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See detailCockles and mussels, alive, alive, oh - The role of bivalve molluscs as transmission vehicles for human norovirus infections
Razafimahefa, Ravo Michèle ULiege; Ludwig, Louisa ULiege; Thiry, Etienne ULiege

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2019)

Human noroviruses are recognised as the leading worldwide cause of sporadic and epidemic viral gastroenteritis, causing morbidity and mortality in impoverished developing countries and engendering ... [more ▼]

Human noroviruses are recognised as the leading worldwide cause of sporadic and epidemic viral gastroenteritis, causing morbidity and mortality in impoverished developing countries and engendering enormous economic losses in developed countries. Transmitted faecal-orally, either via person-to-person contact, or by consumption of contaminated foods or water, norovirus outbreaks are often reported in institutional settings or in the context of communal dining. Bivalve molluscs, which accumulate noroviruses via filter feeding and are often eaten raw or insufficiently cooked, are a common food vehicle implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks. The involvement of bivalve molluscs in norovirus outbreaks and epidemiology over the past two decades are reviewed. The authors describe how their physiology of filter feeding can render them concentrated vehicles of norovirus contamination in polluted environments and how high viral loads persist in molluscs even after application of depuration practices and typical food preparation steps. The global prevalence of noroviruses in bivalve molluscs as detected by different monitoring efforts is determined and the various methods currently utilised for norovirus extraction and detection from bivalve matrices described. An overview of gastroenteritis outbreaks affirmatively associated with norovirus-contaminated bivalve molluscs as reported in the past 18 years is also provided. Strategies for risk reduction of shellfish contamination and subsequent human infection are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailNorovirus recombinants: recurrent in the field, recalcitrant in the lab – a scoping review of recombination and recombinant types of noroviruses
Ludwig, Louisa ULiege; Mauroy, Axel; Thiry, Etienne ULiege

in Journal of General Virology (2018)

Noroviruses are recognized as the major global cause of sporadic and epidemic non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Molecular mechanisms driving norovirus evolution are the accumulation of point ... [more ▼]

Noroviruses are recognized as the major global cause of sporadic and epidemic non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Molecular mechanisms driving norovirus evolution are the accumulation of point mutations and recombination. Intragenotypic recombination has long been postulated to be a driving force of GII.4 noroviruses, the predominant genotype circulating in humans for over two decades. Increasingly, emergence and re-emergence of different intragenotype recombinants have been reported. The number and types of norovirus recombinants remained undefined until the 2007 JGenVirol research article ‘Norovirus recombination’ reported an assembly of 20 hitherto unclassified intergenotypic norovirus recombinant types. In the intervening decade, a host of novel recombinants has been analysed. New recombination breakpoints have been described, in vitro and in vivo studies supplement in silico analyses, and advances have been made in analysing factors driving norovirus recombination. This work presents a timely overview of these data and focuses on important aspects of norovirus recombination and its role in norovirus molecular evolution. An overview of intergenogroup, intergenotype, intragenotype and ‘obligatory’ norovirus recombinants as detected via in silico methods in the field is provided, enlarging the scope of intergenotypic recombinant types to 80 in total, and notably including three intergenogroup recombinants. A recap of advances made studying norovirus recombination in the laboratory is given. Putative drivers and constraints of norovirus recombination are discussed and the potential link between recombination and norovirus zoonosis risk is examined. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro et in vivo follow-up on a recombinant murine norovirus generated via cell coinfection
Ludwig, Louisa ULiege; De Oliveira-Filho, E.; Mathijs, E. et al

Poster (2017, July)

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See detailSensibilité des porcs au virus de l'hépatite E de génotype 3 isolé du sanglier
Thiry, Damien ULiege; Rose, N.; Mauroy, A. et al

Conference (2017, March)

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See detailINFECTIVITÉ IN VIVO ET RÉCUPÉRATION IN VITRO DE L’APTITUDE (FITNESS) RÉPLICATIVE D’UN NOROVIRUS MURIN RECOMBINANT
De Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson; Ludwig, Louisa ULiege; Mathijs, Elisabeth et al

Scientific conference (2017, March)

Les norovirus sont reconnus comme étant une cause majeure d’épidémies de gastroentérites chez l’homme. Les mutations ponctuelles et la recombinaison sont les mécanismes moléculaires moteurs de l’évolution ... [more ▼]

Les norovirus sont reconnus comme étant une cause majeure d’épidémies de gastroentérites chez l’homme. Les mutations ponctuelles et la recombinaison sont les mécanismes moléculaires moteurs de l’évolution des norovirus. La recombinaison peut créer des modifications considérables dans les génomes viraux. Nous avons récemment obtenu un norovirus murin recombinant (RecMNV) après coinfection in vitro de souches homologues de norovirus murins. Le RecMNV présente une aptitude (fitness) réduite à la réplication. L'infectivité du RecMNV a été d’abord évaluée in vivo et ses adaptations réplicatives et génétiques ont été ensuite suivies au cours de passages en série in vitro. Durant l'infection in vivo, le RecMNV a été comparé aux souches parentales chez des souris Balb/cByJ par la mesure du poids corporel et l'estimation de la charge virale par RT-qPCR. Le poids des souris infectées par RecMNV était généralement plus élevé que celui des souris infectées par les souches parentales. Des charges virales ont été détectées dans tous les organes examinés, suggérant que, comme les souches parentales, le RecMNV peut se propager au-delà du tube digestif pour produire des infections systémiques. Ensuite, les générations de RecMNV résultant du premier (RecE) et du dixième (RecL) passages in vitro ont été comparées et leurs séquences déterminées. RecL a montré une augmentation significative du diamètre des plaques de lyse et une cinétique de réplication plus rapide que RecE. L'analyse moléculaire a montré plusieurs modifications de la séquence nucléotidique et en acides aminés entre RecE et les souches parentales ainsi qu’entre RecE et RecL. Ces résultats suggèrent que la recombinaison se produisant in vitro entre des souches de norovirus murins homologues peut générer une souche chimère, qui présente des propriétés biologiques similaires aux souches parentales et est capable d'une infection productive in vivo. De plus, ils montrent l'adaptation virale et la récupération de la réplication virale in vitro après un événement de recombinaison. [less ▲]

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See detailPreparedness activities and research needs in addressing emerging infectious animal and zoonotic diseases
Cardoen, S.; De Clercq, K.; Vanholme, L. et al

in Revue Scientifique et Technique. Office International des Epizooties (2017), 36(2), 557-568

Emerging infectious animal and zoonotic diseases can inflict significant losses on animal production and public health, and threaten the safety and security of the food system. Threat analysis ... [more ▼]

Emerging infectious animal and zoonotic diseases can inflict significant losses on animal production and public health, and threaten the safety and security of the food system. Threat analysis (forecasting), which monitors the measurable risk indicators of disease emergence, should be in place before the emergence of any threat Animal and public health authorities develop and regularly re-evaluate disease preparedness, response and recovery plans, based on the 'One Health' principle. These plans should include surveillance, biosecurity measures, communication channels and training for personnel. Scenarios for outbreaks of natural emerging infectious disease or bioterrorist events should be prepared and practised. National and international legislation should be regularly updated to provide a robust legal basis to manage outbreaks. Reference laboratories should have reliable and validated diagnostic tools for rapid, high-throughput testing. Strict biosafety, biocontainment and biosecurity control measures must be implemented in laboratories in order to prevent the accidental or malicious release of pathogens. The pharmaceutical industry should be incentivised to develop vaccines and/or antiviral drugs against disease outbreaks. Conventions between public authorities and the pharmaceutical industry should guarantee adequate stockpiling of the pharmaceuticals needed to control large-scale outbreaks. In the early phase of disease emergence (early warning), veterinarians and stakeholders play an important role in early detection at the farm level. Upon notification, veterinary authorities must take rapid response measures to limit disease spread. National and international short-and medium-term strategic research agendas should be developed, based on a comprehensive gap analysis and horizon scan. This planning will help to guide funding agencies and non-governmental organisations in their quest to support relevant research. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic assessment of african swine fever isolates involved in outbreaks in the Democratic Republic Of Congo between 2005 and 2012 reveals co-circulation of p72 genotypes I, IX and XIV, including 19 variants
Mulumba-Mfumu, L. K.; Achenbach, J. E.; Mauldin, M. R. et al

in Viruses (2017), 9(2),

African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating disease of domestic pigs. It is a socioeconomically important disease, initially described from Kenya, but subsequently reported in most Sub-Saharan countries ... [more ▼]

African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating disease of domestic pigs. It is a socioeconomically important disease, initially described from Kenya, but subsequently reported in most Sub-Saharan countries. ASF spread to Europe, South America and the Caribbean through multiple introductions which were initially eradicated—except for Sardinia—followed by re-introduction into Europe in 2007. In this study of ASF within the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 62 domestic pig samples, collected between 2005-2012, were examined for viral DNA and sequencing at multiple loci: C-terminus of the B646L gene (p72 protein), central hypervariable region (CVR) of the B602L gene, and the E183L gene (p54 protein). Phylogenetic analyses identified three circulating genotypes: I (64.5% of samples), IX (32.3%), and XIV (3.2%). This is the first evidence of genotypes IX and XIV within this country. Examination of the CVR revealed high levels of intra-genotypic variation, with 19 identified variants. © 2017 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of natural interspecific recombinant viruses between bovine alphaherpesviruses 1 and 5.
Maidana, Silvina Soledad; Craig, Patricio Oliver; Craig, Maria Isabel et al

in Virus Research (2017), 242

Closely related bovine alphaherpesviruses 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) co-circulate in certain countries, rendering cattle co-infection possible. This is a prerequisite for BoHV recombination. Here, we ... [more ▼]

Closely related bovine alphaherpesviruses 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) co-circulate in certain countries, rendering cattle co-infection possible. This is a prerequisite for BoHV recombination. Here, we report the first identification of homologous recombination between field isolates of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, two alphaherpesviruses belonging to two distinct species with an average genomic similarity of 82.3%. Three isolates of BoHV-5, previously classified as subtype "BoHV-5b", were phylogenetically studied and analyzed via eight PCR sequencing assays dispersed at regular intervals throughout the genome to discriminate between BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. In the phylogenetic analysis, differences of clustering were found in the UL27 gene which encodes the glycoprotein B (gB). We detected two recombination breakpoints in the open reading frame of the UL27 gene. We compared the amino acid sequences of the gB of BoHV-1.1 and 1.2, BoHV-5a and recombinant formerly named BoHV-5b (chimeric gB) and subsequently performed molecular modeling. All structures were alike and, simultaneously, similar to the chimeric gB. Neutralizing antibodies against BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and recombinant viruses were analyzed via serum virus neutralization test using polyclonal sera and a monoclonal antibody against gB to demonstrate an absence of viral escape for both assays. Our results show that homologous recombination between two related species of ruminant alphaherpesviruses can occur in natural field conditions. We found three recombinant field isolates, previously classified as BoHV-5b subtypes, between BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. [less ▲]

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See detailSeroprevalence of bovine herpesvirus 1 related alphaherpesvirus infections in free-living and captive cervids in Poland.
Rola, Jerzy; Larska, Magdalena; Socha, Wojciech et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2017), 204

To determine the occurrence of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) related alphaherpesvirus infections in cervids, 1194 serum samples of wild ruminants originating from 59 forest districts of Poland were tested ... [more ▼]

To determine the occurrence of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) related alphaherpesvirus infections in cervids, 1194 serum samples of wild ruminants originating from 59 forest districts of Poland were tested with IBR gB ELISA and virus neutralization test (VNT) against BoHV-1 and cervid herpesvirus 1 (CvHV-1). The seroprevalence differed significantly between free-living and captive cervids (P<0.001) with a total of 89 out of 498 (17.9%) and 268 out of 696 (38.5%) seropositive animals in each type of population. In free-ranging cervids, the highest seroprevalence was found among red deer (25.6%) and in fallow deer (23.1%), while it was the lowest in roe deer (1.7%). The seroprevalence varied at the district level between 0 and 100% with the mean value of 17.4% (95% CI:10.1-24.0). Additionally, seroprevalence was associated with afforestation (chi(2)=7.5; P=0.006) and to some degree with the mean of cattle density in province (chi(2)=7.0; P=0.08). The mean antibody titre against CvHV-1 in VNT (161.8; 95%CI: 146.0-177.6) has been significantly higher (P<0.0001) than the mean titre of BoHV-1 antibodies (10.1; 95%CI: 8.9-11.4). The results showed that BoHV-1 related alphaherpesvirus infections are present in population of free-ranging and farmed cervids in Poland. Based on the VNT results and considering the low susceptibility of red deer to BoHV-1, it seems that the dominant alphaherpesvirus circulating in wild ruminants is most likely CvHV-1 and therefore it is rather unlikely that deer in Poland could play any role as a reservoir of BoHV-1 for cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailAnaplasma, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia species infections in cats: European guidelines from the ABCD on prevention and management
Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Radford, Alan D. et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2017), 19(5), 542-548

OVERVIEW: Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species and Rickettsia species are vector-borne pathogens infecting a wide variety of mammals, but causing disease in very few of them. Infection in cats: Anaplasma ... [more ▼]

OVERVIEW: Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species and Rickettsia species are vector-borne pathogens infecting a wide variety of mammals, but causing disease in very few of them. Infection in cats: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the most important feline pathogen among these rickettsial organisms, and coinfections are possible. Little information is available on the pathogenesis of these agents in cats. Clinical signs are usually reported soon after tick infestation. They are mostly non-specific, consisting of fever, anorexia and lethargy. Joint pain may occur. Infection in humans: Some rickettsial species ( A phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, Rickettsia conorii, Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis) are of zoonotic concern. Direct contact with cat saliva should be avoided because of potential contamination by R felis. Infected cats are 'sentinels' of the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks and fleas in a given geographical area, and they signal a risk for people exposed to vectors. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-throughput sequencing analysis reveals the genetic diversity of different regions of the murine norovirus genome during in vitro replication
Mauroy, Axel ULiege; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege; Nezer, Carine et al

in Archives of Virology (2017), 16(4), 1019-1023

In this study, we report the genetic diversity and nucleotide mutation rates of five representative regions of the murine norovirus genome during in vitro passages. The mutation rates were similar in ... [more ▼]

In this study, we report the genetic diversity and nucleotide mutation rates of five representative regions of the murine norovirus genome during in vitro passages. The mutation rates were similar in genomic regions encompassing partial coding sequences for non-structural (NS) 1-2, NS5, NS6, NS7 proteins within open reading frame (ORF) 1. In a region encoding a portion of the major capsid protein (VP1) within ORF2 (also including the ORF4 region) and a portion of the minor structural protein (VP2), the mutation rates were estimated to be at least one order of magnitude higher. The VP2 coding region was found to have the highest mutation rate. [less ▲]

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See detailUlcerative pododermatitis and disseminated erosive lesions associated with cowpox virus infection in a domestic cat
Ludwig, Louisa ULiege; Bohn, Jéromine ULiege; Remy, Isabelle ULiege et al

in Veterinary Record Case Reports (2016)

The authors report on a case of feline cowpox virus infection associated with severe ulcerative dermatitis of a paw and disseminated erosive lesions. While the anamnesis of the cat being a known rodent ... [more ▼]

The authors report on a case of feline cowpox virus infection associated with severe ulcerative dermatitis of a paw and disseminated erosive lesions. While the anamnesis of the cat being a known rodent-hunter, a typical seasonality of infection and the progression of clinical signs from a primary anterior lesion (forelimb) indicated a possible cowpox virus infection, the differential diagnosis was complicated by the resemblance of clinical signs to those induced by feline herpesvirus-dermatitis or feline calicivirus infection. These differential diagnoses were excluded by means of immunostaining and PCR, respectively. Detection of eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in cells from biopsy material and positive PCR and sequencing results confirmed the diagnosis of cowpox virus infection. Genetic characterisation of the isolate, based on the highly diverse haemagglutinin gene, showed that the strain (Liege 2015; GenBank accession number: KU726584) clustered with other European isolates, mostly from exotic zoo animals. [less ▲]

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See detailSusceptibility of pigs to zoonotic hepatitis E virus genotype 3 isolated from a wild boar
Thiry, Damien ULiege; Rose, Nicolas; Mauroy, Axel ULiege et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2016)

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See detailAnalyse qualitative et quantitative des populations de norovirus murins générées lors d’infections in vitro synchrones et asynchrones avec des souches homologues : détection de phénomènes de dominance, d’interférence due aux particules non-infectieuses et d’exclusion à la surinfection
Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ludwig, Louisa ULiege; Toffoli, Barbara et al

Poster (2016, March 24)

RÉSUMÉ Buts du travail La recombinaison est un des mécanismes moteurs de l’évolution génétique des norovirus. Malgré une détection fréquente de séquences recombinantes à partir d’échantillons de terrain ... [more ▼]

RÉSUMÉ Buts du travail La recombinaison est un des mécanismes moteurs de l’évolution génétique des norovirus. Malgré une détection fréquente de séquences recombinantes à partir d’échantillons de terrain, la reproduction du phénomène de recombinaison en conditions de laboratoire semble difficile. Utilisant le modèle du norovirus murin, cette étude a pour objectif d’évaluer de manière qualitative et quantitative les populations virales, y compris potentiellement recombinantes, générées lors de variations des conditions de temps et de multiplicité d’infection dans des expériences de coinfections ou de surinfections in vitro. Méthodes Des cellules RAW264.7 ont été inoculées par deux souches homologues de norovirus murins (infection primaire : Wu20 ; surinfection : CW1) en utilisant des multiplicités d’infection (MOI : Wu20 = 1; CW1= 0.1, 1 ou 10) et des temps d’inoculation (surinfection après un délai allant de 0 minutes à 24 heures) variables. Les surnageants ont été prélevés 24h post-surinfection et une quantification moléculaire discriminante sur la région 5’ du génome a été réalisée. Des cellules ont été ré-inoculées par ces surnageants et 36 isolats ont été amplifiés. Ces isolats ont été caractérisés moléculairement comme de type CW1, Wu20 ou recombinant par une méthode discriminante sur leurs extrémités génomiques 3’ et 5’. Les recombinants potentiels ont été séquencés sur la région génomique classiquement impliquée dans la recombinaison (chevauchement ORF 1/2). Résultats et discussion L’analyse des ratios des isolats a montré une tendance à une dominance potentielle de Wu20 sur CW1 pour les conditions de MOI relatives 0.1/1 et 1/1 avec un phénomène d’exclusion à la surinfection entre les temps t4 (4h post-infection primaire) et t8. Cependant, cette tendance n’a pas été détectée dans la condition de MOI relative 10/1. Ceci suggère une hypothèse de présence de particules défectives interférentes (PDI) dans la population de Wu20 qui pourrait interférer avec les étapes précoces de l’attachement et de l’entrée et donc modifier les ratios attendus 24h post-infection. La comparaison des ratios de copies génomiques a soutenu l’hypothèse de présence de PDI dans la population de Wu20 avec des ratios différents de ceux logiquement escomptés aux MOI relatives 0.1/1 et 1/1, et qui se sont vérifiés cette fois en condition 10/1 (condition dans laquelle CW1 peut retrouver une chance réelle dans la compétition à l’attachement et à la pénétration). Cependant le temps t1 de cette condition a dévié clairement de la tendance générale et pourrait constituer une population virale de choix pour la présence de recombinants ou suggérer un autre mécanisme par lequel CW1 pourrait momentanément être dominant par rapport à Wu20. L’exclusion à la surinfection a également pu être corroborée par l’analyse moléculaire quantitative. Trois isolats ont été détectés comme des recombinants potentiels mais les séquençages n’ont pu les confirmer. Les évènements de recombinaison pourraient avoir eu lieu sur une autre région que celle classiquement décrite. Cette étude permet de montrer que la composition de la population virale peut avoir un effet majeur sur la compétition entre deux norovirus. Elle suggère également l’existence d’un mécanisme d’exclusion à la surinfection. Elle confirme enfin que malgré les fréquentes détections de souches recombinantes in silico, le phénomène de recombinaison est difficile à reproduire in vitro chez les norovirus. [less ▲]

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See detailRegain of fitness through in vitro replication for a recombinant murine norovirus
de Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson; Ludwig, Louisa ULiege; Toffoli, Barbara et al

Poster (2016, March 18)

INTRODUCTION Molecular mechanisms driving norovirus evolution are the accumulation of point mutations and recombination. Recombination can create considerable changes in viruses, allowing for complete ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION Molecular mechanisms driving norovirus evolution are the accumulation of point mutations and recombination. Recombination can create considerable changes in viruses, allowing for complete antigenic shifts, host jumps and fitness and pathogenesis modifications. Mathijs et al. recently isolated a viable recombinant murine norovirus (RecMNV) in vitro after coinfection of two parental MNV strains (MNV1-CW1 and -WU20) in a mouse leukaemic monocyte-macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). The ensuing RecMNV possessed reduced in vitro fitness compared to its parental strains but has also been shown to have retained in vivo infectivity (Mathijs et al, submitted). The aim of this study was to follow the replicative and genetic adaptations of RecMNV over serial in vitro passages in order to characterise its capability of replicative fitness adaptation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RecMNV was serially replicated in vitro in monolayers of RAW 264.7 cells over ten passages. Following a first initial infection at an MOI of 0.05, cell layers were consecutively infected with 100 μl neat supernatant of the preceding passage. Two independent lysis plaque assays were performed in triplicate with RecMNV progenies resulting from the first (early) and tenth (late) passage (RecE and RecL). Viral plaque sizes of RecE and RecL were measured with image processing program Image J and statistical analyses of plaque size diameters were subsequently performed. To obtain the complete genome sequences of RecE and RecL, a sequencing strategy was developed in which the MNV genome was divided into seven regions and amplification was performed using overlapping primers. Nucleotide sequences of RecE and RecL were analysed via BioEdit Sequence Editor. Growth curves of RecE and RecL progenies were established for high (10) or low MOI (0.01). RESULTS After ten in vitro passages, viral lysis plaque size diameters had increased significantly. Molecular analysis of RecMNV and both parental strains showed nine nucleotide mutations in the RecMNV genome, comprising three non-silent mutations. In addition, a mutation at position 7245 (A187G) introduced a stop codon, resulting in a 20 AA shorter VP2 in RecMNV (for both RecE and RecL). A comparison of RecE and RecL revealed four non-silent mutations in the NS1-2 and NS7 region of ORF1, two of which were present in the latter region (G1384D and S1393N). DISCUSSION This is the first study in which the fitness of a recombinant NoV strain was evaluated in vitro. Our data provides evidence of viral adaptation to a new environment (here a cell culture system) after a recombination event. Evidence of gain-of-function of RecMNV was demonstrated by differences in growth curves and viral lysis plaque size. In addition, non-silent mutations associated to the gain-of-function/in vitro adaptation were detected. It is noteworthy, that the mutation causing a shorter VP2 in RecE and RecL did not compromise its ability to infect and replicate either in vitro or in vivo (Mathijs et al, submitted). As a perspective we should like to characterise the precise mutation(s) responsible for the fitness regain via infectious clone assay. [less ▲]

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See detailInfection expérimentale de porcs, par voie intraveineuse ou orale, avec une souche du virus de l’hépatite E (HEV) de sanglier, une souche de HEV porcine et une souche de HEV de sanglier préalablement passée en modèle porcin
Thiry, Damien ULiege; Rose, Nicolas; Mauroy, Axel ULiege et al

Poster (2016, March)

La transmission zoonotique du HEV est particulièrement mise en cause dans les pays développés dans lesquels la transmission via les eaux usées est beaucoup moins fréquente que dans les pays en voie de ... [more ▼]

La transmission zoonotique du HEV est particulièrement mise en cause dans les pays développés dans lesquels la transmission via les eaux usées est beaucoup moins fréquente que dans les pays en voie de développement. Des séroprévalences élevées sont observées chez certaines espèces animales dans plusieurs pays européens. Cette étude a porté sur la transmission potentielle au porc d\'une souche de HEV provenant du sanglier (WbHEV) par inoculation intraveineuse ou par voie orale et sur l’étude des conséquences de l’infection du porc par une souche de WbHEV, une souche de WbHEV précédemment passée chez le porc et une souche porcine de HEV après inoculation orale. Tout d\'abord, une infection par voie intraveineuse a été réalisée au cours de laquelle cinq porcelets ont été répartis en deux groupes. Le premier était constitué de trois porcs inoculés avec du WbHEV et le second, de deux porcs inoculés avec un foie de porc négatif envers le HEV. Tous les porcs ont été euthanasiés et autopsiés 8, 9 et 10 jours après l’inoculation. Cette première expérience avait pour objectif d’obtenir suffisamment de virus en vue de réaliser les inoculations par voie orale. Elle a également permis d’étudier l’infectivité d’une souche de HEV-3 provenant du sanglier chez le porc. Ensuite, une infection par voie orale a été réalisée sur 12 porcelets répartis en 4 groupes inoculés respectivement avec une souche de WbHEV, une souche de WbHEV précédemment passée chez le porc, une souche porcine de HEV et un foie de porc HEV négatif. Cette expérience a duré 56 jours. Les échantillons récoltés ont ensuite été analysés par qRT-PCR, ELISA, Western blot et histopathologie. Le nombre de porcs virémiques était plus faible après infection orale qu’après inoculation intraveineuse. Ce résultat contraste avec la présence du HEV dans les matières fécales des porcs au cours des deux expériences. Les résultats montrent également une propagation du virus dans différents organes après inoculation intraveineuse, mais pas après inoculation par voie orale. Cette étude fournit la première preuve expérimentale de la propagation précoce du virus dans l\'organisme après infection intraveineuse avec une souche de HEV provenant du sanglier et montre qu’une telle souche pourrait être naturellement transmise entre les sangliers et les porcs, mais aussi entre porcs et donc survivre dans la population porcine. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversity and ecology survey of mosquitoes potential vectors in Belgian equestrian farms: A threat prevention of mosquito-borne equine arboviruses
Boukraa, Slimane ULiege; de la Grandière, Maria Ana ULiege; Bawin, Thomas ULiege et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2016), 124

Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne ... [more ▼]

Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were conducted during 2011–2012. The harvest of mosquitoes was based on larval sampling (272 samples from 111 breeding sites) and monthly adults trapping (CO2-baited traps, Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus). Among 51,493 larvae and 319 adult mosquitoes collected, morphological identification showed the presence of 11 species: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), An. plumbeus (Stephens), Culex hortensis (Ficalbi), Cx. territans (Walker), Cx. pipiens s.l. L., Cx. torrentium (Martini), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Culiseta annulata (Schrank), Aedes cantans (Meigen), Ae. geniculatus (Olivier). Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens species complex allowed the detection of three molecular forms, Pipiens (92.3%), Molestus (4.6%) and Hybrid (3.1%). Larvae of Cx. pipiens sl and Cx. torrentium were omnipresent and the most abundant species. Water troughs, ponds and slurry (liquid manure) were the most favorable breeding sites of mosquito larvae. Based upon behavior and ecology of the identified mosquito species, Studied Belgian equestrian farms seem to provide a suitable environment and breeding sites for the proliferation of potential vectors of arboviruses and those being a real nuisance problem for horses and neighboring inhabitants. [less ▲]

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See detailCattle are a potential reservoir of bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1).
Maidana, S. S.; Delgado, F.; Vagnoni, L. et al

in Veterinary Record Open (2016), 3(1), 000162

In the present work, controlled experimental infection and transmission studies in domestic cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were carried out to study the in vivo behaviour of ... [more ▼]

In the present work, controlled experimental infection and transmission studies in domestic cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were carried out to study the in vivo behaviour of bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1). Two bovine and two buffalo calves were infected with BuHV1 (20287N isolate) by intranasal aerosolisation. Two sentinel cattle did not receive the virus challenge, but were housed with infected buffaloes to evaluate horizontal transmission. All experimentally inoculated animals showed viral infection and respiratory clinical signs. BuHV1 experimentally infected calves showed intermittent viral excretion between 2 days and 18 days postinfection (dpi) with a maximum titre of excretion of 10(6) TCID50/ml and moderate rhinitis between 2 dpi and 20 dpi. BuHV1 experimentally inoculated buffaloes showed mild respiratory signs, which consisted mainly of serous nasal secretions during the infection period. Sentinel calves showed mucosal specific IgG1 antibodies at seven days postcontact. Viral DNA was detected by PCR and sequencing in both buffaloes and sentinel calves, which could be associated with latency. In conclusion, this study showed the susceptibility of cattle to BuHV1 after both experimental infection and contact with infected buffaloes. These data increase the scarce knowledge on the pathogenesis in natural host and the susceptibility of cattle to BuHV1 experimental infection. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman norovirus infection in Latin America
da Silva Polo, Tatiane; Peiro, Juliana; Claudio Nogueira Mendes, Luiz et al

in Journal of Clinical Virology (2016), 78

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