References of "Toumi, Khaoula"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExposure of workers to pesticide residues during re-entry activities: A Review
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane et al

in Human and Ecological Risk Assessment (in press)

Workers may be exposed to pesticide residues when they enter an area that has been previously treated in order to realize different tasks (e.g. for pruning, cutting, picking, harvesting, pest scouting) or ... [more ▼]

Workers may be exposed to pesticide residues when they enter an area that has been previously treated in order to realize different tasks (e.g. for pruning, cutting, picking, harvesting, pest scouting) or to handle a contaminated crop commodity (e.g. sorting, bundling, packing). A review of the scientific literature on workers exposed to pesticide residues during re-entry tasks provides a comprehensive view of possible exposure routes and a better understanding of the risk assessment context, threshold values and calculation methodology. Methods assessing the risk to workers health are also reported and discussed. The impact of re-entry activities on health and factors affecting workers exposure are examined. Finally, solutions and mitigation measures aiming to reduce their exposure to pesticide residues are recommended. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (5 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailASSESSMENT OF BELGIAN FLORISTS EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDE RESIDUES
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2018), 83

Pesticides are known to be widely used on flowers to control insects and diseases during cropping. As a result, florists who handle daily a large number of flowers can be exposed to their residues. A ... [more ▼]

Pesticides are known to be widely used on flowers to control insects and diseases during cropping. As a result, florists who handle daily a large number of flowers can be exposed to their residues. A study was conducted among Belgian volunteer florists to assess their exposure: sampling of flowers, residue analysis, transfer of residues from flowers to hands and their absorption through the skin after contact. 90 bouquets (roses, gerberas, and chrysanthemums) were collected in Belgium to be analysed. Florists were requested to wear during their professional activities two pairs of cotton gloves during two consecutive half days in order to assess the potential transfer to their hands and the dermal exposure. Finally, during the three most important periods for the sale of flowers in Belgium (Valentine's Day, Mother's Day and All Saints’ Day), 84 urine samples were collected from florists and control groups (24-hour urine) to assess the total exposure by measuring the concentrations of pesticides (parent compounds and metabolites). A huge variety of pesticide residues were detected: 107 on bouquets and 111 on the gloves. A total of 70 different pesticide residues and metabolites were identified in urine of florists. A vast majority of pesticide residues identified on cut flowers and on cotton gloves were also found in urine samples. A clear relation was then established between dermal exposure and excretion of pesticide residues in florist urines. Exposure was particularly critical for clofentezine with a maximum systemic exposure value four times higher than the acceptable exposure threshold (393% AOEL). Moreover, clofentezine was detected in urine of florists. In conclusion, the study leads to conclude that Belgian florists are exposed daily to pesticide residues, with potential effects on their health. Therefore, there is an urgent need to raise the awareness about pesticides residues among florists who should adopt better personal hygiene rules and among authorities who could strengthen the controls on imported cut flowers and set safety standards such as Maximum Residue Limits for residues on cut flowers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (2 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailExposition des travailleurs aux résidus de pesticides sur les fleurs coupées et sur les produits horticoles
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2018)

Persons who, during their professional tasks, come in contact with pesticide residues are exposed by various routes, with possible negative effects on their health. The aim of the thesis is to evaluate ... [more ▼]

Persons who, during their professional tasks, come in contact with pesticide residues are exposed by various routes, with possible negative effects on their health. The aim of the thesis is to evaluate the exposure risks of two categories of workers indirectly exposed to pesticide residues (parent compounds and metabolites): Belgian florists and Tunisian market gardeners. As a first step, the exposure of Belgian florists to pesticide residues present on cut flowers was studied. A survey of florists reveals that, despite a fairly long work period, they do not protect themselves enough from contact with residues. The analysis of residues on cut flowers most sold in Belgium has shown that they are highly contaminated, with 107 residues of different pesticides were detected on 90 samples. By wearing cotton gloves by florists, it has been established that 111 residues of different pesticides could be transferred from the flowers to the hands. In the worst case, the estimated systemic exposure of florists to four active substances exceeds (at maximum concentrations) the acceptable threshold values (AOEL). The bio-monitoring approach conducted with Belgian florists and a reference group led to the conclusion that the florists' urine is significantly more contaminated and that a linear relationship exists between dermal exposure to residues and urinary excretion. The same methodological approach, except biomonitoring, was used to assess the exposure of Tunisian market garden workers to pesticide residues. The survey reveals that the majority of workers doesn't generally protect themselves during the re-entry tasks despite an extended daily working time. The wearing of cotton gloves, combined with the sampling and analysis of residues on the handled horticultural products, demonstrated that chili pepper and tomato samples are contaminated by pesticide residues, with 7 exceedances of EU MRL. A total of 57 and 63 pesticide residues were detected on gloves worn by workers during harvesting in tomato and chili pepper greenhouses, respectively. The systemic exposure of workers harvesting tomatoes and chili peppers exceeds (at maximum concentrations) their AOEL values, for 9 and 15 pesticides, respectively. The study has thus demonstrated that Belgian florists and Tunisian workers are exposed during their usual tasks to significantly high amounts of pesticide residues whose toxicological properties suggest that they could have on long-term negative effects on health. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 113 (11 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRisk assessment of exposure to pesticide residues with potential negative effects on the Belgian florists' health
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, laure; Vlemincks, Christiane et al

Poster (2018, May)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAssessment of exposure to pesticide residues in Tunisian crop greenhouses
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane et al

Poster (2018, April)

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAssessment of exposure to pesticide residues in Tunisian crop greenhouses
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane et al

Poster (2018, April)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailExposure of Belgian florists to pesticide residues during their professional activities
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane et al

Conference (2018, April)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULiège)
See detailAssessment of exposure of workers to pesticide residues in tomato greenhouses
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane et al

Poster (2018, February)

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRisk assessment of Tunisian consumers and farm workers exposed to residues after pesticide application in chili peppers and tomatoes
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Tarchoun, Neji et al

in Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection (2018), 13(1), 127-143

In Tunisia, to prevent and control pests and diseases during cultivation under greenhouses, chili pepper and tomato require the use of a wide range of pesticides potentially toxic and thus presenting a ... [more ▼]

In Tunisia, to prevent and control pests and diseases during cultivation under greenhouses, chili pepper and tomato require the use of a wide range of pesticides potentially toxic and thus presenting a possible risk for farm operators, workers or consumers. A study has been carried out in the Sahel region of Tunisia to assess the risk for farm operators and workers exposed, by contact during harvest tasks, to possible pesticide residues remaining in tomato and chili pepper cultures, and for the Tunisian consumers (adults and children) after intake. A questionnaire was addressed to a group of 73 market gardeners to better understand the local professional practices and to determine the main route of exposure to pesticide. Twenty samples of cotton gloves (2 pairs / sample) were distributed to 20 volunteers who worn them for two consecutive half-days during the harvest of chili peppers or tomatoes before analysis of the dislodgeable pesticide residues which could be transferred from crops to hands. Using models predictive exposures values were calculated for consumers and farm workers. The highest exposure of consumers was observed for chlorpyrifos residues on tomatoes (with 82% and 312% of the Acute Reference Dose (ARfD), for adults and children respectively). The systemic exposure (SE) of farm workers was estimated for the average, the 90th percentile and the maximum concentration. At the highest observed concentrations, 15 pesticide residues (active substance and metabolites) used in pepper greenhouses, and 9 in tomato crops, exceed the Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (AOEL). Exposure appeared to be particularly critical for chlorothalonil sprayed in chili pepper greenhouses with SEMAX values 113 times higher than the AOEL (11285%). Long task duration (8 hours/day) after re-entry in greenhouse, limited access to personal protective equipment (PPE), lack of hygiene and bad habits (eating, drinking, or smoking at work) have also been observed and discussed as risk factors. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 95 (12 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailÉvaluation du risque d’exposition des fleuristes belges aux résidus de pesticides
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane et al

Poster (2017, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailEvaluation du risque d’exposition des travailleurs horticoles aux résidus de pesticides en Tunisie
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Tarchoun, Neji et al

Conference (2017, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRisk Assessment of Florists Exposed to Pesticide Residues through Handling of Flowers and Preparing Bouquets
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Laure, Joly; Vleminckx, Christiane et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2017), 14(5)

Abstract: Flowers are frequently treated with pesticides and, as a result, florists handling daily a large number of flowers can be exposed to pesticide residues. A study was conducted among twenty ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Flowers are frequently treated with pesticides and, as a result, florists handling daily a large number of flowers can be exposed to pesticide residues. A study was conducted among twenty volunteer florists located in Namur Province and in the Brussels Capital Region of Belgium in order to assess their potential dermal exposure to dislodgeable pesticide residues transferred from flowers to hands. Two pairs of cotton gloves were worn during two consecutive half days while handling flowers and preparing bouquets (from min 2 h to max 3 h/day). The residual pesticide deposits on the glove samples were extracted with a multi-residue Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe (QuEChERS) method and analyzed by a combination of gas and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS) by an accredited laboratory. A total of 111 active substances (mainly insecticides and fungicides) were detected, with an average of 37 active substances per sample and a total concentration per glove sample of 22.22 mg/kg. Several predictive levels of contamination were considered to assess the risk. The potential dermal exposures (PDE) of florists were estimated at the average, for different percentiles, and at the maximum concentration of residues in samples. At the PDE P90 and at the PDEMAX (or worst case) values, three and five active substances respectively exceed the Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (AOEL), indicating risk situations. For the systemic exposure (SE), one active substance (clofentezine) exceeds the AOEL at the P90 predictive level. In the worst case, SEMAX (at the maximum concentrations), four active substances (clofentezine, famoxadone, methiocarb, and pyridaben) exceed their respective AOEL values. Among the 14 most frequently detected active substances, two have SEMAX values exceeding the AOEL. Exposure could be particularly critical for clofentezine with an SEMAX value four times higher than the AOEL (393%). The exposure of florists appeared to be an example of a unique professional situation in which workers are exposed regularly to both a very high number of toxic chemicals and rather high concentration levels. Therefore the priority should be to raise the level of awareness among the florists who must change their habits and practices if they want to minimize their exposure. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (7 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRisk assessment of florists’ exposure to insecticide residues during normal professional tasks
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane et al

Poster (2017, May)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (2 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDermal exposure of Belgian florists to insecticide residues
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane et al

Poster (2017, February)

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (3 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPotential demal exposure of florists to fungicide residues on flowers and risk assessment
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, L.; Vleminckx, C. et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2017), 82

Flowers are susceptible to many pests and diseases. Therefore, they can be sprayed several times during their growth considering that no MRL are set for flow-ers. High levels of pesticide residues ... [more ▼]

Flowers are susceptible to many pests and diseases. Therefore, they can be sprayed several times during their growth considering that no MRL are set for flow-ers. High levels of pesticide residues potentially expose daily the florists who han-dle cut flowers and possibly could endanger their health. A study was carried out to evaluate the risk for florists exposed to fungicide residues during normal profes-sional tasks. Cotton gloves were distributed to 20 florists (two pairs to each florist) and worn during two consecutive half days during normal professional tasks (from min 2 hours to max 3 hours/day) to measure their potential dermal exposure (PDE). Samples were analyzed with a multi-residue (QuEChERS) method validated by a laboratory accredited for pesticide residues and with a combination of gas and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. It appears from the results that a total of 54 fungicides with different toxicity classes were detected on cotton gloves. An average of 15.53 mg/kg fungicide residues per glove sample was meas-ured. Six of 54 are suspected of causing cancer after prolonged or repeated expo-sure. Boscalid was both the active substance for which the highest maximum and average concentrations (26.21 and 3.47 mg/kg, respectively). Famoxadone had the most critical PDE (156% AOEL for the maximum concentration). As a consequence, this study leads to conclude that Belgian florists, who worked for several years and handled a large number of flowers contaminated by high concentrations of pesti-cide residues, are exposed daily with a potential effect on their health. This sug-gests that safety standards should be set for residue levels on cut flowers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 114 (25 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA survey of pesticide residues in cut flowers from various countries
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Vleminckx, Christiane; Van Loco, Joris et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2016), 81(3), 493-502

As in any intensive culture, flowers require the use of a wide range of pesticides to control diseases and pests which can damage production and marketability. In order to evaluate the average levels of ... [more ▼]

As in any intensive culture, flowers require the use of a wide range of pesticides to control diseases and pests which can damage production and marketability. In order to evaluate the average levels of contamination of the cut flowers and to assess the risk for professionals exposed to pesticide residues when handling cut flowers, a survey was carried out with a group of florists from the Belgian largest cities. Fifty samples of roses (5 stems per bouquet) were collected: 45 bouquets were sampled in the 7 largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege and Namur) and 5 were sampled from 5 supermarkets. Analysis of residual pesticide deposit is made by combining two multi-residue methods (GC-MS-MS and LC-MS-MS) in a laboratory accredited for pesticide residues. For all the samples analysed, a total of 97 active substances were detected, i.e. an average of 14 active substances per bouquet and a total average pesticide load of 26,03 mg/kg per flower sample. Most active substances (a.s.) reached high levels of residues, with concentrations between 10 and 50 mg/kg. Samples from Belgium and The Netherlands have a lower average number of a.s./sample, but the amount of residues is about the same in all samples (20-30 mg/kg) whatever the country of origin , except for the sample from Germany who is the worst case (22 a.s. with a total amount of 92 mg/kg). Most of the detected active substances are fungicides (dodemorph, spiroxamine, cyprodinil, fluopyram, pyrimethanil, benomyl (carbendazim), propamocarb, boscalid and iprodione) which are present on more than 20 of the 50 samples. All of them have a dermal acute toxicity. Consequently, florists who handle a large number of flowers are exposed daily with a potential effect on their health. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 242 (23 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Vleminckx, Christiane; van Loco, Joris et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2016), 13(10), 943-957

In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists’ exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in ... [more ▼]

In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists’ exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums) were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur) and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. All florists were interviewed individually when collecting the questionnaire. The residual pesticide deposit values on cut flowers were determined in an accredited laboratory using a multi-residue (QuEChERS Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe) method and a combination of gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chormatograhphy (LC) analysis. A total of 107 active substances were detected from all samples; i.e., an average of about 10 active substances per bouquet. The most severely contaminated bouquet accumulated a total concentration of residues up to 97 mg/kg. Results show that roses are the most contaminated cut flowers; with an average of 14 substances detected per sample and a total concentration per rose sample of 26 mg/kg. Some active substances present an acute toxicity (acephate, methiocarb, monocrotophos, methomyl, deltamethrin, etc.) and exposure can generate a direct effect on the nervous system of florists. Nevertheless, fungicides (dodemorph, propamocarb, and procymidone) were the most frequently detected in samples and had the highest maximum concentrations out of all the active substances analysed. Dodemorph was the most frequently detected substance with the highest maximum concentration (41.9 mg/kg) measured in the rose samples. It appears from the survey that, despite being exposed to high deposits of residues, florists usually do not protect themselves from contact with residues even if they spend several hours handling cut flowers and preparing bouquets (from 2 to 6 h/day, depending on the time of year and/or selling periods) daily. Bad habits (eating, drinking, or smoking at work) and absence of personal protective equipment of most florists also increase the risk of contact with pesticide residues. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (9 ULiège)