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See detailHost-dependence of in vitro reassortment dynamics among the Sathuperi and Shamonda Simbuviruses.
Coupeau, Damien; Bayrou, Calixte ULiege; Baillieux, Pierre et al

in Emerging Microbes and Infections (2019), 8(1), 381-395

Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses (Arthropod Borne Virus) and possess multipartite genomes made up of three negative RNAs corresponding to the small (S), medium (M) and large (L) segments. Reassortment ... [more ▼]

Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses (Arthropod Borne Virus) and possess multipartite genomes made up of three negative RNAs corresponding to the small (S), medium (M) and large (L) segments. Reassortment and recombination are evolutionary driving forces of such segmented viruses and lead to the emergence of new strains and species. Retrospective studies based on phylogenetical analysis are able to evaluate these mechanisms at the end of the selection process but fail to address the dynamics of emergence. This issue was addressed using two Orthobunyaviruses infecting ruminants and belonging to the Simbu serogroup: the Sathuperi virus (SATV) and the Shamonda virus (SHAV). Both viruses were associated with abortion, stillbirth and congenital malformations occurring after transplacental transmission and were suspected to spread together in different ruminant and insect populations. This study showed that different viruses related to SHAV and SATV are spreading simultaneously in ruminants and equids of the Sub-Saharan region. Their reassortment and recombination potential was evaluated in mammalian and in insect contexts. A method was set up to determine the genomic background of any clonal progeny viruses isolated after in vitro coinfections assays. All the reassortment combinations were generated in both contexts while no recombinant virus was isolated. Progeny virus populations revealed a high level of reassortment in mammalian cells and a much lower level in insect cells. In vitro selection pressure that mimicked the host switching (insect-mammal) revealed that the best adapted reassortant virus was connected with an advantageous replicative fitness and with the presence of a specific segment. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of naturally-occurring, trans-placental bluetongue virus serotype-8 infection on reproductive performance in sheep.
Saegerman, Claude ULiege; Bolkaerts, Benoit; Baricalla, Christine et al

in Veterinary Journal (2011), 187(1), 72-80

Infection with bluetongue virus serotype (BTV)-8 occurred in ruminants in 2006 in Central-Western Europe. The trans-placental passage of this virus has been demonstrated in naturally- and experimentally ... [more ▼]

Infection with bluetongue virus serotype (BTV)-8 occurred in ruminants in 2006 in Central-Western Europe. The trans-placental passage of this virus has been demonstrated in naturally- and experimentally-infected cattle and in experimentally-infected sheep. Trans-placental transmission is potentially important in the 'over-wintering' of this virus and its subsequent impact on reproductive performance. This epidemiological study was carried out on a sheep flock in Belgium that had experienced a severe outbreak of BTV-8 infection, and where the seroprevalence had increased from 1.3% to 88% between January and November 2007. In total, 476 lambs and 26 aborted fetuses from 300 ewes, lambing at four distinct time periods, were investigated between November 2007 and May 2008. The following evidence suggested that BTV-8 infection occurred in utero: (1) positive PCR results from splenic tissue from aborted fetuses (n=4); (2) fetal malformations suggestive of BTV infection (n=10); (3) positive PCR results from red blood cells in-lambs (n=7), and (4) the presence of antibody at birth in viable lambs prior to the intake of colostrum (n=9). The evidence provided by this investigation strongly suggests that trans-placental BTV-8 infection occurs in naturally-infected sheep and the impact of infection on the reproductive performance of such a naive flock was considerable, with up to 25% of ewes aborting and with flock fertility reduced by 50%. The contribution of in utero-infected lambs to the over-wintering of BTV appears limited. [less ▲]

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