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See detailHeat exposure affects jejunal tight junction remodeling independently of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in 9-day-old broiler chicks
Uerlings, Julie ULiege; Song, Zhigang; Hu, Xiji et al

in Poultry Science (2018)

Dysfunction of the intestinal epithelial barrier under elevated temperatures is assumed to prompt pathological conditions and to eventually impede chickens’ growth, resulting in massive economic losses in ... [more ▼]

Dysfunction of the intestinal epithelial barrier under elevated temperatures is assumed to prompt pathological conditions and to eventually impede chickens’ growth, resulting in massive economic losses in broiler industries. The aims of this research were to determine the impact of acute heat stress on the intestinal tight junction network of broiler chicks (Gallus domesticus L.) and to elucidate whether adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was involved in the integrated response of the broiler's gastrointestinal tract to heat stress. A total of 80 9-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were subjected to temperature treatment (thermoneutral versus heat stress) and AMPK inhibition treatment (5 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneal injection of compound C vs. sham treatment) for 72 h. In addition to monitoring growth performance, the mRNA and protein levels of key tight junction proteins, target components of the AMPK pathway, and biomarkers of intestinal inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed in the jejunum under both stressors at 24 and 72 h. An increase of the major tight junction proteins, claudin-1 and zonula occludens-1, was implemented in response to an exacerbated expression of the AMP-activated protein kinase. Heat stress did not affect zootechnical performance but was confirmed by an increased gene expression of heat shock proteins 70 and 90 as well as heat shock factor-1. In addition, hyperthermia induced significant effects on tight junction proteins, although it was independent of AMPK. [less ▲]

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See detailAttenuating Effect of Zinc and Vitamin E on the Intestinal Oxidative Stress Induced by Silver Nanoparticles in Broiler Chickens.
Song, Zhigang; Lv, Jiadong; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir et al

in Biological Trace Element Research (2017)

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been increasingly used as antimicrobial and disinfectant. However, intestinal model studies have shown that AgNPs induce oxidative stress. Hence, this study aims to ... [more ▼]

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been increasingly used as antimicrobial and disinfectant. However, intestinal model studies have shown that AgNPs induce oxidative stress. Hence, this study aims to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental zinc (Zn) and vitamin E (VE; alpha-tocopherol acetate) on attenuating AgNP-induced intestinal oxidative stress in broiler chickens. The chickens were divided into two groups as follows: (1) control group fed with a corn-soybean meal basal diet and (2) nano group, received drinking water containing 1000 mg/kg AgNPs. All the nano-exposed birds were divided into six dietary treatment groups, namely, the basal diets supplemented with (1) 60 mg/kg Zn as ZnSO4, (2) 120 mg/kg Zn, (3) 100 mg/kg VE, (4) 200 mg/kg VE, (5) 60 mg/kg Zn and 100 mg/kg VE, and (6) 120 mg/kg Zn and 200 mg/kg VE. Results showed that the AgNPs significantly reduced the body weights of the broilers after 42 days of oral administration of AgNPs (P < 0.05), and this effect was not alleviated by any of the dietary treatments. The activity of superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) increased in all the AgNP-treated birds (P < 0.05); however, CuZn-SOD did not increase in birds fed with basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg VE. In this treatment, the VE exerted an antioxidant effect to prevent the activation of the CuZn-SOD enzyme. Furthermore, supplementing Zn increased the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05), which were accompanied with increased malondialdehyde levels (P < 0.05) in the broilers. AgNP exposure resulted in a significant messenger RNA (mRNA) upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2-1 in the jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05). However, supplemental ZnVE did not reduce TLRs' mRNA expression, except for the diminished TLR2-1 mRNA levels in birds fed with basal diet supplemented with 120 mg/kg Zn and 200 mg/kg VE. We concluded that although dietary Zn and VE supplementation did not attenuate growth depression effect of AgNP, it however attenuates intestinal oxidative stress in AgNP-treated broiler chickens. [less ▲]

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