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See detailDOAS measurements of NO2 and H2CO at Kinshasa and Comparisons with Satellites Observations
Yombo Phaka, Rodriguez ULiege; Merlaud, Alexis; Pinardi, Gaia et al

Poster (2020, April 04)

Africa experiences a fast urban inhabitants growth, caused by the largest population boom in the world, combined with rural exodus. Many cities are heavily affected by air pollution. It is therefore ... [more ▼]

Africa experiences a fast urban inhabitants growth, caused by the largest population boom in the world, combined with rural exodus. Many cities are heavily affected by air pollution. It is therefore essential to monitor the concentrations of the various polluting species such as NO2, HCHO, O3 and aerosols, which have a direct impact on the population health. The sources of pollutant in Africa are different from those found in Europe. For example, forest fires and household cooking largely contribute to the NO2 and HCHO burdens in Central Africa. However, many large African cities, such as the City of Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo, do not have atmospheric measurement instruments. In order to tackle the lack of measurements in Kinshasa, the Royal Belgian Institute of Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB) has, in collaboration with the University of Kinshasa (UniKin), installed an optical remote sensing instrument on the UniKin site (-4.42°S, 15.31°E). Installed in May 2017, the instrument has been in operation until today and provides data to measure the column amounts of several polluting species in the atmosphere of Kinshasa. The instrument is based on a compact AVANTES spectrometer covering the spectral range 290 - 450 nm with 0.7 nm resolution. The spectrometer is a Czerny-Turner type with an entry slit of 50 μm wide, and an array of 1200 l/mm. A 10 m long and 600 μm diameter optical fiber is connected to the spectrometer to receive the incident light beam from the sky. Measurements were mainly made by looking in a fixed direction until November 2019. Since then, a Multi-Axis geometry (MAX-DOAS) has been implemented. The measurements provided by this DOAS instrument allowed us to start studying the atmosphere of Kinshasa using the QDOAS software, which allows us to find the oblique columns of different observed species. This poster will present the instrument, the database and the procedure used to convert these oblique columns into vertical columns, using the air mass factors calculated with the radiative transfer model. We also present our first MAX-DOAS results, analyzed using the retrieval tools of the ESA FRM4DOAS project. The study of current results clearly shows the signature of polluting species such as NO2, HCHO in the atmosphere of Kinshasa. We also use simulations by the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model to evaluate the magnitude of the emissions needed to explain the observed column amounts. These observations made in Kinshasa could contribute to the validation of satellite products and the refinement of models. We present a first comparison of Kinshasa's ground-based observations with those of the OMI and TROPOMI satellites [less ▲]

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See detailPOLLUTION ATMOSPHERIQUE A KINSHASA (PREMIERES MESURES, PREMIERS RESULTATS )
Yombo Phaka, Rodriguez ULiege

Scientific conference (2019, October)

The capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo is one of the major African cities without an air quality monitoring network. Yet several publications seem to confirm the deterioration of air quality in ... [more ▼]

The capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo is one of the major African cities without an air quality monitoring network. Yet several publications seem to confirm the deterioration of air quality in Kinshasa. In this work, we present a first study conducted in Kinshasa, based on remote atmospheric observation of trace gases such as nitrogen dioxide. [less ▲]

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See detailDEGRADATION DE LA QUALITE DE L’AIR A KINSHASA
Yombo Phaka, Rodriguez ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2019)

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See detailPROGRAMME DE RECHERCHE ATMOSPHERIQUE A KINSHASA
Yombo Phaka, Rodriguez ULiege

Scientific conference (2019, April 03)

Nous présentons dans ce séminaire, l’importance d’avoir un programme d’observation atmosphérique à Kinshasa, capitale de la République Démocratique du Congo. La ville de Kinshasa regorge plus de 10 ... [more ▼]

Nous présentons dans ce séminaire, l’importance d’avoir un programme d’observation atmosphérique à Kinshasa, capitale de la République Démocratique du Congo. La ville de Kinshasa regorge plus de 10 millions d’habitants et est située au voisinage de sources de VOC (Composés Organiques Volatils). Les VOC et les autres espèces en trace comme le NO2, SO2,..influencent beaucoup la qualité de l’air. Les recherches actuelles montrent aussi qu’on s’attend à ce que la qualité de l’air dans les zones urbaines, définie en particulier par les concentrations de dioxyde d’azote (NO2) et d’aérosols, puisse se détériorer rapidement au cours des 15 prochaines années (Liousse et al., 2014). Dans le bassin du Congo on constate que les émissions biogéniques (comme celle du formaldéhyde, H2CO) liées en particulier aux cycles annuels de la forêt tropicale, sont parmi les plus élevées du globe (De Smedt et al., 2015). Les mesures des instruments MAX-DOAS(differential optical absorption spectroscopy), CIMEL et la station météo de Bujumbura (Burundi) confirment aussi que l’atmosphère de Bujumbura est influencée par les émissions biogéniques de H2CO en provenance du Congo (Gielen et al., 2017), même si elle est relativement éloignée du maximum d’émission, situé plus à l’Ouest au Congo. Dans le présent séminaire, nous avons donc montré la conception et le test d’un instrument MAXDOAS qui sera installé à Kinshasa le mois de Juin 2019. Nous avons aussi montré le fonctionnement et le résultat de l’ancien instrument installé à Kinshasa depuis Mai 2017. Les résultats préliminaires des observations à Kinshasa ont été montré aussi en comparaison avec les observations satellite (OMI) et les extractions de la simulation GEOS-CHEM(Goddard Earth Observing System) pour l’année 2017. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst results from the KinAero MAXDOAS instrument
Pinardi, Gaia; Alexis, Merlaud; Martina, Friedrich et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2019), Vol. 21(EGU2019-15792-1, 2019), 1

As part of an ongoing collaboration with the University of Kinshasa (RDC), we have recently developed a compact low-cost MAXDOAS instrument (KinAero) in view of deploying it at Kinshasa for long term ... [more ▼]

As part of an ongoing collaboration with the University of Kinshasa (RDC), we have recently developed a compact low-cost MAXDOAS instrument (KinAero) in view of deploying it at Kinshasa for long term monitoring of atmospheric pollutants such as NO2 and HCHO. We present the KinAero system, which consists in a compact grating spectrometer from the Avantes company coupled by optical fiber to an elevation scanning device operating in one fixed azimuthal direction. The spectral range covers the wavelengths from 290-550 nm with a resolution of 0.7 nm FWHM. We show characterization results of KinAero from the lab (detector linearity, signal-to-noise, pointing accuracy,...) and assess the overall quality of the NO2 and O4 slant column measurements based on comparisons with the BIRA-IASB NDACC-certified MAXDOAS instrument in Uccle. Between September and December 2018, KinAero was installed on the ICOS observation tower in Vielsalm (50.31◦N, 6◦E, 445 m.a.s.l), in a forest area. These measurements were performed as part of the BelAIR-Silva campaign, which provided a good opportunity to test the instrument in the field for a period of several months. The instrument was found to be stable during the full duration of the campaign. Using retrieval tools developed as part of the ESA FRM4DOAS project, we derived time-series of NO2 and HCHO column and profile measurements, which are applied to comparisons with the TROPOMI/S5P satellite instrument. [less ▲]

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