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See detailOGLE-2014-BLG-1186: gravitational microlensing providing evidence for a planet orbiting the foreground star or for a close binary source?
Dominik, M.; Bachelet, E.; Bozza, V. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2019), 484

Discussing the particularly long gravitational microlensing event OGLE-2014-BLG-1186 with a time-scale t[SUB]E[/SUB] ˜ 300 d, we present a methodology for identifying the nature of localised deviations ... [more ▼]

Discussing the particularly long gravitational microlensing event OGLE-2014-BLG-1186 with a time-scale t[SUB]E[/SUB] ˜ 300 d, we present a methodology for identifying the nature of localised deviations from single-lens point-source light curves, which ensures that (1) the claimed signal is substantially above the noise floor, (2) the inferred properties are robustly determined and their estimation is not subject to confusion with systematic noise in the photometry, (3) alternative viable solutions within the model framework are not missed. Annual parallax and binarity could be separated and robustly measured from the wing and the peak data, respectively. We find matching model light curves that involve either a binary lens or a binary source, and discover hitherto unknown model ambiguities. Our binary-lens models indicate a planet of mass M[SUB]2[/SUB] = (45 ± 9) M[SUB]⊕[/SUB], orbiting a star of mass M[SUB]1[/SUB] = (0.35 ± 0.06) M[SUB]⊙[/SUB], located at a distance D[SUB]L[/SUB] = (1.7 ± 0.3) kpc from Earth, whereas our binary-source models suggest a brown-dwarf lens of M = (0.046 ± 0.007) M[SUB]⊙[/SUB], located at a distance D[SUB]L[/SUB] = (5.7 ± 0.9) kpc, with the source potentially being a (partially) eclipsing binary involving stars predicted to be of similar colour given the ratios between the luminosities and radii. Further observations might resolve the ambiguity in the interpretation in favour of either a lens or a source binary. We experienced that close binary source stars pose a challenge for claiming the detection of planets by microlensing in events where the source passes very close to the lens star hosting the planet. [less ▲]

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See detailVizieR Online Data Catalog: Gaia GraL. III. New lensed systems (Delchambre+, 2019)
Delchambre, Ludovic ULiege; Krone-Martins, A.; Wertz, O. et al

Textual, factual or bibliographical database (2019)

The Gaia GraL catalogue of clusters consist of 2,058,962 clusters with three components and 70,697 clusters with four components. Each of these clusters satisfied the following conditions: i) Clusters are ... [more ▼]

The Gaia GraL catalogue of clusters consist of 2,058,962 clusters with three components and 70,697 clusters with four components. Each of these clusters satisfied the following conditions: i) Clusters are composed of three or four images in order to provide a sufficient number of constraints for identifying gravitational lens candidates. ii) Their constituent images have negligible parallaxes, plx, and proper motions, (pmra', pmdec) where pmra' = pmra * cos(dec). Specifically, we required that plx-3*e_plx<4mas and abs(pm)-3*e[SUB]pm<4mas (where e[/SUB]X is the mean error on X and pm stands for pmra' and pmdec). iii) The maximal angular separation between any pair of images is below or equal to 6 arcsec. iv) The absolute difference in G magnitude between components is lower or equal to 4mag. v) Clusters are located in regions with a mean field density lower than 60000 objects/deg[SUP]2[/SUP]. The mean density of objects is computed within a radius of 30 arcsec around each cluster. Based on a supervised learning method, called extremely randomized trees (ERT), each cluster is assigned a discriminant value: the ERT probability. This ERT probability reflects the ability of the clusters to be matched to the image positions and relative magnitudes produced from simulations of lens systems based on a non-singular isothermal ellipsoid lens model (Kormann+, 1994) in the presence of an external shear (Kovner, 1987). These probabilities do not constitute probabilities in a mathematical sense, although they can be translated into expected ratios of identification of gravitational lenses (the true positive rate, TPR) and to expected ratios of misclassification of groups of stars as gravitational lenses (the false positive rate, FPR) through the use of an appropriate cross-validation procedure (see the description of the roc*.dat files). As we expect some of the lensed images to be missing from Gaia DR2, all combinations of three and four images were considered fo building the ERT. The resulting ERT models wil be referred to as ABCD, ABC, ABD, ACD and BCD where A, B, C, D identify the images we used for building the corresponding ERT model, assuming these are sorted in ascending order of G magnitude. Finally, the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves from files roc.dat, rocabc.dat, rocabd.dat, rocacd.dat, and rocbcd.dat are obtained by computing the TPR and FPR that are associated with all ERT probabilities coming from the corresponding ERT model based on a test set and a validation set of observations. The test set of observations (TS) is composed of 5*10[SUP]7[/SUP] gravitational lenses simulated from a non-singular isothermal ellipsoid lens model in the presence of an external shear and of the same number of simulated contaminants where the relative image positions and fluxes are randomly drawn from a uniform distribution. The validation set of observations (VS) is composed of 12 known lensed systems having four detections in Gaia DR2 (2MASSJ11344050-2103230, J1606-2333, WGD2038-4008, HE0435-1223, SDSS1004+4112, PG1115+080, B1422+231, 2MASXJ01471020+4630433, 2MASSJ13102005-1714579, J1721+8842, WFI2033-4723 and RXJ1131-1231) and of 1e6 clusters we randomly extracted from Gaia DR2 with a size smaller than 30 arcsec and a maximal absolute difference in G magnitude between their constituent images <4mag. (6 data files). [less ▲]

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See detailOGLE-2014-BLG-1186: gravitational microlensing providing evidence for a planet orbiting the foreground star or for a close binary source?
Dominik, M.; Bachelet, E.; Bozza, V. et al

in arXiv e-prints (2018), 1808

(abridged) Using the particularly long gravitational microlensing event OGLE-2014-BLG-1186 with a time-scale $t_\mathrm{E}$ ~ 300 d, we present a methodology for identifying the nature of localised ... [more ▼]

(abridged) Using the particularly long gravitational microlensing event OGLE-2014-BLG-1186 with a time-scale $t_\mathrm{E}$ ~ 300 d, we present a methodology for identifying the nature of localised deviations from single-lens point-source light curves, which ensures that 1) the claimed signal is substantially above the noise floor, 2) the inferred properties are robustly determined and their estimation not subject to confusion with systematic noise in the photometry, 3) there are no alternative viable solutions within the model framework that might have been missed. Annual parallax and binarity could be separated and robustly measured from the wing and the peak data, respectively. We find matching model light curves that involve either a binary lens or a binary source. Our binary-lens models indicate a planet of mass $M_2$ = (45 $\pm$ 9) $M_\oplus$, orbiting a star of mass $M_1$ = (0.35 $\pm$ 0.06) $M_\odot$, located at a distance $D_\mathrm{L}$ = (1.7 $\pm$ 0.3) kpc from Earth, whereas our binary-source models suggest a brown-dwarf lens of $M$ = (0.046 $\pm$ 0.007) $M_\odot$, located at a distance $D_\mathrm{L}$ = (5.7 $\pm$ 0.9) kpc, with the source potentially being a (partially) eclipsing binary involving stars predicted to be of similar colour given the ratios between the luminosities and radii. The ambiguity in the interpretation would be resolved in favour of a lens binary by observing the luminous lens star separating from the source at the predicted proper motion of $\mu$ = (1.6 $\pm$ 0.3) mas yr$^{-1}$, whereas it would be resolved in favour of a source binary if the source could be shown to be a (partially) eclipsing binary matching the obtained model parameters. We experienced that close binary source stars pose a challenge for claiming the detection of planets by microlensing in events where the source passes very close to the lens star hosting the planet. [less ▲]

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See detailGaia Data Release 2. The celestial reference frame (Gaia-CRF2)
Gaia Collaboration; Mignard, F.; Klioner, S. A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 616(A), 14

Context. The second release of Gaia data (Gaia DR2) contains the astrometric parameters for more than half a million quasars. This set defines a kinematically non-rotating reference frame in the optical ... [more ▼]

Context. The second release of Gaia data (Gaia DR2) contains the astrometric parameters for more than half a million quasars. This set defines a kinematically non-rotating reference frame in the optical domain. A subset of these quasars have accurate VLBI positions that allow the axes of the reference frame to be aligned with the International Celestial Reference System (ICRF) radio frame. <BR /> Aims: We describe the astrometric and photometric properties of the quasars that were selected to represent the celestial reference frame of Gaia DR2 (Gaia-CRF2), and to compare the optical and radio positions for sources with accurate VLBI positions. <BR /> Methods: Descriptive statistics are used to characterise the overall properties of the quasar sample. Residual rotation and orientation errors and large-scale systematics are quantified by means of expansions in vector spherical harmonics. Positional differences are calculated relative to a prototype version of the forthcoming ICRF3. <BR /> Results: Gaia-CRF2 consists of the positions of a sample of 556 869 sources in Gaia DR2, obtained from a positional cross-match with the ICRF3-prototype and AllWISE AGN catalogues. The sample constitutes a clean, dense, and homogeneous set of extragalactic point sources in the magnitude range G ≃ 16 to 21 mag with accurately known optical positions. The median positional uncertainty is 0.12 mas for G < 18 mag and 0.5 mas at G = mag. Large- scale systematics are estimated to be in the range 20 to 30 μas. The accuracy claims are supported by the parallaxes and proper motions of the quasars in Gaia DR2. The optical positions for a subset of 2820 sources in common with the ICRF3-prototype show very good overall agreement with the radio positions, but several tens of sources have significantly discrepant positions. <BR /> Conclusions: Based on less than 40% of the data expected from the nominal Gaia mission, Gaia-CRF2 is the first realisation of a non-rotating global optical reference frame that meets the ICRS prescriptions, meaning that it is built only on extragalactic sources. Its accuracy matches the current radio frame of the ICRF, but the density of sources in all parts of the sky is much higher, except along the Galactic equator. [less ▲]

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See detailGaia Data Release 2. Observations of solar system objects
Gaia Collaboration; Spoto, F.; Tanga, P. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 616(A), 13

Context. The Gaia spacecraft of the European Space Agency (ESA) has been securing observations of solar system objects (SSOs) since the beginning of its operations. Data Release 2 (DR2) contains the ... [more ▼]

Context. The Gaia spacecraft of the European Space Agency (ESA) has been securing observations of solar system objects (SSOs) since the beginning of its operations. Data Release 2 (DR2) contains the observations of a selected sample of 14,099 SSOs. These asteroids have been already identified and have been numbered by the Minor Planet Center repository. Positions are provided for each Gaia observation at CCD level. As additional information, complementary to astrometry, the apparent brightness of SSOs in the unfiltered G band is also provided for selected observations. <BR /> Aims: We explain the processing of SSO data, and describe the criteria we used to select the sample published in Gaia DR2. We then explore the data set to assess its quality. <BR /> Methods: To exploit the main data product for the solar system in Gaia DR2, which is the epoch astrometry of asteroids, it is necessary to take into account the unusual properties of the uncertainty, as the position information is nearly one-dimensional. When this aspect is handled appropriately, an orbit fit can be obtained with post-fit residuals that are overall consistent with the a-priori error model that was used to define individual values of the astrometric uncertainty. The role of both random and systematic errors is described. The distribution of residuals allowed us to identify possible contaminants in the data set (such as stars). Photometry in the G band was compared to computed values from reference asteroid shapes and to the flux registered at the corresponding epochs by the red and blue photometers (RP and BP). <BR /> Results: The overall astrometric performance is close to the expectations, with an optimal range of brightness G 12 - 17. In this range, the typical transit-level accuracy is well below 1 mas. For fainter asteroids, the growing photon noise deteriorates the performance. Asteroids brighter than G 12 are affected by a lower performance of the processing of their signals. The dramatic improvement brought by Gaia DR2 astrometry of SSOs is demonstrated by comparisons to the archive data and by preliminary tests on the detection of subtle non-gravitational effects. [less ▲]

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See detailGaia Data Release 2. Kinematics of globular clusters and dwarf galaxies around the Milky Way
Gaia Collaboration; Helmi, A.; van Leeuwen, F. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 616(A), 12

Context. <BR /> Aims: The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the outstanding quality of the second data release of the Gaia mission and its power for constraining many different aspects of the dynamics ... [more ▼]

Context. <BR /> Aims: The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the outstanding quality of the second data release of the Gaia mission and its power for constraining many different aspects of the dynamics of the satellites of the Milky Way. We focus here on determining the proper motions of 75 Galactic globular clusters, nine dwarf spheroidal galaxies, one ultra-faint system, and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. <BR /> Methods: Using data extracted from the Gaia archive, we derived the proper motions and parallaxes for these systems, as well as their uncertainties. We demonstrate that the errors, statistical and systematic, are relatively well understood. We integrated the orbits of these objects in three different Galactic potentials, and characterised their properties. We present the derived proper motions, space velocities, and characteristic orbital parameters in various tables to facilitate their use by the astronomical community. <BR /> Results: Our limited and straightforward analyses have allowed us for example to (i) determine absolute and very precise proper motions for globular clusters; (ii) detect clear rotation signatures in the proper motions of at least five globular clusters; (iii) show that the satellites of the Milky Way are all on high-inclination orbits, but that they do not share a single plane of motion; (iv) derive a lower limit for the mass of the Milky Way of 9.1[SUB]-2.6[/SUB][SUP]+6.2[/SUP] × 10[SUP]11[/SUP] M[SUB]☉[/SUB] based on the assumption that the Leo I dwarf spheroidal is bound; (v) derive a rotation curve for the Large Magellanic Cloud based solely on proper motions that is competitive with line-of-sight velocity curves, now using many orders of magnitude more sources; and (vi) unveil the dynamical effect of the bar on the motions of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. <BR /> Conclusions: All these results highlight the incredible power of the Gaia astrometric mission, and in particular of its second data release. Full Table D.3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (<A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://130.79.128.5</A>) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/616/A12">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/616/A12</A> [less ▲]

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See detailGaia Data Release 2. Mapping the Milky Way disc kinematics
Gaia Collaboration; Katz, D.; Antoja, T. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 616(A), 11

Context. The second Gaia data release (Gaia DR2) contains high-precision positions, parallaxes, and proper motions for 1.3 billion sources as well as line-of-sight velocities for 7.2 million stars ... [more ▼]

Context. The second Gaia data release (Gaia DR2) contains high-precision positions, parallaxes, and proper motions for 1.3 billion sources as well as line-of-sight velocities for 7.2 million stars brighter than G[SUB]RVS[/SUB] = 12 mag. Both samples provide a full sky coverage. <BR /> Aims: To illustrate the potential of Gaia DR2, we provide a first look at the kinematics of the Milky Way disc, within a radius of several kiloparsecs around the Sun. <BR /> Methods: We benefit for the first time from a sample of 6.4 million F-G-K stars with full 6D phase-space coordinates, precise parallaxes (σ[SUB]ϖ[/SUB]/ϖ ≤ 20%), and precise Galactic cylindrical velocities (median uncertainties of 0.9-1.4 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] and 20% of the stars with uncertainties smaller than 1 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] on all three components). From this sample, we extracted a sub-sample of 3.2 million giant stars to map the velocity field of the Galactic disc from 5 kpc to 13 kpc from the Galactic centre and up to 2 kpc above and below the plane. We also study the distribution of 0.3 million solar neighbourhood stars (r < 200 pc), with median velocity uncertainties of 0.4 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP], in velocity space and use the full sample to examine how the over-densities evolve in more distant regions. <BR /> Results: Gaia DR2 allows us to draw 3D maps of the Galactocentric median velocities and velocity dispersions with unprecedented accuracy, precision, and spatial resolution. The maps show the complexity and richness of the velocity field of the galactic disc. We observe streaming motions in all the components of the velocities as well as patterns in the velocity dispersions. For example, we confirm the previously reported negative and positive galactocentric radial velocity gradients in the inner and outer disc, respectively. Here, we see them as part of a non-axisymmetric kinematic oscillation, and we map its azimuthal and vertical behaviour. We also witness a new global arrangement of stars in the velocity plane of the solar neighbourhood and in distant regions in which stars are organised in thin substructures with the shape of circular arches that are oriented approximately along the horizontal direction in the U - V plane. Moreover, in distant regions, we see variations in the velocity substructures more clearly than ever before, in particular, variations in the velocity of the Hercules stream. <BR /> Conclusions: Gaia DR2 provides the largest existing full 6D phase-space coordinates catalogue. It also vastly increases the number of available distances and transverse velocities with respect to Gaia DR1. Gaia DR2 offers a great wealth of information on the Milky Way and reveals clear non- axisymmetric kinematic signatures within the Galactic disc, for instance. It is now up to the astronomical community to explore its full potential. [less ▲]

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See detailGaia Data Release 2. Observational Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams
Gaia Collaboration; Babusiaux, C.; van Leeuwen, F. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 616(A), 10

Context. Gaia Data Release 2 provides high-precision astrometry and three-band photometry for about 1.3 billion sources over the full sky. The precision, accuracy, and homogeneity of both astrometry and ... [more ▼]

Context. Gaia Data Release 2 provides high-precision astrometry and three-band photometry for about 1.3 billion sources over the full sky. The precision, accuracy, and homogeneity of both astrometry and photometry are unprecedented. <BR /> Aims: We highlight the power of the Gaia DR2 in studying many fine structures of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD). Gaia allows us to present many different HRDs, depending in particular on stellar population selections. We do not aim here for completeness in terms of types of stars or stellar evolutionary aspects. Instead, we have chosen several illustrative examples. <BR /> Methods: We describe some of the selections that can be made in Gaia DR2 to highlight the main structures of the Gaia HRDs. We select both field and cluster (open and globular) stars, compare the observations with previous classifications and with stellar evolutionary tracks, and we present variations of the Gaia HRD with age, metallicity, and kinematics. Late stages of stellar evolution such as hot subdwarfs, post-AGB stars, planetary nebulae, and white dwarfs are also analysed, as well as low-mass brown dwarf objects. <BR /> Results: The Gaia HRDs are unprecedented in both precision and coverage of the various Milky Way stellar populations and stellar evolutionary phases. Many fine structures of the HRDs are presented. The clear split of the white dwarf sequence into hydrogen and helium white dwarfs is presented for the first time in an HRD. The relation between kinematics and the HRD is nicely illustrated. Two different populations in a classical kinematic selection of the halo are unambiguously identified in the HRD. Membership and mean parameters for a selected list of open clusters are provided. They allow drawing very detailed cluster sequences, highlighting fine structures, and providing extremely precise empirical isochrones that will lead to more insight in stellar physics. <BR /> Conclusions: Gaia DR2 demonstrates the potential of combining precise astrometry and photometry for large samples for studies in stellar evolution and stellar population and opens an entire new area for HRD- based studies. The full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (<A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://130.79.128.5</A>) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/616/A10">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/616/A10</A> [less ▲]

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See detailGaia Data Release 2. Summary of the contents and survey properties
Gaia Collaboration; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 616(A1), 1-22

Context. We present the second Gaia data release, Gaia DR2, consisting of astrometry, photometry, radial velocities, and information on astrophysical parameters and variability, for sources brighter than ... [more ▼]

Context. We present the second Gaia data release, Gaia DR2, consisting of astrometry, photometry, radial velocities, and information on astrophysical parameters and variability, for sources brighter than magnitude 21. In addition epoch astrometry and photometry are provided for a modest sample of minor planets in the solar system. <BR /> Aims: A summary of the contents of Gaia DR2 is presented, accompanied by a discussion on the differences with respect to Gaia DR1 and an overview of the main limitations which are still present in the survey. Recommendations are made on the responsible use of Gaia DR2 results. <BR /> Methods: The raw data collected with the Gaia instruments during the first 22 months of the mission have been processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) and turned into this second data release, which represents a major advance with respect to Gaia DR1 in terms of completeness, performance, and richness of the data products. <BR /> Results: Gaia DR2 contains celestial positions and the apparent brightness in G for approximately 1.7 billion sources. For 1.3 billion of those sources, parallaxes and proper motions are in addition available. The sample of sources for which variability information is provided is expanded to 0.5 million stars. This data release contains four new elements: broad-band colour information in the form of the apparent brightness in the G[SUB]BP[/SUB] (330-680 nm) and G[SUB]RP[/SUB] (630-1050 nm) bands is available for 1.4 billion sources; median radial velocities for some 7 million sources are presented; for between 77 and 161 million sources estimates are provided of the stellar effective temperature, extinction, reddening, and radius and luminosity; and for a pre-selected list of 14 000 minor planets in the solar system epoch astrometry and photometry are presented. Finally, Gaia DR2 also represents a new materialisation of the celestial reference frame in the optical, the Gaia-CRF2, which is the first optical reference frame based solely on extragalactic sources. There are notable changes in the photometric system and the catalogue source list with respect to Gaia DR1, and we stress the need to consider the two data releases as independent. <BR /> Conclusions: Gaia DR2 represents a major achievement for the Gaia mission, delivering on the long standing promise to provide parallaxes and proper motions for over 1 billion stars, and representing a first step in the availability of complementary radial velocity and source astrophysical information for a sample of stars in the Gaia survey which covers a very substantial fraction of the volume of our galaxy. [less ▲]

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See detailVizieR Online Data Catalog: Gaia GraL. II. Known multiply imaged quasars (Ducourant+, 2018)
Ducourant, C.; Wertz, O.; Krone-Martins, A. et al

Textual, factual or bibliographical database (2018)

Tables 4 provides the compiled list of 478 known gravitationally lensed systems (GL), including candidates (each line corresponds to an image of the lense) together with informations from the Gaia DR2 ... [more ▼]

Tables 4 provides the compiled list of 478 known gravitationally lensed systems (GL), including candidates (each line corresponds to an image of the lense) together with informations from the Gaia DR2 whenever a source was found at less than 0.5 arcsec from the literature's position of the image. (1) Name, (2) ref - bibliographic reference (* designates candidates), (3) Nim - number of images of the lens in the literature, (4) Gaia DR2 SourceId, (5,6) ICRS positions from the Gaia DR2 at epoch 2015.5, (7,8,9) Gaia G, GBP, GRP magnitudes and standard errors (calculated by CDS). (1 data file). [less ▲]

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See detailVizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-22, WASP-41, WASP-42, WASP-55 (Southworth+, 2016)
Southworth, J.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Andersen, M. I. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2018), 745

17 light curves of transits of the extrasolar planetary systems WASP-22, WASP-41, WASP-42 and WASP-55 are presented. 13 of the light curves were obtained using the Danish 1.54m telescope at ESO La Silla ... [more ▼]

17 light curves of transits of the extrasolar planetary systems WASP-22, WASP-41, WASP-42 and WASP-55 are presented. 13 of the light curves were obtained using the Danish 1.54m telescope at ESO La Silla, Chile, in the Bessell R or Bessell I passbands. The other 4 light curves were obtained using the 84cm telescope at Observatorio Cerro Armazones, Chile, using either an R filter or no filter. The errorbars for each transit have been scaled so the best-fitting model (obtained using the JKTEBOP code) has a reduced chi-squared value of 1.0. (4 data files). [less ▲]

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See detailVizieR Online Data Catalog: Gaia DR2 sources in GC and dSph (Gaia Collaboration+, 2018)
Gaia Collaboration; Helmi, A.; van Leeuwen, F. et al

Textual, factual or bibliographical database (2018)

The files contains lists of possible members of each of the objects (75 globular clusters, 9 dwarf spheroidal galaxies, the Bootes I UFD, the LMC and SMC). The stars in these lists have been selected and ... [more ▼]

The files contains lists of possible members of each of the objects (75 globular clusters, 9 dwarf spheroidal galaxies, the Bootes I UFD, the LMC and SMC). The stars in these lists have been selected and used to determine the astrometric parameters of the corresponding objects following either the procedures described in Sec. 2.1 (for the clusters and dwarfs) or in Sec. 2.2 (for the LMC and SMC). The first column is the "source_id" as given by Gaia, the ra and declination of the star in degrees, and its G-band magnitude (known as "phot[SUB]g[/SUB]mean_mag" in the Gaia archive). (2 data files). [less ▲]

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See detailThe 4-m International Liquid Mirror Telescope
Surdej, Jean ULiege; Hickson, P.; Borra, H. et al

in Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège (2018, April 01), 87

The 4-m International Liquid Mirror Telescope (ILMT) is presently (March-June 2017) being erected on the ARIES site in Devasthal (Uttarakhand). We describe and illustrate in the present paper its ... [more ▼]

The 4-m International Liquid Mirror Telescope (ILMT) is presently (March-June 2017) being erected on the ARIES site in Devasthal (Uttarakhand). We describe and illustrate in the present paper its different components. The ILMT will be used in the Time Delayed Integration (TDI) mode to carry out a deep survey and high S/N photometric and astrometric observations of solar system, galactic and extra-galactic objects within a narrow (24') strip of sky. In principle, the ILMT should detect and regularly monitor more than 50 multiply imaged quasars. It will also detect numerous supernovae (see Kumar et al., these proceedings) as well as space debris (see Pradhan et al., also in these proceedings). [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of a point-like source and a third spiral arm in the transition disk around the Herbig Ae star MWC 758
Reggiani, Maddalena ULiege; Christiaens, Valentin ULiege; Absil, Olivier ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 611

Transition disks offer the extraordinary opportunity to look for newly born planets and investigate the early stages of planet formation. In this context we observed the Herbig A5 star MWC 758 with the L ... [more ▼]

Transition disks offer the extraordinary opportunity to look for newly born planets and investigate the early stages of planet formation. In this context we observed the Herbig A5 star MWC 758 with the L band vector vortex coronagraph installed in the near-infrared camera and spectrograph NIRC2 at the Keck II telescope, with the aim of unveiling the nature of the spiral structure by constraining the presence of planetary companions in the system. Our high-contrast imaging observations show a bright (delta L=7.0+/-0.3 mag) point-like emission, south of MWC 758 at a deprojected separation of about 20 au (r=0.111+/- 0. 004 arcsec) from the central star. We also recover the two spiral arms (south-east and north-west), already imaged by previous studies in polarized light, and discover a third one to the south-west of the star. No additional companions were detected in the system down to 5 Jupiter masses beyond 0.6 arcsec from the star. We propose that the bright L band emission could be caused by the presence of an embedded and accreting protoplanet, although the possibility of it being an asymmetric disk feature cannot be excluded. The spiral structure is probably not related to the protoplanet candidate, unless on an inclined and eccentric orbit, and it could be due to one (or more) yet undetected planetary companions at the edge of or outside the spiral pattern. Future observations and additional simulations will be needed to shed light on the true nature of the point-like source and its link with the spiral arms. [less ▲]

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See detailVizieR Online Data Catalog: Light curves of WASP-52 (Mancini+, 2017)
Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Raia, G. et al

Textual, factual or bibliographical database (2018)

Light curves of transit events of the extrasolar planet WASP-52b. One of the datasets was obtained using the Cassini 1.52m Telescope (Gunn r) at the Astronomical Observatory of Bologna in Loiano (Italy ... [more ▼]

Light curves of transit events of the extrasolar planet WASP-52b. One of the datasets was obtained using the Cassini 1.52m Telescope (Gunn r) at the Astronomical Observatory of Bologna in Loiano (Italy). Three of the datasets were obtained using the Zeiss 1.23m telescope (Cousins R and Cousins I) at the German-Spanish Astronomical Centre at Calar Alto (Spain). Four of the datasets were obtained using the MPG 2.2m telescope (Sloan g, Sloan r, Sloan i, Sloan z) at the ESO Observatory in La Silla (Chile). Four of the datasets were obtained using the 1.54m Danish Telescope at the ESO Observatory in La Silla (Chile). (2 data files). [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-resolution imaging of transiting extrasolar planetary systems (HITEP) II. Lucky imaging results from 2015 and 2016
Evans, D. F.; Southworth, J.; Smalley, B. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 610

Context. The formation and dynamical history of hot Jupiters is currently debated, with wide stellar binaries having been suggested as a potential formation pathway. Additionally, contaminating light from ... [more ▼]

Context. The formation and dynamical history of hot Jupiters is currently debated, with wide stellar binaries having been suggested as a potential formation pathway. Additionally, contaminating light from both binary companions and unassociated stars can significantly bias the results of planet characterisation studies, but can be corrected for if the properties of the contaminating star are known. Aims. We search for binary companions to known transiting exoplanet host stars, in order to determine the multiplicity properties of hot Jupiter host stars. We also search for and characterise unassociated stars along the line of sight, allowing photometric and spectroscopic observations of the planetary system to be corrected for contaminating light. Methods. We analyse lucky imaging observations of 97 Southern hemisphere exoplanet host stars, using the Two Colour Instrument on the Danish 1.54 m telescope. For each detected companion star, we determine flux ratios relative to the planet host star in two passbands, and measure the relative position of the companion. The probability of each companion being physically associated was determined using our two-colour photometry. Results. A catalogue of close companion stars is presented, including flux ratios, position measurements, and estimated companion star temperature. For companions that are potential binary companions, we review archival and catalogue data for further evidence. For WASP-77AB and WASP-85AB, we combine our data with historical measurements to determine the binary orbits, showing them to be moderately eccentric and inclined to the line of sight (and hence planetary orbital axis). Combining our survey with the similar Friends of Hot Jupiters survey, we conclude that known hot Jupiter host stars show a deficit of high mass stellar companions compared to the field star population; however, this may be a result of the biases in detection and target selection by ground-based surveys. ©ESO 2018. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptive PSF fitting - a highly performing photometric method and light curves of the GLS H1413+117: time delays and micro-lensing effects
Akhunov, Talat ULiege; Wertz, O.; Elyiv, A. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465

We present new photometric observations of H1413+117 acquired during seasons between 2001 and 2008 in order to estimate the time delays between the lensed quasar images and to characterize at best the on ... [more ▼]

We present new photometric observations of H1413+117 acquired during seasons between 2001 and 2008 in order to estimate the time delays between the lensed quasar images and to characterize at best the on-going micro-lensing events. We propose a highly performing photometric method called the adaptive point spread function fitting and have successfully tested this method on a large number of simulated frames. This has enabled us to estimate the photometric error bars affecting our observational results. We analysed the V- and R-band light curves and V-R colour variations of the A-D components which show short- and long-term brightness variations correlated with colour variations. Using the χ[SUP]2[/SUP] and dispersion methods, we estimated the time delays on the basis of the R-band light curves over the seasons between 2003 and 2006. We have derived the new values: Δt[SUB]AB[/SUB] = -17.4 ± 2.1, Δt[SUB]AC[/SUB] = -18.9 ± 2.8 and Δt[SUB]AD[/SUB] = 28.8 ± 0.7 d using the χ[SUP]2[/SUP] method (B and C are leading, D is trailing) with 1σ confidence intervals. We also used available observational constraints (resp. the lensed image positions, the flux ratios in mid-IR and two sets of time delays derived in the present work) to update the lens redshift estimation. We obtained z_l = 1.95^{+0.06}_{-0.10} which is in good agreement with previous estimations. We propose to characterize two kinds of micro-lensing events: micro-lensing for the A, B, C components corresponds to typical variations of ∼10[SUP]-4[/SUP] mag d[SUP]-1[/SUP] during all the seasons, while the D component shows an unusually strong micro-lensing effect with variations of up to ∼10[SUP]-3[/SUP] mag d[SUP]-1[/SUP] during 2004 and 2005. [less ▲]

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See detailOrbital alignment and star-spot properties in the WASP-52 planetary system
Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Raia, G. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465

We report 13 high-precision light curves of eight transits of the exoplanet WASP-52 b, obtained by using four medium-class telescopes, through different filters, and adopting the defocussing technique ... [more ▼]

We report 13 high-precision light curves of eight transits of the exoplanet WASP-52 b, obtained by using four medium-class telescopes, through different filters, and adopting the defocussing technique. One transit was recorded simultaneously from two different observatories and another one from the same site but with two different instruments, including a multiband camera. Anomalies were clearly detected in five light curves and modelled as star-spots occulted by the planet during the transit events. We fitted the clean light curves with the JKTEBOP code, and those with the anomalies with the PRISM+GEMC codes in order to simultaneously model the photometric parameters of the transits and the position, size and contrast of each star-spot. We used these new light curves and some from the literature to revise the physical properties of the WASP-52 system. Star-spots with similar characteristics were detected in four transits over a period of 43 d. In the hypothesis that we are dealing with the same star-spot, periodically occulted by the transiting planet, we estimated the projected orbital obliquity of WASP-52 b to be λ = 3.8° ± 8.4°. We also determined the true orbital obliquity, ψ = 20° ± 50°, which is, although very uncertain, the first measurement of ψ purely from star-spot crossings. We finally assembled an optical transmission spectrum of the planet and searched for variations of its radius as a function of wavelength. Our analysis suggests a flat transmission spectrum within the experimental uncertainties. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiply imaged quasars in the Gaia DR1
Ducourant, C.; Delchambre, Ludovic ULiege; Finet, F. et al

in Recio-Blanco, Alejandra; de Laverny, Patrick; Brown, Anthony G. A. (Eds.) et al IAUS 330 Astrometry and Astrophysics in the Gaia sky (2017)

Because of to its exceptional resolving power, Gaia should detect a few thousands gravitational lensed systems. These consist in multiple images of background quasars. The estimated number of lens ... [more ▼]

Because of to its exceptional resolving power, Gaia should detect a few thousands gravitational lensed systems. These consist in multiple images of background quasars. The estimated number of lens phenomena in the sky, however, depends on the cosmological model considered. By taking into account the observational bias that will restrict the detection of lensed quasars, identification of these up to a given limiting magnitude will constrain the cosmological parameters. We have investigated the known gravitationally lensed quasars present in the Gaia DR1, and found that a significant number of components of these systems have been measured and are present in the Gaia DR1 catalogue although quasi none of them have all their components detected. We additionally examined the immediate surroundings of QSOs from the large Quasar catalogue, LQAC3, and detected several configurations compatible with gravitational lensing phenomena. A more global strategy to systematically detect the potential candidates in the various releases of the Gaia catalogue is presented. © 2018 International Astronomical Union. [less ▲]

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See detailMiNDSTEp differential photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasars WFI 2033-4723 and HE 0047-1756: Microlensing and a new time delay
Giannini, E.; Schmidt, R. W.; Wambsganss, J. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 597

Aims. We present V and R photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasars WFI 2033-4723 and HE 0047-1756. The data were taken by the MiNDSTEp collaboration with the 1.54 m Danish telescope at the ESO La ... [more ▼]

Aims. We present V and R photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasars WFI 2033-4723 and HE 0047-1756. The data were taken by the MiNDSTEp collaboration with the 1.54 m Danish telescope at the ESO La Silla observatory from 2008 to 2012. Methods. Differential photometry has been carried out using the image subtraction method as implemented in the HOTPAnTS package, additionally using GALFIT for quasar photometry. Results. The quasar WFI 2033-4723 showed brightness variations of order 0.5 mag in V and R during the campaign. The two lensed components of quasar HE 0047-1756 varied by 0.2-0.3 mag within five years. We provide, for the first time, an estimate of the time delay of component B with respect to A of Δt = (7.6 ± 1.8) days for this object. We also find evidence for a secular evolution of the magnitude difference between components A and B in both filters, which we explain as due to a long-duration microlensing event. Finally we find that both quasars WFI 2033-4723 and HE 0047-1756 become bluer when brighter, which is consistent with previous studies. © ESO, 2016. [less ▲]

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