References of "du Jardin, Patrick"
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See detailBiostimulant Effects of Bacillus strains on wheat from in vitro towards field conditions are modulated by nitrogen supply
Nguyen, Minh Luan; Glaes, Johann; Spaepen, Stijn et al

in Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science (in press)

Bacillus velezensisstrains, belonging to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), areincreasingly used as microbial biostimulant. However, their field application to winter wheatunder temperate ... [more ▼]

Bacillus velezensisstrains, belonging to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), areincreasingly used as microbial biostimulant. However, their field application to winter wheatunder temperate climate remains poorly documented. Therefore, threeB. velezensisstrainsIT45, FZB24 and FZB42 were tested for their efficacy under these conditions. Two biological in-teraction systems were firstly developed under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions combinedwith sterile or non-sterile soil, respectively, and finally assayed in the field during two yearscoupled with different N fertilization rates. Under gnotobiotic conditions, all three strains signifi-cantly increased root growth of 14 d-old spring and winter wheat seedlings. In the greenhouseusing non-sterile soil, only FZB24 significantly increased root biomass of spring wheat (+31%).The three strains were able to improve nutrient uptake of the spring wheat grown in the green-house, particularly for the micronutrients Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu, but the observed increases innutrient uptake were dependent on the organs and the elements. The root biomass increases ininoculated plants coincided with lowered nutrient concentrations of P and K. In 2014, under fieldconditions and absence of any N fertilizer supply, FZB24 significantly increased grain yields by983 kg ha–1, or 14.9%, in relation to non-inoculated controls. The three strains in the 2015 fieldtrial failed to confirm the previous positive results, likely due to the low temperatures occurringduring and after inoculations. The Zeleny sedimentation value, indicative of flour quality, wasunaffected by the inoculants. The results are discussed in the perspective of bacterial applicationto wheat under temperate agricultural practices [less ▲]

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See detailBiostimulant effects of rhizobacteria on wheat growth and nutrient uptake depend on nitrogen application and plant development
Nguyen, Minh Luan ULiege; Spaepen, Stijn; du Jardin, Patrick ULiege et al

in Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science (2018)

The capacity of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) - Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GB03 (BamGB03), B. megaterium SNji (BmeSNji), and Azospirillum brasilense 65B (Abr65B) – to enhance growth and ... [more ▼]

The capacity of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) - Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GB03 (BamGB03), B. megaterium SNji (BmeSNji), and Azospirillum brasilense 65B (Abr65B) – to enhance growth and nutrient uptake in wheat was evaluated under different mineral N fertilizer rates, in sterile vs. non-sterile soils, and at different developmental stages. In gnotobiotic conditions, the three strains significantly increased plant biomass irrespective of the N rates. Under greenhouse conditions using non-sterile soil, growth promotion was generally highest at moderate N rate, followed by full N dose, while no significant effect of the inoculants was observed in the absence of N fertilizer. At 50N, plant biomass was most significantly increased in roots (up to +45% with Abr65B) at stem-elongation stage and in the ears (+19–23% according to the strains) at flowering stages. For some nutrients (N, P, Mn, and Cu), the biomass increases in roots and ears was paralleled with lowered nutrient concentrations in the same organs. Nevertheless, growth stimulation resulted in higher total nutrient uptake and nutrient uptake efficiency. Furthermore, Abr65B and BmeSNji counteracted the repression of root development caused by high N supply. Therefore, combining PGPR with a proper cultivated system, N rate, and plant stage could enhance their biostimulant effects. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions of allelochemicals with plant plasma membrane: a case study with alkaloids from barley
Lebecque, Simon ULiege; Crowet, Jean-Marc; du Jardin, Patrick ULiege et al

Poster (2018, April)

Allelopathy is defined as “any direct or indirect harmful effect by one plant on another through production of chemical compounds that escape into the environment” (Rice, 1974).This phenomenon is seen as ... [more ▼]

Allelopathy is defined as “any direct or indirect harmful effect by one plant on another through production of chemical compounds that escape into the environment” (Rice, 1974).This phenomenon is seen as a potential tool for weeds management within the framework of sustainable agriculture. While many studies investigated the mode of action of various allelochemicals (molecules emitted by allelopathic plants), little attention was given to their initial contact with the plant plasma membrane. In our work, this key step is explored for two alkaloids, gramine and hordenine, that are allelochemicals produced by barley. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of molecular dynamics simulations to study the interactions between barley allelochemicals and plant plasma membrane
Lebecque, Simon ULiege; Crowet, Jean-Marc; du Jardin, Patrick ULiege et al

Poster (2018, March)

Gramine and hordenine, two alkaloids produced by barley, were shown to inhibit the growth of a common weed (Matricaria recutita L.). This feature could be useful in order to reach a more sustainable weeds ... [more ▼]

Gramine and hordenine, two alkaloids produced by barley, were shown to inhibit the growth of a common weed (Matricaria recutita L.). This feature could be useful in order to reach a more sustainable weeds management. In vitro experiments have proven that both molecules do interact with lipid bilayers (made of a phosphatidylglycerol (PG) lipid) mimicking plant plasma membranes and are able to modify some of their properties. Moreover, gramine was shown to be more effective than hordenine in both inhibiting weeds growth and altering lipid bilayers properties, suggesting that interactions with membranes could be linked to their mode of action. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out in order to get an insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie these interactions with model membranes and to discriminate between gramine behavior and hordenine behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailInteraction between the barley allelochemical compounds gramine and hordenine and artificial lipid bilayers mimicking the plant plasma membrane
Lebecque, Simon ULiege; Crowet, Jean-Marc ULiege; Lins, Laurence ULiege et al

in Scientific Reports (2018), 8

Some plants affect the development of neighbouring plants by releasing secondary metabolites into their environment. This phenomenon is known as allelopathy and is a potential tool for weed management ... [more ▼]

Some plants affect the development of neighbouring plants by releasing secondary metabolites into their environment. This phenomenon is known as allelopathy and is a potential tool for weed management within the framework of sustainable agriculture. While many studies have investigated the mode of action of various allelochemicals (molecules emitted by allelopathic plants), little attention has been paid to their initial contact with the plant plasma membrane (PPM). In this paper, this key step is explored for two alkaloids, gramine and hordenine, that are allelochemicals from barley. Using in vitro bioassays, we first showed that gramine has a greater toxicity than hordenine towards a weed commonly found in northern countries (Matricaria recutita L.). Then, isothermal titration calorimetry was used to show that these alkaloids spontaneously interact with lipid bilayers that mimic the PPM. The greater impact of gramine on the thermotropic behaviour of lipids compared to hordenine was established by means of infrared spectroscopy. Finally, the molecular mechanisms of these interactions were explored with molecular dynamics simulations. The good correlation between phytotoxicity and the ability to disturb lipid bilayers is discussed. In this study, biophysical tools were used for the first time to investigate the interactions of allelochemicals with artificial PPM. [less ▲]

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See detailDecrease in the photosynthetic performance of temperate grassland species does not lead to a decline in the gross primary production of the ecosystem
Digrado, Anthony ULiege; Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULiege; Bachy, Aurélie ULiege et al

in Frontiers in Plant Science (2018), 9

Plants, under stressful conditions, can proceed to photosynthetic adjustments in order to acclimatize and alleviate the detrimental impacts on the photosynthetic apparatus. However, it is currently ... [more ▼]

Plants, under stressful conditions, can proceed to photosynthetic adjustments in order to acclimatize and alleviate the detrimental impacts on the photosynthetic apparatus. However, it is currently unclear how adjustment of photosynthetic processes under environmental constraints by plants influences CO2 gas exchange at the ecosystem-scale. Over a two-year period, photosynthetic performance of a temperate grassland ecosystem was characterized by conducting frequent chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) measurements on three primary grassland species (Lolium perenne L., Taraxacum sp., and Trifolium repens L.). Ecosystem photosynthetic performance was estimated from measurements performed on the three dominant grassland species weighed based on their relative abundance. In addition, monitoring CO2 fluxes was performed by eddy covariance. The highest decrease in photosynthetic performance was detected in summer, when environmental constraints were combined. Dicot species (Taraxacum sp. and T. repens) presented the strongest capacity to up-regulate PSI and exhibited the highest electron transport efficiency under stressful environmental conditions compared with L. perenne. The decline in ecosystem photosynthetic performance did not lead to a reduction in gross primary productivity, likely because increased light energy was available under these conditions. The carbon amounts fixed at light saturation were not influenced by alterations in photosynthetic processes, suggesting photosynthesis was not impaired. Decreased photosynthetic performance was associated with high respiration flux, but both were influenced by temperature. Our study revealed variation in photosynthetic performance of a grassland ecosystem responded to environmental constraints, but alterations in photosynthetic processes appeared to exhibit a negligible influence on ecosystem CO2 fluxes. [less ▲]

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See detailBiogenic volatile organic compound emissions from senescent maize leaves and a comparison with other leaf developmental stages
Mozaffar, Md Ahsan ULiege; Schoon, N.; Bachy, Aurélie ULiege et al

in Atmospheric Environment (2018), 176

Plants are the major source of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) which have a large influence on atmospheric chemistry and the climate system. Therefore, understanding of BVOC emissions from all ... [more ▼]

Plants are the major source of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) which have a large influence on atmospheric chemistry and the climate system. Therefore, understanding of BVOC emissions from all abundant plant species at all developmental stages is very important. Nevertheless, investigations on BVOC emissions from even the most widespread agricultural crop species are rare and mainly confined to the healthy green leaves. Senescent leaves of grain crop species could be an important source of BVOCs as almost all the leaves senesce on the field before being harvested. For these reasons, BVOC emission measurements have been performed on maize (Zea mays L.), one of the most cultivated crop species in the world, at all the leaf developmental stages. The measurements were performed in controlled environmental conditions using dynamic enclosures and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The main compounds emitted by senescent maize leaves were methanol (31% of the total cumulative BVOC emission on a mass of compound basis) and acetic acid (30%), followed by acetaldehyde (11%), hexenals (9%) and m/z 59 compounds (acetone/propanal) (7%). Important differences were observed in the temporal emission profiles of the compounds, and both yellow leaves during chlorosis and dry brown leaves after chlorosis were identified as important senescence-related BVOC sources. Total cumulative BVOC emissions from senescent maize leaves were found to be among the highest for senescent Poaceae plant species. BVOC emission rates varied strongly among the different leaf developmental stages, and senescent leaves showed a larger diversity of emitted compounds than leaves at earlier stages. Methanol was the compound with the highest emissions for all the leaf developmental stages and the contribution from the younggrowing, mature, and senescent stages to the total methanol emission by a typical maize leaf was 61, 13, and 26%, respectively. This study shows that BVOC emissions from senescent maize leaves cannot be neglected and further investigations in field conditions are recommended to further constrain the BVOC emissions from this important C4 crop species. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysiological and biochemical parameters: new tools to screen barley root exudates allelopathic potential (*Hordeum vulgare* L. subsp. *vulgare*
Bouhaouel, Imen; Gfeller, Aurélie; Boudabous, Khaoula et al

in Acta Physiologiae Plantarum (2018), 40(2), 1-14

Morphological markers/traits are often used in the detection of allelopathic stress, but optical signals including chlorophyll a fluorescence emission could be useful in developing new screening ... [more ▼]

Morphological markers/traits are often used in the detection of allelopathic stress, but optical signals including chlorophyll a fluorescence emission could be useful in developing new screening techniques. In this context, the allelopathic effect of barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) root exudates (three modern varieties and three landraces) were assessed on the morphological (root and shoot length, biomass accumulation), physiological (Fv/Fm and F0), and biochemical (chlorophyll and protein contents) variables of great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth., syn. Bromus rigidus Roth. subsp. gussonii Parl.). All the measured traits were affected when great brome was grown in a soil substrate in which barley plants had previously developed for 30 days before being removed. The response of receiver plants was affected by treatment with activated charcoal, dependent on barley genotype and on the nature of the growing substrate. The inhibitory effect was lower with the addition of the activated charcoal suggesting the release of putative allelochemicals from barley roots into the soil. The barley landraces were more toxic than modern varieties and their effect was more pronounced in sandy substrate than in silty clay sand substrate. In our investigation, the chlorophyll content and Fv/Fm were the most correlated variables with barley allelopathic potential. These two parameters might be considered as effective tools to quantify susceptibility to allelochemical inhibitors in higher plants. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental controls of methanol emissions from a grazed grassland in Dorinne, Belgium
Michel, Colin ULiege; Heinesch, Bernard ULiege; Bachy, Aurélie ULiege et al

Poster (2017, October 20)

Despite the growing interest for oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC) over the last 15 years due to their role in the atmospheric chemistry, current knowledge about OVOC exchanges by grassland and ... [more ▼]

Despite the growing interest for oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC) over the last 15 years due to their role in the atmospheric chemistry, current knowledge about OVOC exchanges by grassland and the environmental factors driving them remains lacunar. However, those ecosystems represent an important part of the total earth surface (13.37%). This study conducted on a grazed grassland therefore aims to quantify OVOC exchanges over full grazing seasons in order to understand the mechanisms behind these exchanges. It took place within the activities of the CROSTVOC project (CROp Stress VOC) and therefore gives an important attention to the stress induced fluxes. BVOC flux measurements were performed with a PTR-MS for the measurements of OVOC mixing ratios on two different scales: the eddy Covariance method was used during two whole grazing seasons (2014 and 2015) and in the 2016 summer, measurements were also performed on a smaller scale by using all-teflon automated dynamic chambers. The chambers allowed measuring accurately the impact of grazing by following simultaneously undisturbed and grazed grassland patches. This study pointed out that several OVOC were exchanged in variable quantities, with methanol being by far the most important. Methanol fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle with close-to-zero fluxes at night and maximum fluxes at midday. The flux was also much larger in the summer than during autumn or spring. For the eddy Covariance data, the average methanol flux in the summer (0.033 μg.m-2s-1) was in the same range of other studies, being lower than the average found by Bamberger et al. in 2010 (0.080 μg.m-2s-1) and by Ammann (0.077 μg.m-2s-1). Fluxes from the chambers were slightly lower with an average value of 0.27 μg.m-2s-1 but they were measured in the late summer. Driver analysis is still ongoing but first results showed that the flux was strongly correlated at short time scale (half hourly for the EC method and one and a half hourly for the chambers) to the photosynthetic photon flux density and the latent heat flux. We believe that their influence comes mainly from the control practiced by stomatal conductance in non-steady state conditions and expansion of cell walls in steady state conditions. The cuvette data showed that grazing resulted in significantly enhanced emissions of methanol that lasted for several days. On the contrary, the eddy Covariance method cannot distinguish between grazed and non-grazed grass and only a small fraction of the method footprint had been grazed the previous days on average. Our eddy-covariance data suggested that an increase in the stocking density did not contribute to a significant rise of methanol emission. The limited variability in stocking density during the two growing seasons and the more powerful effect of other drivers likely induced that the flux variability due to the SD was too low to be measured by the eddy Covariance method. In depth comparisons between the eddy-covariance data and the dynamic chambers data will be carried out. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental controls of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from a grazed grassland in Dorinne, Belgium
Michel, Colin ULiege; Heinesch, Bernard ULiege; Bachy, Aurélie ULiege et al

Poster (2017, June 15)

Despite the growing interest for oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC) over the last 15 years due to their role in the atmospheric chemistry, current knowledge about OVOC exchanges by grassland and ... [more ▼]

Despite the growing interest for oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC) over the last 15 years due to their role in the atmospheric chemistry, current knowledge about OVOC exchanges by grassland and the environmental factors driving them still entails gaps. However, those ecosystems represent an important part of the total earth surface (13.37%). This study conducted on a grazed grassland therefore aims to quantify OVOC exchanges over full grazing seasons in order to understand the mechanisms behind these OVOC exchanges. The Eddy Covariance method was used for flux quantification, with a PTR-MS for the measurements of OVOCs mixing ratios. It took place within the activities of the CROSTVOC project (CROp Stress VOC) and therefore gives an important attention to the stress induced fluxes. BVOC flux measurements were also performed on a smaller scale by using all-teflon automated dynamic chambers covering a surface of 0.1 m² each. [less ▲]

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See detailGrazing-induced BVOC fluxes from a managed grassland
Mozaffar, Ahsan ULiege; Schoon, N.; Bachy, Aurélie ULiege et al

Poster (2017, April 28)

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See detailAux armes, professeurs de sciences !
du Jardin, Patrick ULiege

Article for general public (2017)

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See detailLong-term measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence using the JIP-test show that combined abiotic stresses influence the photosynthetic performance of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in a managed temperate grassland
Digrado, Anthony ULiege; Bachy, Aurélie ULiege; Mozaffar, Ahsan et al

in Physiologia Plantarum (2017), 161(3), 355-371

Several experiments have highlighted the complexity of stress interactions involved in plant response. The impact in field conditions of combined environmental constraints on the mechanisms involved in ... [more ▼]

Several experiments have highlighted the complexity of stress interactions involved in plant response. The impact in field conditions of combined environmental constraints on the mechanisms involved in plant photosynthetic response, however, remains understudied. In a long-term field study performed in a managed grassland, we investigated the photosynthetic apparatus response of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to environmental constraints and its ability to recover and acclimatize. Frequent field measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) were made in order to determine the photosynthetic performance response of a population of L. perenne. Strong midday declines in the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (FVFM) were observed in summer, when a combination of heat and high light intensity increased photosynthetic inhibition. During this period, increase in photosystem I (PSI) activity efficiency was also recorded, suggesting an increase in the photochemical pathway for de-excitation in summer. Strong climatic events (e.g. heat waves) were shown to reduce electron transport between photosystem II (PSII) and PSI. This reduction might have preserved the PSI from photo-oxidation. Periods of low soil moisture and high levels of sun irradiance increased PSII sensitivity to heat stress, suggesting increased susceptibility to combined environmental constraints. Despite the multiple inhibitions of photosynthetic functionality in summer, the L. perenne population showed increased PSII tolerance to environmental stresses in August. This might have been a response to earlier environmental constraints. It could also be linked to the selection and/or emergence of well-adapted individuals. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society [less ▲]

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See detailMethanol emissions from maize: Ontogenetic dependence to varying light conditions and guttation as an additional factor constraining the flux
Mozaffar, Ahsan ULiege; Schoon, N.; Digrado, Anthony ULiege et al

in Atmospheric Environment (2017), 152

Because of its high abundance and long lifetime compared to other volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, methanol (CH3OH) plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Even though agricultural ... [more ▼]

Because of its high abundance and long lifetime compared to other volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, methanol (CH3OH) plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Even though agricultural crops are believed to be a large source of methanol, emission inventories from those crop ecosystems are still scarce and little information is available concerning the driving mechanisms for methanol production and emission at different developmental stages of the plants/leaves. This study focuses on methanol emissions from Zea mays L. (maize), which is vastly cultivated throughout the world. Flux measurements have been performed on young plants, almost fully grown leaves and fully grown leaves, enclosed in dynamic flow-through enclosures in a temperature and light-controlled environmental chamber. Strong differences in the response of methanol emissions to variations in PPFD (Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density) were noticed between the young plants, almost fully grown and fully grown leaves. Moreover, young maize plants showed strong emission peaks following light/dark transitions, for which guttation can be put forward as a hypothetical pathway. Young plants’ average daily methanol fluxes exceeded by a factor of 17 those of almost fully grown and fully grown leaves when expressed per leaf area. Absolute flux values were found to be smaller than those reported in the literature, but in fair agreement with recent ecosystem scale flux measurements above a maize field of the same variety as used in this study. [less ▲]

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See detailPhotosynthetic apparatus response of the Lolium perenne L. to environmental stresses
Digrado, Anthony ULiege; Bachy, Aurélie ULiege; Mozaffar, Ahsan ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2016, June 09)

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See detailDisentangling soil from plant methanol exchanges in a maize field: a first step
Bachy, Aurélie ULiege; Mozaffar, Ahsan ULiege; Aubinet, Marc ULiege et al

Poster (2016, June)

This poster presents the current research done in order to disentangle soil from plant methanol exchanges in a maize field. Methanol exchanges were calculated at ecosystem-scale (therefore including both ... [more ▼]

This poster presents the current research done in order to disentangle soil from plant methanol exchanges in a maize field. Methanol exchanges were calculated at ecosystem-scale (therefore including both components). It bases on the following observation: methanol exchanges on bare soil (measured when maize was at germination stage) were as important as when plants were fast growing (and thereby, when the highest methanol plant methanol emissions were expected), and this under similar weather conditions. The goal of this poster is thus to understand why emissions were similar at these two periods. First, it addresses the question of the actual contribution of maize plants in methanol exchanges, by comparing up-scaled methanol exchanges measured on maize at leaf-scale (Mozaffar A.) to those measured at ecosystem-scale. Then, it investigates methanol exchanges mechanisms in order to evaluate how did soil methanol emissions evolve along the maize growing season. At the end of this poster, the hypothesis of decreasing soil methanol emissions along the maize growing season is proposed. [less ▲]

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