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See detailNoroviruses—The State of the Art, Nearly Fifty Years after Their Initial Discovery
Ludwig-Begall, Louisa ULiege; Mauroy, Axel; Thiry, Etienne ULiege

in Viruses (2021), 13

Human noroviruses are recognised as the major global cause of viral gastroenteritis. Here, we provide an overview of notable advances in norovirus research and provide a short recap of the novel model ... [more ▼]

Human noroviruses are recognised as the major global cause of viral gastroenteritis. Here, we provide an overview of notable advances in norovirus research and provide a short recap of the novel model systems to which much of the recent progress is owed. Significant advances include an updated classification system, the description of alternative virus-like protein morphologies and capsid dynamics, and the further elucidation of the functions and roles of various viral proteins. Important milestones include new insights into cell tropism, host and microbial attachment factors and receptors, interactions with the cellular translational apparatus, and viral egress from cells. Noroviruses have been detected in previously unrecognised hosts and detection itself is facilitated by improved analytical techniques. New potential transmission routes and/or viral reservoirs have been proposed. Recent in vivo and in vitro findings have added to the understanding of host immunity in response to norovirus infection, and vaccine development has progressed to preclinical and even clinical trial testing. Ongoing development of therapeutics includes promising direct-acting small molecules and host-factor drugs. [less ▲]

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See detailWhole-genome analysis of natural interspecific recombinant between bovine alphaherpesviruses 1 and 5.
Romera, Sonia Alejandra; Perez, Ruben; Marandino, Ana et al

in Virus Research (2021), 309

Bovine alphaherpesviruses 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5) are closely related viruses that co-circulate in South America and recombine in the field. The complete genomes of three natural gB gene recombinant ... [more ▼]

Bovine alphaherpesviruses 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5) are closely related viruses that co-circulate in South America and recombine in the field. The complete genomes of three natural gB gene recombinant viruses between BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 were obtained by Illumina next-generation sequencing. Complete genome sequences of the three recombinant strains (RecA1, RecB2, and RecC2) have a similar size of approximately 138.3kb and a GC content of 75%. The genome structure corresponds to herpesvirus class D, with 69 open reading frames (ORFs) arranged in the same order as other bovine alphaherpesviruses related to BoHV-1. Their genomes were included in recombination network studies indicating statistically significant recombination evidence both based on the whole genome, as well as in the sub-regions. The novel recombinant region of 3074 nt of the RecB2 and RecC2 strains includes the complete genes of the myristylated tegument protein (UL11) and the glycoprotein M (UL10) and part of the helicase (UL9) gene, and it seems to have originated independently of the first recombinant event involving the gB gene. Phylogenetic analyzes performed with the amino acid sequences of UL9, UL 10, and UL11 indicated that RecB2 and RecC2 recombinants are closely related to the minor parental virus (BoHV-1.2b). On the contrary, RecA1 groups with the major parental (BoHV-5), thus confirming the absence of recombination in this region for this recombinant. One breakpoint in the second recombinant region lies in the middle of the UL9 reading frame, originating a chimeric enzyme half encoded by BoHV-5 and BoHV-1.2b parental strains. The chimeric helicases of both recombinants are identical and have 96.8 and 96.3% similarity with the BoHV-5 and BoHV-1 parents, respectively. In vitro characterization suggests that recombinants have delayed exit from the cell compared to parental strains. However, they produce the similar viral titer as their putative parents suggesting the accumulation of viral particles for the cell exit delayed on time. Despite in vitro different behavior, these natural recombinant viruses have been maintained in the bovine population for more than 30 years, indicating that recombination could be playing an important role in the biological diversity of these viral species. Our findings highlight the importance of studying whole genome diversity in the field and determining the role that homologous recombination plays in the structure of viral populations. A whole-genome recombinant characterization is a suitable tool to help understand the emergence of new viral forms with novel pathogenic features. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a Specific Anti-capsid Antibody- and Magnetic Bead-Based Immunoassay to Detect Human Norovirus Particles in Stool Samples and Spiked Mussels via Flow Cytometry.
Razafimahefa, Ravo Michèle ULiege; Ludwig-Begall, Louisa ULiege; Diallo, Mamadou Amadou et al

in Food and environmental virology (2021)

Human noroviruses impose a considerable health burden globally. Here, a flow cytometry approach designed for their detection in biological waste and food samples was developed using antibody-coated ... [more ▼]

Human noroviruses impose a considerable health burden globally. Here, a flow cytometry approach designed for their detection in biological waste and food samples was developed using antibody-coated magnetic beads. Antipeptide antibodies against murine norovirus and various human norovirus genotypes were generated for capture and coated onto magnetic beads. A flow cytometry assay was then implemented to detect bead-bound human norovirus GI.3 in patient stool samples and in norovirus-spiked mussel digestive tissues. The detection limit for stool samples was 10(5) gc/mL, thus bettering detection limits of commercially available norovirus diagnosis quick kits of 100-fold; the detection limit in spiked mussels however was ten-fold higher than in stool samples. Further assays showed a decrease in fluorescence intensity for heat- or UV-inactivated virus particles. Overall, we demonstrate the application of a flow cytometry approach for direct detection of small non-enveloped virus particles such as noroviruses. An adaptation of the technology to routine diagnostics has the potential to contribute a rapid and sensitive tool to norovirus outbreak investigations. Further improvements to the method, notably decreasing the detection limit of the approach, may allow the analysis of naturally contaminated food and environmental samples. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluenza Virus Infections in Cats.
Frymus, Tadeusz; Belák, Sándor; Egberink, Herman et al

in Viruses (2021), 13(8), 1435

In the past, cats were considered resistant to influenza. Today, we know that they are susceptible to some influenza A viruses (IAVs) originating in other species. Usually, the outcome is only subclinical ... [more ▼]

In the past, cats were considered resistant to influenza. Today, we know that they are susceptible to some influenza A viruses (IAVs) originating in other species. Usually, the outcome is only subclinical infection or a mild fever. However, outbreaks of feline disease caused by canine H3N2 IAV with fever, tachypnoea, sneezing, coughing, dyspnoea and lethargy are occasionally noted in shelters. In one such outbreak, the morbidity rate was 100% and the mortality rate was 40%. Recently, avian H7N2 IAV infection occurred in cats in some shelters in the USA, inducing mostly mild respiratory disease. Furthermore, cats are susceptible to experimental infection with the human H3N2 IAV that caused the pandemic in 1968. Several studies indicated that cats worldwide could be infected by H1N1 IAV during the subsequent human pandemic in 2009. In one shelter, severe cases with fatalities were noted. Finally, the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 IAV can induce a severe, fatal disease in cats, and can spread via cat-to-cat contact. In this review, the Advisory Board on Cat Diseases (ABCD), a scientifically independent board of experts in feline medicine from 11 European countries, summarises current data regarding the aetiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnostics, and control of feline IAV infections, as well as the zoonotic risks. [less ▲]

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See detailAddressing personal protective equipment (PPE) decontamination : methylene blue and light inactivates SARS-CoV-2 on N95 respirators and medical masks with maintenance of integrity and fit
Lendvay, Thomas Sean; Chen, J.; Harcourt, B.H. et al

in Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (2021)

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See detailSemi-quantitative risk assessment by expert elicitation of potential introduction routes of African swine fever from wild reservoir to domestic pig industry and subsequent spread during the Belgian outbreak (2018-2019).
Mauroy, Axel; Depoorter, Pieter; Saegerman, Claude ULiege et al

in Transboundary and emerging diseases (2021)

Since the introduction in Georgia in 2007 of an African swine fever (ASF) genotype 2 virus strain, the virus has rapidly spread to both Western European and Asian countries. It now constitutes a major ... [more ▼]

Since the introduction in Georgia in 2007 of an African swine fever (ASF) genotype 2 virus strain, the virus has rapidly spread to both Western European and Asian countries. It now constitutes a major threat for the global swine industry. The ongoing European transmission cycle has been related to the 'wild boar habitat' with closed transmission events between wild boar populations and incidental spillovers to commercial and non-commercial (backyard) pig holdings. During the epidemic in Belgium, only wild boar were infected and although the introduction route has not yet been elucidated, the 'human factor' is highly suspected. While ASF was successfully contained in a small region in the Southern part of Belgium without affecting domestic pigs, the risk of spillover at the wild/domestic interface remains poorly assessed. In this study, we used a semi-quantitative method, involving national and international experts, to assess the risk associated with different transmission routes for ASF introduction from wild boar to domestic pig holdings and subsequent dissemination between holdings in the Belgian epidemiological context. Qualitative responses obtained by our questionnaire were numerically transformed and statistically processed to provide a semi-quantitative assessment of the occurrence of the hazard and a ranking of all transmission routes. 'Farmer', 'bedding material', 'veterinarian' and 'professionals from the pig sector' were considered as the most important transmission routes for ASF introduction from the wild reservoir to pig holdings. 'Animal movements', 'farmer', 'veterinarian', 'iatrogenic', 'animal transport truck' and 'animal care equipment' were considered as the most important transmission routes posing a risk of ASF spread between pig holdings. Combined with specific biosecurity checks in the holdings, this assessment helps in prioritizing risk mitigation measures against ASF introduction and further spread in the domestic pig industry, particularly while the ASF situation in Western Europe is worsening. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in free-ranging wild animals in Belgium.
Logeot, Myriam; Mauroy, Axel; Thiry, Etienne ULiege et al

in Transboundary and emerging diseases (2021)

The aim of this review paper is to evaluate the putative susceptibilities of different free-ranging wild animal species in Belgium to SARS-CoV-2 and provide a risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in ... [more ▼]

The aim of this review paper is to evaluate the putative susceptibilities of different free-ranging wild animal species in Belgium to SARS-CoV-2 and provide a risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in those animals. Since the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic, natural SARS-CoV-2 infections have mainly been confirmed in domestic and production animals, and in wild animals kept in captivity, although the numbers remain limited when compared to human cases. Recently, the first SARS-CoV-2 infections in presumably escaped minks found in the wild have been detected, further addressing the much-feared scenario of transmission of the virus to animals living in the wild and its consequences. Considering the most likely origin of the virus being a wild animal and the putative susceptibilities of free-ranging wild animal species to SARS-CoV-2, the risk of infection with possible establishment of the virus in these populations has to be investigated closely. The authors conclude that most attention should be given to surveillance and awareness raising activities for SARS-CoV-2 infection in wild mustelids, bats, wild canids and felids, particularly these collected in wildlife rescue centres. People involved in frequent and close contact with wild animals should take all necessary precautionary measures to protect wild animals against exposure to the virus. One year after the first detection of SARS-CoV-2 in humans, the time has come to increase investments in research and surveillance activities in animals, including in free-ranging wild animals, as part of a One Health control of this pandemic. This study focusing on Belgium could be helpful for other countries with similar animal densities and ecosystems. [less ▲]

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See detailAnthropogenic Infection of Cats during the 2020 COVID-19 Pandemic.
Hosie, Margaret J.; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Hartmann, Katrin et al

in Viruses (2021), 13(2),

COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a new coronavirus (CoV), SARS-CoV-2, which is closely related to SARS-CoV that jumped the animal-human species barrier and caused a disease ... [more ▼]

COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a new coronavirus (CoV), SARS-CoV-2, which is closely related to SARS-CoV that jumped the animal-human species barrier and caused a disease outbreak in 2003. SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus that was first described in 2019, unrelated to the commonly occurring feline coronavirus (FCoV) that is an alphacoronavirus associated with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and has spread globally within a few months, resulting in the current pandemic. Felids have been shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Particularly in the Western world, many people live in very close contact with their pet cats, and natural infections of cats in COVID-19-positive households have been described in several countries. In this review, the European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases (ABCD), a scientifically independent board of experts in feline medicine from 11 European Countries, discusses the current status of SARS-CoV infections in cats. The review examines the host range of SARS-CoV-2 and human-to-animal transmissions, including infections in domestic and non-domestic felids, as well as mink-to-human/-cat transmission. It summarises current data on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in domestic cats and the results of experimental infections of cats and provides expert opinions on the clinical relevance and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimisation of a PMAxx™-RT-qPCR Assay and the Preceding Extraction Method to Selectively Detect Infectious Murine Norovirus Particles in Mussels.
Razafimahefa, Ravo Michèle ULiege; Ludwig-Begall, Louisa ULiege; Le Guyader, Françoise S. et al

in Food and environmental virology (2021), 13(1), 93-106

Human noroviruses are a major cause for gastroenteritis outbreaks. Filter-feeding bivalve molluscs, which accumulate noroviruses in their digestive tissues, are a typical vector for human infection. RT ... [more ▼]

Human noroviruses are a major cause for gastroenteritis outbreaks. Filter-feeding bivalve molluscs, which accumulate noroviruses in their digestive tissues, are a typical vector for human infection. RT-qPCR, the established method for human norovirus detection in food, does not allow discrimination between infectious and non-infectious viruses and can overestimate potentially infectious viral loads. To develop a more accurate method of infectious norovirus load estimation, we combined intercalating agent propidium monoazide (PMAxx™)-pre-treatment with RT-qPCR assay using in vitro-cultivable murine norovirus. Three primer sets targeting different genome regions and diverse amplicon sizes were used to compare one-step amplification of a short genome fragment to three two-step long-range RT-qPCRs (7 kbp, 3.6 kbp and 2.3 kbp amplicons). Following initial assays performed on untreated infectious, heat-, or ultraviolet-inactivated murine noroviruses in PBS suspension, PMAxx™ RT-qPCRs were implemented to detect murine noroviruses subsequent to their extraction from mussel digestive tissues; virus extraction via anionic polymer-coated magnetic beads was compared with the proteinase K-dependent ISO norm. The long-range RT-qPCR process detecting fragments of more than 2.3 kbp allowed accurate estimation of the infectivity of UV-damaged murine noroviruses. While proteinase K extraction limited later estimation of PMAxx™ pre-treatment effects and was found to be unsuited to the assay, magnetic bead-captured murine noroviruses retained their infectivity. Genome copies of heat-inactivated murine noroviruses differed by 2.3 log(10) between RT-qPCR and PMAxx™-RT-qPCR analysis in bivalve molluscs, the PMAxx™ pre-treatment allowing a closer approximation of infectious titres. The combination of bead-based virus extraction and PMAxx™ RT-qPCR thus provides a more accurate model for the estimation of noroviral bivalve mollusc contamination than the conjunction of proteinase K extraction and RT-qPCR and has the potential (once validated utilising infectious human norovirus) to provide an added measure of security to food safety authorities in the hazard assessment of potential bivalve mollusc contamination. [less ▲]

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See detailReplicative fitness recuperation of a recombinant murine norovirus – in vitro reciprocity of genetic shift and drift
Ludwig-Begall, Louisa ULiege; Lu, Jia; Hosmillo, Myra et al

in Journal of General Virology (2020), 101

Noroviruses are recognized as the major cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Molecular mechanisms driving norovirus evolution are the accumulation of point mutations and recombination ... [more ▼]

Noroviruses are recognized as the major cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Molecular mechanisms driving norovirus evolution are the accumulation of point mutations and recombination. Recombination can create considerable changes in a viral genome, potentially eliciting a fitness cost, which must be compensated via the adaptive capacity of a recombinant virus. We previously described replicative fitness reduction of the first in vitro generated WU20-CW1 recombinant murine norovirus, RecMNV. In this follow-up study, RecMNV’s capability of replicative fitness recuperation and genetic characteristics of RecMNV progenies at early and late stages of an adaptation experiment were evaluated. Replicative fitness regain of the recombinant was demonstrated via growth kinetics and plaque size differences between viral progenies prior to and post serial in vitro passaging. Point mutations at consensus and sub-consensus population levels of early and late viral progenies were characterized via next-generation sequencing and putatively associated to fitness changes. To investigate the effect of genomic changes separately and in combination in the context of a lab-generated inter-MNV infectious virus, mutations were introduced into a recombinant WU20-CW1 cDNA for subsequent DNA-based reverse genetics recovery. We thus associated fitness loss of RecMNV to a C7245T mutation and functional VP2 (ORF3) truncation and demonstrated individual and cumulative compensatory effects of one synonymous OFR2 and two non-synonymous ORF1 consensus-level mutations acquired during successive rounds of in vitro replication. Our data provide evidence of viral adaptation in a controlled environment via genetic drift after genetic shift induced a fitness cost of an infectious recombinant norovirus. [less ▲]

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See detailDirofilarioses in cats: European guidelines from the ABCD on prevention and management.
Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Tasker, Séverine; Hartmann, Katrin et al

in Journal of feline medicine and surgery (2020), 22(5), 442-451

OVERVIEW: Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are the most important filarial worms, causing heartworm disease and subcutaneous dirofilariosis, respectively. D repens is currently considered an ... [more ▼]

OVERVIEW: Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are the most important filarial worms, causing heartworm disease and subcutaneous dirofilariosis, respectively. D repens is currently considered an emerging zoonotic agent in Europe. LIFE CYCLE AND INFECTION: Filarial worms infect mainly dogs, but also cats, ferrets, wild carnivores and humans. The life cycle involves an intermediate mosquito host. Compared with dogs, cats are imperfect hosts for dirofilarial worms. After inoculation, only a low number of L3 larvae develop to the adult stage in a small percentage of cats. Heartworm disease in cats may be associated with severe pulmonary thromboembolism and an eosinophilic inflammatory response in the lungs, potentially leading to sudden death. Otherwise self-cure occurs in most cases after 18-48 months. Subcutaneous dirofilariosis may present as subcutaneous nodules or dermatitis. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT: Diagnosis in cats is more difficult compared with dogs and needs a multistep approach (antigen and antibody tests, as well as diagnostic imaging). Cats with acute heartworm disease require stabilisation within an intensive care unit. Cats with respiratory signs or suggestive radiographic changes should receive prednisolone and follow-up with a similar multistep approach. Adulticidal therapy is not safe in cats. PREVENTION: In endemic areas cats should receive year-round chemoprophylaxis from 2 months of age. [less ▲]

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See detailAetiology of Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex and Prevalence of its Pathogens in Europe.
Day, M. J.; Carey, S.; Clercx, Cécile ULiege et al

in Journal of comparative pathology (2020), 176

The canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC) is an endemic worldwide syndrome involving multiple viral and bacterial pathogens. Traditionally, Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb), canine ... [more ▼]

The canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC) is an endemic worldwide syndrome involving multiple viral and bacterial pathogens. Traditionally, Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine herpesvirus (CHV) and canine parainfluenza virus (CPiV) were considered the major causative agents. Lately, new pathogens have been implicated in the development of CIRDC, namely canine influenza virus (CIV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine pneumovirus (CnPnV), Mycoplasma cynos and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus. To better understand the role of the different pathogens in the development of CIRDC and their epidemiological relevance in Europe, prevalence data were collected from peer-reviewed publications and summarized. Evidence of exposure to Bb is frequently found in healthy and diseased dogs and client-owned dogs are as likely to be infected as kennelled dogs. Co-infections with viral pathogens are common. The findings confirm that Bb is an important cause of CIRDC in Europe. CAV-2 and CDV recovery rates from healthy and diseased dogs are low and the most likely explanation for this is control through vaccination. Seroconversion to CHV can be demonstrated following CIRDC outbreaks and CHV has been detected in the lower respiratory tract of diseased dogs. There is some evidence that CHV is not a primary cause of CIRDC, but opportunistically re-activates at the time of infection and exacerbates the disease. The currently available data suggest that CIV is, at present, neither a prevalent nor a significant pathogen in Europe. CPiV remains an important pathogen in CIRDC and facilitates co-infection with other viral and bacterial pathogens. CnPnV and CRCoV are important new elements in the aetiology of CIRDC and spread particularly well in multi-dog establishments. M. cynos is common in Europe and is more likely to occur in younger and kennelled dogs. This organism is frequently found together with other CIRDC pathogens and is significantly associated with more severe respiratory signs. S. zooepidemicus infection is not common and appears to be a particular problem in kennels. Protective immunity against respiratory diseases is rarely complete, and generally only a reduction in clinical signs and excretion of pathogen can be achieved through vaccination. However, even vaccines that only reduce and do not prevent infection carry epidemiological advantages. They reduce spread, increase herd immunity and decrease usage of antimicrobials. Recommending vaccination of dogs against pathogens of CIRDC will directly provide epidemiological advantages to the population and the individual dog. [less ▲]

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See detailTopical Ganciclovir Reduces Viral Excretion in Mares With Equine Coital Exanthema
Vissani, M. A.; Perglione, C. O.; Zabal, O. et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (2020), 94

Equid alphaherpesvirus 3 (EHV-3) is the etiological agent of equine coital exanthema (ECE). Because no vaccines or antiviral therapies are available, prevention consists of clinical examination of mares ... [more ▼]

Equid alphaherpesvirus 3 (EHV-3) is the etiological agent of equine coital exanthema (ECE). Because no vaccines or antiviral therapies are available, prevention consists of clinical examination of mares and stallions before mating or semen collection and resting from breeding activities when lesions are present. However, this methodology does not identify subclinically infected animals. Ganciclovir is the most potent compound known to reduce EHV-3 replication. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of topical ganciclovir application to reduce EHV-3 replication in experimentally infected mares. A pilot study, after a double-blind completely randomized design, was carried out. Twenty mares were randomly divided into five groups (three treated with ganciclovir with different regimen of doses, one treated with a placebo, and one nontreated). Mares were experimentally infected with EHV-3 on day 0. Rectal temperature, clinical signs, and lesions were recorded. Daily perineal and vaginal swabs were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for virus detection. The antibody response was assessed by a virus neutralization test in serum samples collected weekly. Mares experimentally infected with EHV-3 and treated with ganciclovir twice a day for 13 days showed reduced levels and duration of viral excretion and less severe lesions. The viral excretion period was reduced from 18 to nine days compared with the untreated groups. We concluded that ganciclovir had an antiviral effect on EHV-3 replication when topically administered in mares showing clinical signs of ECE. Further trials should be performed to optimize the dose of the antiviral for a definitive formulation. © 2020 [less ▲]

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See detailCockles and mussels, alive, alive, oh - The role of bivalve molluscs as transmission vehicles for human norovirus infections
Razafimahefa, Ravo Michèle ULiege; Ludwig, Louisa ULiege; Thiry, Etienne ULiege

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2019)

Human noroviruses are recognised as the leading worldwide cause of sporadic and epidemic viral gastroenteritis, causing morbidity and mortality in impoverished developing countries and engendering ... [more ▼]

Human noroviruses are recognised as the leading worldwide cause of sporadic and epidemic viral gastroenteritis, causing morbidity and mortality in impoverished developing countries and engendering enormous economic losses in developed countries. Transmitted faecal-orally, either via person-to-person contact, or by consumption of contaminated foods or water, norovirus outbreaks are often reported in institutional settings or in the context of communal dining. Bivalve molluscs, which accumulate noroviruses via filter feeding and are often eaten raw or insufficiently cooked, are a common food vehicle implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks. The involvement of bivalve molluscs in norovirus outbreaks and epidemiology over the past two decades are reviewed. The authors describe how their physiology of filter feeding can render them concentrated vehicles of norovirus contamination in polluted environments and how high viral loads persist in molluscs even after application of depuration practices and typical food preparation steps. The global prevalence of noroviruses in bivalve molluscs as detected by different monitoring efforts is determined and the various methods currently utilised for norovirus extraction and detection from bivalve matrices described. An overview of gastroenteritis outbreaks affirmatively associated with norovirus-contaminated bivalve molluscs as reported in the past 18 years is also provided. Strategies for risk reduction of shellfish contamination and subsequent human infection are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailÉpidémie nosocomiale à norovirus : à propos d'une expérience hospitalière
HUYNEN, Pascale ULiege; MAUROY, Axel; LAMBERT, Nathalie et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2019), 74(2), 86-89

Human noroviruses (NoV) are the main pathogenic agents worldwide responsible for viral sporadic and epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. A gastroenteritis outbreak broke out in patients hospitalized in ... [more ▼]

Human noroviruses (NoV) are the main pathogenic agents worldwide responsible for viral sporadic and epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. A gastroenteritis outbreak broke out in patients hospitalized in several wards located in two different floors of a hospital in Liege, Belgium. The objective was to determine whether a same NoV strain would be involved in the two different floors, and to explore how this outbreak would have spread from a floor to the other. Stool samples from patients and healthcare workers were collected, as well as data from medical files. NoV detection, quantification and characterization were performed using molecular biology methods. A same NoV strain, from genotype GII.4, was detected in two patients hospitalized on the two different floors. This finding allowed to conclude that a same outbreak spread in the two floors, probably due to movements of common healthcare workers. A rapid NoV detection during outbreak is important in the aim to rapidly implement hygiene measures to limit the size of the outbreak. [less ▲]

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See detailLes norovirus, ces entéro-pathogènes épidémiques mondiaux méconnus
Huynen, Pascale ULiege; Mauroy, A.; Melin, Pierrette ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2019), 74(1), 41-46

Discovered in the 1970s, human noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of foodborne disease and gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. NoV affect people of all ages. In children less than 5 years old ... [more ▼]

Discovered in the 1970s, human noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of foodborne disease and gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. NoV affect people of all ages. In children less than 5 years old, despite rotavirus remains the main enteropathogen responsible for viral gastroenteritis, NoV become the first etiological virus in countries where the rotavirus vaccine was introduced. Treatment of viral gastroenteritis is symptomatic.The key element in front of NoV infection is limiting their transmission. A rapid NoV detection during outbreak is important in the aim to rapidly implement hygiene measures to limit the size of the outbreak. Prevention of NoV infections relies on the use of adequate hand hygiene measures and disinfection of contaminated environmental surfaces. In face of an acute gastroenteritis outbreak, the early NoV identification with rapid laboratory tests or molecular biology methods is needed in the aim to implement as soon as possible hygiene measures to limit the size of the NoV outbreak. Due to antigenically diverse NoV strains and the lack of long term immunity, the development of an effective vaccine is difficult. © Revue Medicale de Liege. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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