temperature from the surface up to ˜60 km and to monitor aerosol abundance in nadir. TIRVIM also has a limb and solar occultation capability. The technical concept of the instrument, its accommodation on the spacecraft, the optical designs as well as some of the calibrations, and the expected performances for its three channels are described. [less ▲]

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See detailJuno-UVS observation of the Io footprint: Influence of Io’s local environment and passage into eclipse on the strength of the interaction
Hue, Vincent; Gladstone, Randy; Greathouse, Thomas K et al

Poster (2017, December 13)

The Juno mission offers an unprecedented opportunity to study Jupiter, from its internal structure to its magnetospheric environment. Juno-UVS is a UV spectrograph with a bandpass of 70<λ<205 nm, built to ... [more ▼]

The Juno mission offers an unprecedented opportunity to study Jupiter, from its internal structure to its magnetospheric environment. Juno-UVS is a UV spectrograph with a bandpass of 70<λ<205 nm, built to characterize Jupiter’s UV emissions and provide remote sensing capacities for the onboard fields and particle instruments (MAG, Waves, JADE and JEDI). Juno’s orbit allows observing Jupiter from a unique vantage point above the poles. In particular, UVS has observed the instantaneous Io footprint and extended tail as Io enters into eclipse. This observation may better constrain whether the atmosphere of Io is sustained via volcanic activity or sublimation. Among other processes, the modulation of Io’s footprint brightness correlates to the strength of the interaction between the Io plasma torus and its ionosphere, which, in turn, is likely to be affected by the atmospheric collapse. UVS observed the Io footprint during two eclipses that occurred on PJ1 and PJ3, and one additional eclipse observation is planned during PJ9 (24 Oct. 2017). We present how the electrodynamic coupling between Io and Jupiter is influenced by changes in Io’s local environment, e.g. Io’s passage in and out of eclipse and Io’s traverse of the magnetodisc plasma sheet. [less ▲]

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See detailOverview of HST observa7ons of Jupiter’s ultraviolet aurora during Juno orbits 3 to 7
Grodent, Denis ULiege; Bonfond, Bertrand ULiege; Yao, Zhonghua ULiege et al

Conference (2017, December 12)

Jupiter’s permanent ultraviolet auroral emissions have been systematically monitored from Earth orbit with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during an 8-month period. The Girst part of this HST large ... [more ▼]

Jupiter’s permanent ultraviolet auroral emissions have been systematically monitored from Earth orbit with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during an 8-month period. The Girst part of this HST large program (GO-14634) was meant to support the NASA Juno prime mission during orbits PJ03 through PJ07. The HST program will resume in Feb 2018, in time for Juno’s PJ11 perijove, right after HST’s solar and lunar avoidance periods. HST observations are designed to provide a Jovian auroral activity background for all instruments on-board Juno and for the numerous ground based and space based observatories participating to the Juno mission. In particular, several HST visits were programmed in order to obtain as many simultaneous observations with Juno-UVS as possible, sometimes in the same hemisphere, sometimes in the opposite one. In addition, the timing of some HST visits was set to take advantage of Juno’s multiple crossings of the current sheet and of the magnetic Gield lines threading the auroral emissions. These observations are obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) in time-tag mode, they consist in spatially resolved movies of Jupiter’s highly dynamic aurora with timescales ranging from seconds to several days. Here, we present an overview of the present -numerous- HST results. They demonstrate that while Jupiter is always showing the same basic auroral components, it is also displaying an ever-changing auroral landscape. The complexity of the auroral morphology is such that no two observations are alike. Still, in this apparent chaos some patterns emerge. This information is giving clues on magnetospheric processes at play at the local and global scales, the latter being only accessible to remote sensing instruments such as HST. [less ▲]

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See detailAn overview of the first year of observations of Jupiter’s auroras by Juno-UVS with multi-wavelength comparisons
Gladstone, Randy; Greathouse, Thomas K; Versteeg, Maarten H et al

Conference (2017, December 12)

Juno’s Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS) has observed the Jovian aurora during eight perijove passes. UVS typically observes Jupiter for 10 hours centered on closest approach in a series of swaths, with ... [more ▼]

Juno’s Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS) has observed the Jovian aurora during eight perijove passes. UVS typically observes Jupiter for 10 hours centered on closest approach in a series of swaths, with one swath per Juno spin (~30s). During this period the spacecraft range to Jupiter’s aurora decreases from ~6 RJ to ~0.3 RJ (or less) in the north, and then reverses this in the south, so that spatial resolution changes dramatically. A scan mirror is used to target different features or raster across the entire auroral region. Juno-UVS observes a particular location for roughly 17 ms/swath, so the series of swaths provide snapshots of ultraviolet auroral brightness and color. A variety of forms and activity levels are represented in the Juno-UVS data–some have been described before with HST observations, but others are new. One interesting result is that the color ratio, often used as a proxy for energetic particle precipitation, may instead (in certain regions) indicate excitation of H2 by low-energy ionospheric electrons. Additional results from comparisons with simultaneous observations at x-ray, visible, and near-IR wavelengths will also be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailA Study of Local Time Variations of Jupiter’s Ultraviolet Aurora using Juno-UVS
Greathouse, Thomas K; Gladstone, Randy; Versteeg, Maarten H et al

Conference (2017, December 12)

Juno’s Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS) offers unique views of Jupiter’s auroras never before obtained in the UV, observing at all local times (unlike HST observations, limited to the illuminated disk ... [more ▼]

Juno’s Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS) offers unique views of Jupiter’s auroras never before obtained in the UV, observing at all local times (unlike HST observations, limited to the illuminated disk). With Juno’s 2-rpm spin period, the UVS long slit rapidly scans across Jupiter observing narrow stripes or swaths of Jupiter’s poles, from 5 hours prior to perijove until 5 hours after perijove. By rotating a mirror interior to the instrument, UVS can view objects from 60 to 120 degrees off the spacecraft spin axis. This allows UVS to map out the entire auroral oval over multiple spins, even when Juno is very close to Jupiter. Using the first 8 perijove passes, we take a first look for local time effects in Jupiter’s northern and southern auroras. We focus on the strength of auroral oval emissions and polar emissions found poleward of the main oval. Some unique polar emissions of interest include newly discovered polar flare emissions that start off as small localized points of emission but quickly (10’s of sec) evolve into rings. These emissions evolve in such a way as to be reminiscent of raindrops striking a pond. [less ▲]

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See detailCassini UVIS Observations of Saturn during the Grand Finale Orbits (Invited)
Pryor, Wayne R; Esposito, Larry W; West, Robert et al

Conference (2017, December 11)

In 2016 and 2017, the Cassini Saturn orbiter executed a final series of high inclination, low-periapsis orbits ideal for studies of Saturn's polar regions. The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph ... [more ▼]

In 2016 and 2017, the Cassini Saturn orbiter executed a final series of high inclination, low-periapsis orbits ideal for studies of Saturn's polar regions. The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) obtained an extensive set of auroral images, some at the highest spatial resolution obtained during Cassini's long orbital mission (2004-2017). In some cases, two or three spacecraft slews at right angles to the long slit of the spectrograph were required to cover the entire auroral region to form auroral images. We will present selected images from this set showing narrow arcs of emission, more diffuse auroral emissions, multiple auroral arcs in a single image, discrete spots of emission, small scale vortices, large-scale spiral forms, and parallel linear features that appear to cross in places like twisted wires. Some shorter features are transverse to the main auroral arcs, like barbs on a wire. UVIS observations were in some cases simultaneous with auroral observations from the Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) that will also be presented. UVIS polar images also contain spectral information suitable for studies of the auroral electron energy distribution. The long wavelength part of the UVIS polar images contains a signal from reflected sunlight containing absorption signatures of acetylene and other Saturn hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon spatial distribution will also be examined. [less ▲]

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See detailCassini UVIS Auroral Observations in 2016 and 2017
Pryor, Wayne R.; Esposito, Larry W.; Jouchoux, Alain et al

Poster (2017, December 06)

In 2016 and 2017, the Cassini Saturn orbiter executed a final series of high-inclination, low-periapsis orbits ideal for studies of Saturn's polar regions. The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph ... [more ▼]

In 2016 and 2017, the Cassini Saturn orbiter executed a final series of high-inclination, low-periapsis orbits ideal for studies of Saturn's polar regions. The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) obtained an extensive set of auroral images, some at the highest spatial resolution obtained during Cassini's long orbital mission (2004-2017). In some cases, two or three spacecraft slews at right angles to the long slit of the spectrograph were required to cover the entire auroral region to form auroral images. We will present selected images from this set showing narrow arcs of emission, more diffuse auroral emissions, multiple auroral arcs in a single image, discrete spots of emission, small scale vortices, large-scale spiral forms, and parallel linear features that appear to cross in places like twisted wires. Some shorter features are transverse to the main auroral arcs, like barbs on a wire. UVIS observations were in some cases simultaneous with auroral observations from the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), and the Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) that will also be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal transport in Mars' mesosphere-thermosphere revealed by NO nightglow
Stiepen, Arnaud ULiege; Royer; Schneider et al

Conference (2017, December)

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See detailDawn Auroral Breakup at Saturn Initiated by Auroral Arcs: UVIS/Cassini Beginning of Grand Finale Phase
Radioti, Aikaterini ULiege; Grodent, Denis ULiege; Yao, Zhonghua ULiege et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2017)

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See detailThe Ultraviolet Spectrograph on NASA’s Juno Mission
Gladstone, G Randal; Persyn, Steven C.; Eterno, John S. et al

in Space Science Reviews (2017), 213(1-4), 447-473

The ultraviolet spectrograph instrument on the Juno mission (Juno-UVS) is a long-slit imaging spectrograph designed to observe and characterize Jupiter’s far-ultraviolet (FUV) auroral emissions. These ... [more ▼]

The ultraviolet spectrograph instrument on the Juno mission (Juno-UVS) is a long-slit imaging spectrograph designed to observe and characterize Jupiter’s far-ultraviolet (FUV) auroral emissions. These observations will be coordinated and correlated with those from Juno’s other remote sensing instruments and used to place in situ measurements made by Juno’s particles and fields instruments into a global context, relating the local data with events occurring in more distant regions of Jupiter’s magnetosphere. Juno-UVS is based on a series of imaging FUV spectrographs currently in flight—the two Alice instruments on the Rosetta and New Horizons missions, and the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission. However, Juno-UVS has several important modifications, including (1) a scan mirror (for targeting specific auroral features), (2) extensive shielding (for mitigation of electronics and data quality degradation by energetic particles), and (3) a cross delay line microchannel plate detector (for both faster photon counting and improved spatial resolution). This paper describes the science objectives, design, and initial performance of the Juno-UVS. [less ▲]

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See detailMars’ seasonal mesospheric transport seen through nitric oxide nightglow
Milby, Zachariah; Stiepen, Arnaud ULiege; Jain, Sonal et al

Conference (2017, October 01)

We analyze the ultraviolet nightglow in the atmosphere of Mars through nitric oxide (NO) δ and γ band emissions as observed by the Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph (IUVS) instrument onboard the Mars ... [more ▼]

We analyze the ultraviolet nightglow in the atmosphere of Mars through nitric oxide (NO) δ and γ band emissions as observed by the Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph (IUVS) instrument onboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft when it is at apoapse and periapse.In the dayside thermosphere of Mars, solar extreme-ultraviolet radiation dissociates CO[SUB]2[/SUB] and N[SUB]2[/SUB] molecules. O([SUP]3[/SUP]P) and N([SUP]4[/SUP]S) atoms are carried from the dayside to the nightside by the day-night hemispheric transport process, where they descend through the nightside mesosphere and can radiatively recombine to form NO(C[SUP]2[/SUP]Π). The excited molecules rapidly relax by emitting photons in the UV δ and γ bands. These emissions are indicators of the N and O atom fluxes from the dayside to Mars’ nightside and the descending circulation pattern from the nightside thermosphere to the mesosphere (e.g. Bertaux et al., 2005 ; Bougher et al., 1990 ; Cox et al., 2008 ; Gagné et al., 2013 ; Gérard et al., 2008 ; Stiepen et al., 2015, 2017).Observations of these emissions are gathered from a large dataset spanning different seasonal conditions.We present discussion on the variability in the brightness and altitude of the emission with season, geographical position (longitude), and local time, along with possible interpretation by local and global changes in the mesosphere dynamics. We show the possible impact of atmospheric waves forcing longitudinal variability and data-to-model comparisons indicating a wave-3 structure in Mars’ nightside mesosphere. Quantitative comparison with calculations of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique-Mars Global Climate Model (LMD-MGCM) suggests the model reproduces both the global trend of NO nightglow emission and its seasonal variation. However, it also indicates large discrepancies, with the emission up to a factor 50 times fainter in the model, suggesting that the predicted transport is too efficient toward the night winter pole in the thermosphere by ˜20° latitude to the north.These questions are now addressed through an extensive dataset of disk images, in complement to improved simulations of the LMD-MGCM and the Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (MGITM) models. [less ▲]

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See detailAeronomy of the Venus Upper Atmosphere
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULiege; Bougher, Stephen .W.; López-Valverde, Miguel .A. et al

in Space Science Reviews (2017)

We present aeronomical observations collected using remote sensing instruments on board Venus Express, complemented with ground-based observations and numerical modeling. They are mostly based on VIRTIS ... [more ▼]

We present aeronomical observations collected using remote sensing instruments on board Venus Express, complemented with ground-based observations and numerical modeling. They are mostly based on VIRTIS and SPICAV measurements of airglow obtained in the nadir mode and at the limb above 90 km. They complement our understanding of the behavior of Venus’ upper atmosphere that was largely based on Pioneer Venus observations mostly performed over thirty years earlier. Following a summary of recent spectral data from the EUV to the infrared, we examine how these observations have improved our knowledge of the composition, thermal structure, dynamics and transport of the Venus upper atmosphere. We then synthesize progress in three-dimensional modeling of the upper atmosphere which is largely based on global mapping and observations of time variations of the nitric oxide and O2 nightglow emissions. Processes controlling the escape flux of atoms to space are described. Results based on the VeRA radio propagation experiment are summarized and compared to ionospheric measurements collected during earlier space missions. Finally, we point out some unsolved and open questions generated by the recent datasets and model comparisons. [less ▲]

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See detailJovian aurora from Juno perijove passes: comparison of ultraviolet and infrared images
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULiege; Bonfond, Bertrand ULiege; Adriani, A. et al

Conference (2017, September 01)

The electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Jovian aurora extends from the X-Rays presumably caused by heavy ion precipitation and electron bremsstrahlung to thermal infrared radiation resulting from ... [more ▼]

The electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Jovian aurora extends from the X-Rays presumably caused by heavy ion precipitation and electron bremsstrahlung to thermal infrared radiation resulting from enhanced heating by high-energy charged particles. Many observations have been made since the 1990s with the Hubble Space Telescope, which was able to image the H2 Lyman and Werner bands that are directly excited by collisions of auroral electrons with H2. Ground-based telescopes obtained spectra and images of the thermal H3+ emission produced by charge transfer between H2+ and H+ ions and neutral H2 molecules in the lower thermosphere. However, so far the geometry of the observations limited the coverage from Earth orbit and only one case of simultaneous UV and infrared emissions has been described in the literature. The Juno mission provides the unique advantage to observe both Jovian hemispheres simultaneously in the two wavelength regions simultaneously and offers a more global coverage with unprecedented spatial resolution. This was the case. [less ▲]

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See detailJuno-UVS and Chandra Observations of Jupiter's Polar Auroral Emissions
Gladstone, G. R.; Kammer, J. A.; Versteeg, M. H. et al

Conference (2017, September 01)

New results are presented comparing Jupiter's auroras at far-ultraviolet and x-ray wavelengths, using data acquired by Juno-UVS and Chandra. The highly variable polar auroras (which are located within the ... [more ▼]

New results are presented comparing Jupiter's auroras at far-ultraviolet and x-ray wavelengths, using data acquired by Juno-UVS and Chandra. The highly variable polar auroras (which are located within the main auroral oval) track each other quite well in brightness at these two wavelengths. [less ▲]

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See detailUnveiling Mars nightside mesosphere dynamics by IUVS/MAVEN global images of NO nightglow
Stiepen, Arnaud ULiege; Jain, S. K.; Schneider, N. M. et al

Conference (2017, September 01)

We analyze the morphology of the ultraviolet nightglow in the Martian upper atmosphere through Nitric Oxide (NO) δ and γ bands emissions observed by the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph instrument on the ... [more ▼]

We analyze the morphology of the ultraviolet nightglow in the Martian upper atmosphere through Nitric Oxide (NO) δ and γ bands emissions observed by the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN spacecraft. The seasonal dynamics of the Martian thermosphere-mesosphere can be constrained based on the distribution of these emissions. We show evidence for local (emission streaks and splotches) and global (longitudinal and seasonal) variability in brightness of the emission and provide quantitative comparisons to GCM simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailNightside temperature measurements at 95 km from OH nightglow in the Venus atmosphere
Migliorini, A.; Snels, M.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September)

Temperature estimations at an altitude of about 95 km on the night side of Venus are provided. They are derived from hydroxyl nightglow emissions, observed in the infrared spectral range at 2.7-3.5 micron ... [more ▼]

Temperature estimations at an altitude of about 95 km on the night side of Venus are provided. They are derived from hydroxyl nightglow emissions, observed in the infrared spectral range at 2.7-3.5 micron, using the Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer on board Venus Express. [less ▲]

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See detailMars proton aurora: energy deposition and Lyman-α line profile
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULiege; Hubert, Benoît ULiege; Bisikalo, D. V. et al

Conference (2017, September)

Enhancements of the Lyman-alpha dayglow have been occasionally observed with IUVS on board MAVEN during periods of increased solar wind activity. They are interpreted as signatures of the penetration of ... [more ▼]

Enhancements of the Lyman-alpha dayglow have been occasionally observed with IUVS on board MAVEN during periods of increased solar wind activity. They are interpreted as signatures of the penetration of energetic protons and H atoms into the Martian atmosphere. We present the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the energy deposition of the proton/H atom beam and the subsequent Lyman-alpha emission. We compare the observed brightness and the altitude of the emission peak with those calculated based on in-situ measurements of the incident energetic protons. [less ▲]

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