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See detailBAROMÈTRE 2018 : SMART CITIES EN WALLONIE
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege et al

Report (2018)

Ce rapport relate les résultats d’une étude quantitative parmi les communes wallonnes. L’étude se réfère à trois modèles conceptuels : les trois composantes de la Smart City de Nam et Pardo (2011) ; les ... [more ▼]

Ce rapport relate les résultats d’une étude quantitative parmi les communes wallonnes. L’étude se réfère à trois modèles conceptuels : les trois composantes de la Smart City de Nam et Pardo (2011) ; les six dimensions de la Smart City de Giffinger et al. (2007) ; et la norme ISO 37120 : 2014. Echantillon La population de référence de l’étude est l’ensemble des communes wallonnes (262 communes). Un échantillon de 58 communes y ont effectivement répondu (22% des communes wallonnes). Cet échantillon est représentatif en termes de géographie (provinces wallonnes) et de nature (commune rurale/urbaine) . Les résultats sont donc généralisables et peuvent être extrapolés à l’ensemble des communes wallonnes. Collecte des données Un questionnaire en ligne comprenant 20 questions a été envoyé à l’ensemble des communes wallonnes. Divers canaux de communication ont été utilisés pour la diffusion du questionnaire. La collecte de données a duré 3 mois (d’octobre 2017 à janvier 2018). La grande majorité des répondants sont des directeurs généraux (34%). Le temps moyen de réponse au questionnaire est de 23 minutes. Analyse des données Les calculs et les traitements statistiques ont été effectués à l’aide du logiciel Statistica. Les données sont analysées en globalité afin de recenser les grandes tendances pour les communes wallonnes. Deux critères d’analyse principaux ont été retenus. Le premier critère concerne la nature des communes (rurales et urbaines) selon la définition de l'OCDE. La différence entre une commune rurale et une commune urbaine réside dans le nombre d'habitants au kilomètre carré. Lorsqu’une entité compte moins de 150 habitants au km2, cette entité est considérée comme rurale. Le deuxième critère concerne la taille des communes. L’analyse primaire des données souligne d’importantes différences observées au sein des communes de plus de 50.000 habitants (désignées comme grandes communes dans l’étude) comparativement à la moyenne de notre échantillon. Les résultats analysent la compréhension du concept de ville intelligente par les communes wallonnes, la stratégie smart city développée, et finalement, la mise en œuvre et le contrôle des projets smart city développés dans les communes wallonnes. Les résultats présentent les principaux résultats de l’échantillon. Ils développent ensuite les différences significatives entre les communes urbaines et rurales, et entre les communes de moins et de plus de 50.000 habitants. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping Sustainability Mobility Controls: The Case of Four Belgian Local Governments
Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Qian, Wei

in Social and Environmental Accountability Journal (2018)

Purpose This paper explores the links between management controls, strategy, and sustainability in the context of the public sector. Institutional theory is used as a theoretical lens to explore how ... [more ▼]

Purpose This paper explores the links between management controls, strategy, and sustainability in the context of the public sector. Institutional theory is used as a theoretical lens to explore how institutional influences enable or constrain the development of management controls in Belgian local governments, particularly those pertaining to sustainability mobility strategies. Research Method An exploratory case study method was used for the purposes of this study. Further, the package of mobility controls developed by Belgian local governments is explored with reference to the model proposed by Malmi and Brown (2008). The case study utilised semi-structured interviews with mobility managers in four Belgian local governments. To strengthen the analysis, secondary data from these local governments, including reports on mobility, strategy, urban development and infrastructure, were collected and analysed. Findings The four Belgian local governments plan, implement, and control their sustainability mobility strategies differently, depending on their specific practices and routines, and the interactions between relevant actors. Even if sustainability is a strategic component of their urban development, the understanding of the link between sustainability, management controls, and mobility strategy, differs according to local government challenges. Institutional influences are both enabling and constraining the development of management controls in support of sustainability mobility strategies in local governments. More specifically, political support and regulations enable control planning. However, limits in the support of mobility actors, and weak decision power for mobility managers, constrain the monitoring and updating of control indicators. Contribution/Implications This paper contributes to the literature by exploring both institutional enablers and constraints on the development of management controls for sustainability in the public-sector context. More specifically, it explores how practices, routines, and interactions can enable or constrain the potential contribution of management controls to sustainability transitions of local governments. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart Cities in Belgium: Barometer and perspectives
Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2017, December 14)

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See detailSmart Cities in Belgium: Definitions, Context and Barometer
Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailMunicipalities’ understanding and importance of the concept of Smart Cities: an exploratory analysis in Belgium
Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Giffinger, Rudolf

Conference (2017, September 01)

Even if an increasing number of scientific publications are dealing with it, the concept of “smart city” is not yet well defined and it is not fully understood (Anthopoulos and Vakali 2012; Caragliu,Bo ... [more ▼]

Even if an increasing number of scientific publications are dealing with it, the concept of “smart city” is not yet well defined and it is not fully understood (Anthopoulos and Vakali 2012; Caragliu,Bo, and Nijkamp 2009; Lazaroiu and Roscia 2012). Due to the lack of a proper conceptualization, defined method or credentials for smart cities (Angelidou 2015; Nam and Pardo 2011), cities across the geographical spectrum claim themselves 'smart' with self-congratulatory note (Hollands 2008). Despite this increasing popularity of smart cities, there are few critical discourse and rigorous analytical or statistical analyses of the concept and its application on urban territories (Caragliu, Bo, and Nijkamp 2009; R G Hollands 2015; Kitchin 2015; Vanolo 2014). This paper aims at understanding where Belgian municipalities stand in the field of smart city in 2016. How Belgian municipalities approach the phenomenon smart city? Which focus in smart city -sustainable, technologic, creative and human-do attract Belgian municipalities? The paper answers to these questions thanks to a comprehensive territorial analysis of the country, a presentation of current trends on smart cities in the three Belgian regions, and the construction of a typology of municipalities’ understandings of the phenomenon. It also analyses how these understandings impact priorities and smart city developments of Belgian municipalities. It investigates how they affect municipal priorities in the six dimensions of the smart city and their state of development in some key smart city fields. Finally, it examines how do this typology is related to the municipal perception of difficulty to set up smart city projects and the relevance of the concept for their territories. The data used comes from the results of a quantitative research amongst Belgian municipalities carried out in 2016 by the Smart City Institute. The research points out key statistical observations around the smart city phenomenon in Belgium. A typology with four different understandings (technological, holistic, specialized and inexistent) emerged from the analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart Cities: Context, definitions and state of development in Belgium
Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailLa Smart City: un idéal de durabilité et de performance pour nos villes
Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Article for general public (2017)

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See detailThe development of sustainable mobility strategy in Belgian cities
Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Qian, Wei; Bounazef, Djida ULiege

Conference (2017, June)

Nowadays, city local governments focus their strategic vision on the development of the urban sustainability. For this, they develop drivers, strategies, structures on green local improvements. To be ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, city local governments focus their strategic vision on the development of the urban sustainability. For this, they develop drivers, strategies, structures on green local improvements. To be sustainable, cities reinforce actions and plans on resource management, mobility, climate, building and public spaces. In order to be sustainable and smart, challenges are set to ensure successful implementation of sustainable mobility strategies through the development of appropriate policies, actions, decisions and controls. The development of sustainable mobility strategy requires the involvement of strategic actors, infrastructures, funding and socio-demographic parameters. To ensure this, sustainable mobility strategy has to be strengthen by an efficient management control system and a real measurement of institutional factors’ risk. The development of mobility controls ensures homogeneity between behaviours, decisions, objectives and strategies for mobility issues. In order to make the link between control, strategy and sustainability, new researches propose new frameworks and systems. These frameworks reinforce the strategic contribution of values, rules, monitoring and enhancing awareness and interactions. Based on that, the management control framework of Malmi and Brown is more and more associated with the implementation of sustainable strategies. This paper explores the development of sustainable mobility strategies in two Belgian cities (Namur and Leuven). To analyse how cilty local governments implement, control and develop mobility strategies and plans, this paper refers to Malmi and Brown’s model. The research proposes two hypotheses that set the importance of the integration of an adequate sustainable mobility control system and the institutional factors on the design and the use of mobility strategy control. This paper proposes a new conceptual model to support the development of sustainable mobility strategy. For this, the choice of two Belgian cities is made according to similarities (population size, explicit will to develop sustainable mobility strategy, focus on sustainable transport, initiation period of mobility issues’ implementation, number of person in charge of mobility, level of willingness to develop mobility system, focus on car free and strategic mobility challenges) and differences (region, language, regulative factors, normative factors and cognitive factors). To test our conceptual framework, an explorative qualitative case study is done in these two Belgian city local governments. The data collection requires a fieldwork of 12 weeks, 54 internal and external documents, and 20 semi-structured interviews (mobility managers, politicians, sustainability managers, policemen and administrative workers). Results shows differences between the implementation and development of Namur and Leuven. Leuven has an average quality of sustainable mobility control system. Leuven requires developing new adapted indicators to face new city challenges and more effective collaborations between involved departments and actors. The case of Namur shows that its sustainable mobility control system is weak because of the non-adapted indicators to strategy and the weakness of the formal structure of mobility strategy. Results identify different institutional factors that have a significant impact on the development of sustainable mobility strategy; the most relevant are formal regulations, political power, local cultures, support of direct and indirect actors and the sensitiveness on sustainable culture. The proposed conceptual model also highlights if the impact of mobility strategy controls and institutional influences have a weak, medium or strong impact on the development of mobility strategy. Results validate our proposed conceptual model. However, this model has to be tested on other sustainability issues (energy, green building, green housing, green and neutral climate), cities and regions. [less ▲]

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See detailBusiness Models for Smart City – a means to achieve sustainability?
Bleus, Hélène ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2017, June)

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See detailSmart cities et la participation des citoyens
Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Bleus, Hélène ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailSmart Cities Belges: Quelles dynamiques?
Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Article for general public (2017)

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See detailSustainability Accounting and Control for Smart City
Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Van Bockhaven, Jonas; Schaltegger, Stefan et al

in Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal (2017)

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See detailPour tout savoir sur les Smart Cities
Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Article for general public (2017)

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See detailThe Belgian Smart City Barometer
Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailEtat des lieux sur la dynamique Smart City en Belgique: un baromètre quantitatif
Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailThe State of Development of “Smart City” Dynamics in Belgium: A Quantitative Barometer
Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Report (2017)

This research relates the results of a quantitative research amongst Belgian municipalities. Pointing out key statistical observations, it provides a first scientific and quantitative state of the ... [more ▼]

This research relates the results of a quantitative research amongst Belgian municipalities. Pointing out key statistical observations, it provides a first scientific and quantitative state of the dynamics around the “Smart City” phenomenon in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailSustainability and management control. Exploring and theorizing control patterns in large European firms
Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Zvezdov, Dimitar; Schaltegger, Stefan

in Journal of Cleaner Production (2017), 143

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See detailThe Role of Companies in Smart City Initiatives: The Case of Belgium
Andre, Anne-Marie; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

in Economia (2017), (Janvier 2017), 47-52

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