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See detailReducing agent can be omitted in the incubation medium of the batch in vitro fermentation model of the pig intestines
Poelaert, Christine; Nollevaux, Geraldine; Boudry, Christelle ULiege et al

in Animal (2018), 12

Over the past decade, in vitro methods have been developed to study intestinal fermentation in pigs and its influence on the digestive physiology and health. In these methods, ingredients are fermented by ... [more ▼]

Over the past decade, in vitro methods have been developed to study intestinal fermentation in pigs and its influence on the digestive physiology and health. In these methods, ingredients are fermented by a bacterial inoculum diluted in a mineral buffer solution. Generally, a reducing agent such as Na2S or cysteine-HCl generates the required anaerobic environment by releasing metabolites similar to those produced when protein is fermented, possibly inducing a dysbiosis. An experiment was conducted to study the impact of two reducing agents on results yielded by such in vitro fermentation models. Protein (soybean proteins, casein) and carbohydrate (potato starch, cellulose) ingredients were fermented in vitro by bacteria isolated from fresh feces obtained from three sows in three carbonate-based incubation media differing in reducing agent: (i) Na2S, (ii) cysteine-HCl and (iii) control with a mere saturation with CO2 and devoid of reducing agent. The gas production during fermentation was recorded over 72 h. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production after 24 and 72 h and microbial composition of the fermentation broth after 24 h were compared between ingredients and between reducing agents. The fermentation residues after 24 h were also evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity using Caco-2 cell monolayers. Results showed that the effect of the ingredient induced higher differences than the reducing agent. Among the latter, cysteine-HCl induced the strongest differences compared with the control, whereas Na2S was similar to the control for most parameters. For all ingredients, final gas produced per g of substrate was similar ( P>0.10) for the three reducing agents whereas the maximum rate of gas production ( Rmax) was reduced ( P<0.05) when carbohydrate ingredients were fermented with cysteine-HCl in comparison to Na2S and the control. For all ingredients, total SCFA production was similar ( P>0.10) after 24 h of fermentation with Na2S and in the control without reducing agent. Molar ratios of branched chain-fatty acids were higher ( P<0.05) for protein (36.5% and 9.7% for casein and soybean proteins, respectively) than for carbohydrate (<4%) ingredients. Only fermentation residues of casein showed a possible cytotoxic effect regardless of the reducing agent ( P<0.05). Concerning the microbial composition of the fermentation broth, most significant differences in phyla and in genera ascribable to the reducing agent were found with potato starch and casein. In conclusion, saturating the incubation media with CO2 seems sufficient to generate a suitable anaerobic environment for intestinal microbes and the use of a reducing agent can be omitted. [less ▲]

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See detailFactors affecting reproduction and growth performances in West African Dwarf sheep in sub-Saharan Africa
Adjibode, G; Tougan, UP; Daouda, IH et al

in International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (2017), 11(1), 60-68

The West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep is a hairy sheep breed found over the south area of the 14th parallel of West Africa and Central Africa. It is a compact breed with a small mature size and short ... [more ▼]

The West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep is a hairy sheep breed found over the south area of the 14th parallel of West Africa and Central Africa. It is a compact breed with a small mature size and short horizontal lop ears. WAD sheep are capable of limiting parasite multiplication and remain productive in tsetse-infested areas. The dwarf sheep is mainly reared according to traditional rearing system in West Africa and met alone or generally associated with other animal species in almost all households. West African dwarf sheep have low productivity and weak reproduction and growth performance. Weight gain of lambs is characterized by two phases. The first phase extends from birth to three months of age with a moderate increase followed by a second phase where weight increase more fastly from the third month to the seventh month. The birth weight varies between 1.67 kg and 2.70 kg in conventional rearing system to on average 1.88 kg in traditional rearing system. Average daily gains vary between 78.32 ± 3.18 g and 120 g ± 3.2 during the first post-lambing month and then decrease gradually in the following months. The West African Dwarf sheep are reared primarily for meat production. The carcass yield varies from 43.6% to 55.8% of the live weight of the animal. Factors affecting reproductive and growth performance in WAD are both genetic and non-genetic and include genotype, race, sex, age, birth environment, litter size, production system, season, diet and health follow-up. [less ▲]

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See detailTesticular and Body Morphometric Traits of Mature Rams of Djallonke and Ouda Breeds Reared in North Benin
Koutinhouin, GB; Tougan, PU; Boko, KC et al

in International Journal of Veterinary Science (2017), 6(2), 108-113

The study aims to compare the testicular and body morphometric traits of Djallonke and Ouda sheep breeds reared on natural pasture in Benin. Data on testicles and body morphometric parameters were ... [more ▼]

The study aims to compare the testicular and body morphometric traits of Djallonke and Ouda sheep breeds reared on natural pasture in Benin. Data on testicles and body morphometric parameters were collected on 70 mature rams at 12 months of age, including 45 Djallonke rams and 25 Ouda rams, from January 2015 to September 2016. These data were analyzed with SAS software (2006). It comes out from this study that Ouda rams were significantly heavier (P<0.001) than Djallonke rams at 12 months old. In the same way, the head length (19.29cm) and whither’s height (57.39 cm) of Ouda Sheep were higher (P<0.01) than those of Djallonke sheep (17.92cm and 53.9 cm). Nevertheless, the scapulo-ischium length and chest circumference were similar (P>0.05) for both sheep breeds. However, the Djallonke sheep had presented the lower values of shoulder width and pelvis length (19.22 cm vs 22.61cm). The scrotal length was significantly affected (P<0.01) by the sheep breed with the weakest value (13.73 cm) recorded within Djallonke sheep breed comparatively to Ouda rams (15.01 cm). In the same way, the scrotal circumference, paired testes weight, mean testes length, testes diameter and mean testes volume varied significantly (P<0.001) according to the sheep breed with the highest values observed in Ouda sheep. [less ▲]

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See detailSubstitution of commercial Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (Gonaser®) by Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn leaves in rabbits breeding: impact on reproductive performance
Koutinhouin, GB; Tougan PU; Kpodekon, TM et al

in Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science (2017)

The current study aims to compare the effect of Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn and Gonaser on reproductive traits in rabbit do. Then, 60 nulliparous rabbits do and 12 males were divided into 3 lots. In ... [more ▼]

The current study aims to compare the effect of Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn and Gonaser on reproductive traits in rabbit do. Then, 60 nulliparous rabbits do and 12 males were divided into 3 lots. In lot 1, the animals hadn’t received any treatment. In lot 2, rabbits do were subjected to hormonal treatment based on subcutaneous injection of Gonaser®. In lot 3, rabbits do were subjected to the sex hormone plant (Synedrella nodiflora leaves) used as feed supplement. It appears that the highest litter size was recorded in lot 3 and lot 2 (P˂0.001) while the highest live weights at birth, at 35 days and at 56 days old were found in lot 1. The greatest average daily gain (32.1 g/day) was recorded in animals of lot 3 (P˂0.01). The fertility rate of lot 2 and lot 3 was respectively 90% and 95%, to 88% in the control lot (P˂0.001). Similarly, the highest kidding rates and the lowest stillborn rate and mortality rate from birth to weaning were recorded in the lots 2 and 3 (P˂0.001). The parturition interval was of 63 days in lot 1 to 45.72 in lot 2 and 45.74 in lot 3 (p<0.001). As found for Gonaser, the main effect of leaves of S. nodiflora is to increase litter size and to reduce kidding interval. Synedrella nodiflora leaves can therefore be used as Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin supplier in family rabbit breeding to improve reproductive parameters in rabbit does. [less ▲]

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See detailCooking Has Variable Effects on the Fermentability in the Large Intestine of the Fraction of Meats, Grain Legumes, and Insects That Is Resistant to Digestion in the Small Intestine in an in Vitro Model of the Pig’s Gastrointestinal Tract
POELAERT, Christine ULiege; Despret, Xavier; Sindic, Marianne ULiege et al

in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2017), 65

This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation in the large intestine of indigestible dietary protein sources from animal, insect, and plant origin using an in vitro model of the pig’s gastrointestinal ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation in the large intestine of indigestible dietary protein sources from animal, insect, and plant origin using an in vitro model of the pig’s gastrointestinal tract. Protein sources were used raw and after a cooking treatment. Results showed that the category of the ingredient (meats, insects, or grain legumes) exerts a stronger impact on enzymatic digestibility, fermentation patterns, and bacterial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) than the cooking treatment. The digestibility and the fermentation characteristics of insects were more affected by the cooking procedure than the other categories. Per gram of consumed food, ingredients from animal origin, namely, meats and insects, were associated with fewer fermentation end-products (gas, H2S, SCFA) than ingredients from plant origin, which is related to their higher small intestinal digestibility. [less ▲]

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See detailCHARACTERISTICS OF AFRICAN DWARF SHEEP REARING SYSTEMS USED IN THE NORTH AND SOUTH OF BENIN
Adjibode, G; Tougan, UP; Daouda, IH et al

in International Journal of Current Advanced Research (2016), 5(9), 1216-1225

The study aims to compare the rearing system characteristics of Djallonke sheepin the North and South of Benin. Data were collected on 133 sheep breeders in the North and 154 farms in the South of Benin ... [more ▼]

The study aims to compare the rearing system characteristics of Djallonke sheepin the North and South of Benin. Data were collected on 133 sheep breeders in the North and 154 farms in the South of Benin from September to November 2015. It comes out from the survey that the sheep breeders were predominantly a man (p <0.001). Fulani represent the more important ethnic group of shepherds in the North while in the South zone, Fon ethnic group predominate. The sheep owners of the two zones are married. The rate of nonschooled farmers is more important in the North (79.70%) than in the South (38.96%; p <0.001). Their main activity was essentially livestock breeding in the North region (63.91%) to agriculture (46.75%) in the South. The majority of farmers in the North (75.94%) and South (59.74%) raise the animals as savings (p <0.001). The sale and consumption constitute the main production goals (45.86% and 69.93%, respectively in the North and South; p <0.001). Animal feeds in both areas are provided by fodder, crop residues, and kitchen residues. Only a few farmers (26.62% - 29.32%) store some feeds for the dry season. Herd size is highest in the North than in the South (31.51 vs 17.67 heads; p <0.001). 69.17% of surveyed farms in the North have no habitat while 66.23% of the surveyed farms south have traditional shelters. The grazing time is longer in North than in south (7.92 vs 7.09 hours, p <0.001). The management of the farms are based on the owner or itfamily financing support with a predominance in the North (p. <0.001). Several species including poultry, goats and cattle were associated to the sheep rearing. The diversity of these systems of production must be taken into account for purposes of Djallonke sheep development. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of protein source and cooking procedure on intestinal microbiota and on fermentation end-products in rats
POELAERT, Christine ULiege; Despret, Xavier; Portetelle, Daniel ULiege et al

Poster (2016, June)

Animal and plant proteins are major proteins sources in the human diet. After their enzymatic degradation in the upper gastro-intestinal tract, the undigested fraction of these proteins is available for ... [more ▼]

Animal and plant proteins are major proteins sources in the human diet. After their enzymatic degradation in the upper gastro-intestinal tract, the undigested fraction of these proteins is available for fermentation by the microbiota of the large intestine leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), ammonia, biogenic amines, sulphur metabolites, phenols and indoles. As some of these compounds have genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, protein fermentation is considered as detrimental to the host’s epithelial health. BCFA are usually used as a marker of intestinal protein fermentation. We studied in vivo the impact of proteins from animal and plant origin, raw or after a cooking procedure, on the composition of gut microbiota and on fermentation end-products. Weanling rats were used as models of the human gut microbiota. Eight experimental diets were formulated with beef meat (Longissimus dorsi), chicken meat (Pectoralis major), white pea beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), soybeans (Glycine max), used raw and cooked, as sole source of protein in the diet. One casein diet was used as control. All diets, formulated to contain 15% of raw protein, were given to seven rats for four weeks. After euthanasia, caecal contents were collected. Pyrosequencing analyses (Roche 454 GS Junior Genome Sequencer) were performed to study the microbial composition. SCFA and BCFA were measured using HPLC (Waters 2690). Microbial composition in the caecum is associated to the type of dietary protein and to the cooking procedure applied. The proportion of BCFA in the caecal content is mainly affected by the type of protein. So BCFA represent respectively 04-06% and 35-44% of total SCFA with diets based on plant and on animal proteins. In conclusion, both the type of protein and the cooking procedure could impact the gut microbiota in terms of composition and of fermentative capacity. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of new potential prebiotics on Salmonella Thyphimurium in pigs
Tran, Thi Hanh Tham; Everaert, Nadia ULiege; Boudry, Christelle ULiege et al

Conference (2016, April 15)

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See detailVariation in Testicular Morphometric Traits in Djallonke Sheep of North and South Ecotypes of Benin and their Relationships with Body Weight and Characteristics
Adjibode, AG; Koutinhouin, GB; Tougan, UP et al

in Journal of Veterinary Advances (2016), 6(10), 1338-1349

The study aims to determine the variability of testicular morphometric traits in Djallonke sheep reared under traditional system in Benin according to the ecotype and their relationships with their body ... [more ▼]

The study aims to determine the variability of testicular morphometric traits in Djallonke sheep reared under traditional system in Benin according to the ecotype and their relationships with their body traits. Data were collected from November 2014 to December 2015 on 21 rams of North ecotype and 24 rams of South ecotype of 12 months old. It appears that chest circumference, back width, pelvis length, paired testes weight, testes length, testes diameter, testes volume, testes density, paired epididymal weight, epididymal length, epididymal volume, and the epididymal density depend on ecotype (P˂0.05). The highest chest circumference (69.24 vs 73.29 cm), back width (15.78 vs 14 cm) and pelvis length (23.03 vs 16.8 cm) were recorded in the animals of North ecotype (P˂0.05). similarly, the highest values (P˂0.05) of paired testes weight, testes length, testes diameter, testes volume, testes density, paired epididymal weight, epididymal length, epididymal volume, and the epididymal density were found in rams of North ecotype (respectively of 300.86g, 6.91 cm, 4.82cm, 146.14 ml, 1.02 g/cm3, 27.8 g and 20.1 cm). However, the head length, whither’s height, scapulo-ischium length, scrotal length, scrotal circumference, epididymal volume and the epididymal density were similar among ecotypes and was respectively on average 18.21 cm; 54.64 cm; 60.61 cm; 14.09 cm; 22.17cm; 15.35ml and 0.87g/cm3. In sheep of South ecotype, the live weight was strongly and positively associated with scrotal length, scrotal circumference, paired testes weight, testes length, testes diameter, testes volume, paired epididymal weight, epididymal length and epididymal volume (0.80≤ r ≤0.90; P<0.001); while in sheep of North ecotype, the live weight was proportional to scrotal circumference, paired testes weight, testes length, testes diameter, testes volume, paired epididymal weight, epididymal length and epididymal volume (0.87≤ r ≤0.99; P<0.001). Therefore, improve live weigth will improve the gonads traits as a correlated response. [less ▲]

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See detailAdding mucins to an in vitro batch fermentation model of the large intestine induces changes in microbial population isolated from porcine feces depending on the substrate
Tran, Thi Hanh Tham ULiege; Boudry, Christelle ULiege; Everaert, Nadia ULiege et al

in FEMS Microbiology Ecology (2016), 92(2), 13

Adding mucus to in vitro fermentation models of the large intestine showed that some genera, namely lactobacilli, are dependent on host-microbiota interactions and that they rely on mucosa layers to ... [more ▼]

Adding mucus to in vitro fermentation models of the large intestine showed that some genera, namely lactobacilli, are dependent on host-microbiota interactions and that they rely on mucosa layers to increase their activity. This study investigates whether this dependence on mucus is substrate-dependent and to which extend other genera are impacted by the presence of mucus. Inulin and cellulose were fermented in vitro by a fecal inoculum from pig in the presence or not of mucin-beads in order to compare fermentation patterns and bacterial communities. Mucins increased final gas production with inulin and shifted short-chain fatty acids molar ratios (P<0.001). QPCR analyses revealed that Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. decreased with mucins, but Bacteroides spp. increased when inulin was fermented. A more in-depth community analysis indicated that the mucins increased Proteobacteria (0.55 vs. 0.25 %, P=0.013), Verrucomicrobia (5.25 vs. 0.03 %, P=0.032), Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Akkermansia spp.. Proteobacteria (5.67 vs. 0.55 %, P<0.001) and Lachnospiraceae (33 vs. 10.4 %) were promoted in the mucuscompared to the broth, while Ruminococcaceae decreased. The introduction of mucins affected many microbial genera and fermentation patterns, but from PCA results, the impact of mucus was independent from the fermentation substrate. [less ▲]

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See detailCommercial farming of Leiolepis guttata in Binh Thuan province, Vietnam: implications for conservation and management
Rochette, Anne-Julie; Tran, Tinh ULiege; De Martynoff, Abigail et al

in Herpetological Conservation and Biology (2015), 10(1),

Since the first Indochinese war, natural populations of Leiolepis guttata have been hunted for their meat in southeastern Vietnam as a subsistence meal; nowadays, it has become a luxury delicacy ... [more ▼]

Since the first Indochinese war, natural populations of Leiolepis guttata have been hunted for their meat in southeastern Vietnam as a subsistence meal; nowadays, it has become a luxury delicacy. Commercial farms have become established since 2004 because of wild population declines and increasing demand for meat. We interviewed farmers and restaurateurs about the breeding and trade of the species to better understand the impact on wild populations. The results highlight the recent flourishing expansion of farming with rapidly increasing product prices and number of farms, as well as the ease and profitability of this activity. Wild population declines are widely acknowledged by authorities and local communities. Farms are being regarded as conservation pools to offset wild stock depletion, in addition to an important source of income. We discuss the risks associated with this trade development and we emphasize the conservation implications. Demand for lizards as founders for farms and for meat are likely to increase further, but risks exist that the development of new farms would saturate the market causing prices to ultimately fall. Habitat destruction and over-collecting severely reduce wild populations, but the high densities of farmed lizards raise serious genetic and sanitary issues. We suggest that further information should be collected to assess the sustainability of this trade. Priority should be given to the assessment of natural population densities and hunting effort. Biological patterns of this species are poorly documented and sound knowledge would enable better management of farms, and if this species is recognized as endangered could lead restrictions on harvesting of wild populations. [less ▲]

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See detailNghiên cứu và thiết kế hai kiểu chuồng nuôi nhông cát Leiolepis guttata (Cuvier, 1829) phù hợp với điều kiện nuôi và vốn đầu tư tại huyện Bắc Bình, tỉnh Bình Thuận
Tran, Tinh ULiege; Tran, Ngoc Nguyen Kim Dieu; Vo, Kim Thong et al

in Journal of Agriculture Sciences and Technology (2015), 1/2014

Building of an enclosure for rearing of the spotted butterfly lizard, Leiolepis guttata (Cuvier, 1829), by the first farmer in 2004 (in Hong Chinh commune, Hoa Thang ward, Bac Binh district, Binh Thuan ... [more ▼]

Building of an enclosure for rearing of the spotted butterfly lizard, Leiolepis guttata (Cuvier, 1829), by the first farmer in 2004 (in Hong Chinh commune, Hoa Thang ward, Bac Binh district, Binh Thuan province) is considered as a fortuitous discovery which was the initiator of the current expanding trend of its rearing. Because L. guttata is a wild animal, with strong disease resistance and adaptation capacity, livestock farmers are presently not very interested in important aspects: rearing techniques, enclosure’s types, sex ratio, diseases’ prevention, etc. Notably the building of enclosures not perfectly suitable breeds a noticeable loss of the number of lizards and a reduction in the profits for the farmers. To this end, the building of two types of enclosures adapted to local rearing conditions and the investing capital available in Bac Binh district, Binh Thuan province is presently essential. We descrite two types of enclosure: the first one surrounded by a bricks (or breeze blocks) wall, the second one fended by a fiber cement corrugated sheets wall. Moreover, we suggest to introduce plants in order to build a vegetal cover nearer to the natural environment of L. guttata: shrubs and a plant carpet becoming the preferential refuge area of the spotted butterfly lizard. [less ▲]

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See detailDigestibilité et fermentation intestinale de deux sources de protéines animales, soumises ou non à un traitement thermique, chez le rat en croissance
POELAERT, Christine ULiege; Despret, Xavier; Thewis, André ULiege et al

in Nutrition Clinique et Metabolisme (2014, December), 28(Supplement 1), 176-177

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See detailNutritive value of tropical forage plants fed to pigs in the Western provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULiege; Picron, Pascale ULiege; Boudry, Christelle ULiege et al

in Animal Feed Science and Technology (2014), 191

The nutritive value of 20 forage plants commonly used for feeding pigs in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was studied to determine chemical composition, protein amino acid profiles, mineral content ... [more ▼]

The nutritive value of 20 forage plants commonly used for feeding pigs in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was studied to determine chemical composition, protein amino acid profiles, mineral content, and in vitro digestibility using a two-step method combining an enzymatic pepsin and pancreatin hydrolysis followed by a 72 h gas-test fermentation. The highest protein contents (270–320 g/kg DM) were obtained for Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Leucaena leucocephala, Manihot esculenta, and Moringa oleifera. Grasses, Acacia mangium, and Eichhornia crassipes, showed the lowest crude protein (CP) and highest NDF contents. Cajanus cajan and Trypsacum andersonii had the most balanced amino acid profile, being deficient in lysine and slightly deficient in histidine, while Megathyrsus maximus displayed the highest number of essential amino acids deficiencies. High mineral contents were obtained from, in ascending order, with M. oleifera, V. unguiculata, E. crassipes, Ipomea batatas and Amaranthus hybridus. In vitro dry matter digestibility ranged from 0.25 to 0.52, in vitro CP digestibility from 0.23 to 0.80, in vitro energy digestibility from 0.23 to 0.52. M. esculenta, M. oleifera, I. batatas, Mucuna pruriens, V. unguiculata, P. scandens and A. hybridus showed high digestibilities for all nutrients. Gas production during fermentation of the pepsin and pancreatin-indigestible fraction of the plants varied from 42 ml/g DM for A. mangium to 202 ml/g DM for I. batatas (P<0.001). Short-chain fatty acid production during fermentation varied from 157 to 405 mg/g of the pepsin and pancreatin indigestible fraction. It is concluded that some of these species are interesting sources of proteins and minerals with a good digestibility that might be used more economically than concentrate, especially in smallholder production systems, to improve pig feeding, mineral intake and intestinal health in pigs reared in the tropics. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of three 15N methods to correct for microbial contamination when assessing in situ protein degradability of fresh forages
Kamoun, M.; Ammar, H.; Thewis, André ULiege et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2014), 92(11), 5053-5062

The use of stable15N as a marker to determine microbial contamination in nylon bag incubation residues to estimate protein degradability was investigated. Three methods using15N were compared:15N-labeled ... [more ▼]

The use of stable15N as a marker to determine microbial contamination in nylon bag incubation residues to estimate protein degradability was investigated. Three methods using15N were compared:15N-labeled forage (dilution method, LF),15N enrichment of rumen solids-associated bacteria (SAB), and 15N enrichment of rumen liquid-associated bacteria (LAB). Herbage from forages differing in protein and fiber contents (early-cut Italian ryegrass, late-cut Italian ryegrass, and red clover) were freeze-dried and ground and then incubated in situ in the rumen of 3 steers for 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h using the nylon bag technique. The15N-labeled forages were obtained by fertilizing the plots where herbage was grown with15NH4 15NO3. Unlabeled forages (obtained from plots fertilized with NH4NO3) were incubated at the same time that (15NH4)2SO4 was continuously infused into the rumen of the steers, and then pellets of labeled SAB and LAB were isolated by differential centrifugation of samples of ruminal contents. The proportion of bacterial N in the incubation residues increased from 0.09 and 0.45 g bacterial N/g total N at 3 h of incubation to 0.37 and 0.85 g bacterial N/g total N at 48 h of incubation for early-cut and late-cut ryegrass, respectively. There were differences (P < 0.001) between uncorrected N degradability values and those corrected for microbial contamination with all of the methods. Apparent N degradability of the low-N, high-fiber forage (latecut ryegrass) was 0.51, whereas the corrected values were 0.85, 0.84, and 0.77 for the LF, SAB, and LAB methods, respectively. With early-cut ryegrass and red clover, the differences between uncorrected and corrected values ranged between 6% and 13%, with small differences among the labeling methods. Generally, methods using labeled forage or labeled SAB and LAB provided similar corrected degradability values. The accuracy in estimating the extent of degradation of protein in the rumen from in situ disappearance curves is improved when values are corrected for microbial contamination of the bag residue. [less ▲]

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See detailSmallholder pig production systems along a periurban-rural gradient in the Western provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULiege; Picron, Pascale ULiege; Boudry, Christelle ULiege et al

in Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (2014), 115

In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), pigs are raised almost exclusively by smallholders either in periurban areas of major cities such as Kinshasa or in rural villages. Unfortunately, little ... [more ▼]

In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), pigs are raised almost exclusively by smallholders either in periurban areas of major cities such as Kinshasa or in rural villages. Unfortunately, little information is available regarding pig production in the Western part of the DRC, wherefore a survey was carried out to characterize and compare 319 pig production systems in their management and feeding strategies, along a periurban - rural gradient in Western provinces of the DRC. Pig breeding was the main source of income (43 %) and half of respondent were active in mixed pig and crop production, mainly vegetable garden. Depending on the location, smallholders owned on average 18 pigs, including four sows. Piglet mortality rate varied from 9.5 to 21.8% while average weaned age ranged between 2.2 and 2.8 months. The major causes of mortality reported by the farmers were African swine fever 98%, Swine erysipelas (60%), erysipelas trypanosomiasis (31 %), Swine worm infection (17 %), and diarrhoea (12 %). The majority of the pigs were reared in pens without free roaming and fed essentially with locally available by-products and forage plants whose nature varied according with the location of the farm. The pig production systems depended on the local environment; particularly in terms of workforces, herd structure and characteristics, production parameters, pig building materials, selling price and in feed resources. It can be concluded that an improvement of Congolese pig production systems should consider (1) a reduction of inbreeding, (2) an improvement in biosafety to reduce the incidence of African swine fever and the spread of other diseases, and (3) an improvement in feeding practices. [less ▲]

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See detailLeiolepis guttata (Cuvier, 1829): from the wild to the captive breeding; ethology, ecology and its functional role in ecosystems
Malaisse, François ULiege; Tran, Tinh ULiege; Rochette, Anne-Julie et al

in Kiernan, Mindy (Ed.) Lizards: Thermal Ecology, Genetic Diversity and Functional Role in Ecosystems (2014)

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