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See detailDecreased renal accumulation of aminoglycoside reflects defective receptor-mediated endocytosis in cystic fibrosis and Dent's disease.
Raggi, Claudia; Fujiwara, Kunio; Leal, Teresinha et al

in Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology (2011), 462(6), 851-60

The clinical use of aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotics is limited by their renal toxicity, which is caused by drug accumulation in proximal tubule (PT) cells. Clinical studies reported that renal clearance ... [more ▼]

The clinical use of aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotics is limited by their renal toxicity, which is caused by drug accumulation in proximal tubule (PT) cells. Clinical studies reported that renal clearance of AG is enhanced in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, which might reflect the role of CFTR in PT cell endocytosis. In order to assess the role of chloride transporters on the renal handling of AG, we investigated gentamicin uptake and renal accumulation in mice lacking functional CFTR (Cftr ( F/F)) or knock-out for the Cl(-)/H(+) exchanger ClC-5 (Clcn5 ( Y/- )). The latter represent a paradigm of PT dysfunction and defective receptor-mediated endocytosis. As compared with controls, Cftr ( F/F) and Clcn5 ( Y/- ) mice showed a 15% to 85% decrease in gentamicin accumulation in the kidney, respectively, in absence of renal failure. Studies on primary cultures of Cftr ( F/F) and Clcn5 ( Y/- ) mouse PT cells confirmed the reduction in gentamicin uptake, although colocalization with endosomes and lysosomes was maintained. Quantification of endocytosis in PT cells revealed that gentamicin, similar to albumin, preferentially binds to megalin. The functional loss of ClC-5 or CFTR was reflected by a decrease of the endocytic uptake of gentamicin, with a more pronounced effect in cells lacking ClC-5. These results support the concept that CFTR, as well as ClC-5, plays a relevant role in PT cell endocytosis. They also demonstrate that the functional loss of these two chloride transporters is associated with impaired uptake of AG in PT cells, reflected by a decreased renal accumulation of the drug. [less ▲]

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See detailCLC-5 and KIF3B interact to facilitate CLC-5 plasma membrane expression, endocytosis, and microtubular transport: relevance to pathophysiology of Dent's disease.
Reed, Anita A. C.; Loh, Nellie Y.; Terryn, Sara et al

in American Journal of Physiology. Renal, Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology (2010), 298(2), 365-80

Renal tubular reabsorption is important for extracellular fluid homeostasis and much of this occurs via the receptor-mediated endocytic pathway. This pathway is disrupted in Dent's disease, an X-linked ... [more ▼]

Renal tubular reabsorption is important for extracellular fluid homeostasis and much of this occurs via the receptor-mediated endocytic pathway. This pathway is disrupted in Dent's disease, an X-linked renal tubular disorder that is characterized by low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis, and renal failure. Dent's disease is due to mutations of CLC-5, a chloride/proton antiporter, expressed in endosomes and apical membranes of renal tubules. Loss of CLC-5 function alters receptor-mediated endocytosis and trafficking of megalin and cubilin, although the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that CLC-5 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B), a heterotrimeric motor protein that facilitates fast anterograde translocation of membranous organelles. Using yeast two-hybrid, glutathione-S-transferase pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation assays, the COOH terminus of CLC-5 and the coiled-coil and globular domains of KIF3B were shown to interact. This was confirmed in vivo by endogenous coimmunoprecipitation of CLC-5 and KIF3B and codistribution with endosomal markers in mouse kidney fractions. Confocal live cell imaging in kidney cells further demonstrated association of CLC-5 and KIF3B, and transport of CLC-5-containing vesicles along KIF3B microtubules. KIF3B overexpression and underexpression, using siRNA, had reciprocal effects on whole cell chloride current amplitudes, CLC-5 cell surface expression, and endocytosis of albumin and transferrin. Clcn5(Y/-) mouse kidneys and isolated proximal tubular polarized cells showed increased KIF3B expression, whose effects on albumin endocytosis were dependent on CLC-5 expression. Thus, the CLC-5 and KIF3B interaction is important for CLC-5 plasma membrane expression and for facilitating endocytosis and microtubular transport in the kidney. [less ▲]

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See detailCystic fibrosis is associated with a defect in apical receptor-mediated endocytosis in mouse and human kidney.
JOURET, François ULiege; Bernard, Alfred; Hermans, Cedric et al

in Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (2007), 18(3), 707-18

Inactivation of the chloride channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) causes cystic fibrosis (CF). Although CFTR is expressed in the kidney, no overwhelming renal phenotype has ... [more ▼]

Inactivation of the chloride channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) causes cystic fibrosis (CF). Although CFTR is expressed in the kidney, no overwhelming renal phenotype has been documented in patients with CF. This study investigated the expression, subcellular distribution, and processing of CFTR in the kidney; used various mouse models to assess the role of CFTR in proximal tubule (PT) endocytosis; and tested the relevance of these findings in patients with CF. The level of CFTR mRNA in mouse kidney approached that found in lung. CFTR was located in the apical area of PT cells, with a maximal intensity in the straight part (S3) of the PT. Fractionation showed that CFTR co-distributed with the chloride/proton exchanger ClC-5 in PT endosomes. Cftr(-/-) mice showed impaired (125)I-beta(2)-microglobulin uptake, together with a decreased amount of the multiligand receptor cubilin in the S3 segment and a significant loss of cubilin and its low molecular weight (LMW) ligands into the urine. Defective receptor-mediated endocytosis was found less consistently in Cftr(DeltaF/DeltaF) mice, characterized by a large phenotypic heterogeneity and moderate versus mice that lacked ClC-5. A significant LMW proteinuria (and particularly transferrinuria) also was documented in a cohort of patients with CF but not in patients with asthma and chronic lung inflammation. In conclusion, CFTR inactivation leads to a moderate defect in receptor-mediated PT endocytosis, associated with a cubilin defect and a significant LMW proteinuria in mouse and human. The magnitude of the endocytosis defect that is caused by CFTR versus ClC-5 loss likely reflects functional heterogeneity along the PT. [less ▲]

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See detailA primary culture of mouse proximal tubular cells, established on collagen-coated membranes.
Terryn, Sara; JOURET, François ULiege; Vandenabeele, Frank et al

in American Journal of Physiology. Renal, Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology (2007), 293(2), 476-85

A simple method is described to establish primary cultures of kidney proximal tubule cells (PTC) on membranes. The permeable membranes represent a unique culture surface, allowing a high degree of ... [more ▼]

A simple method is described to establish primary cultures of kidney proximal tubule cells (PTC) on membranes. The permeable membranes represent a unique culture surface, allowing a high degree of differentiation since both apical and basolateral membranes are accessible for medium. Proximal tubule (PT) segments from collagenase-digested mouse renal cortices were grown for 7 days, by which time cells were organized as a confluent monolayer. Electron microscopic evaluation revealed structurally polarized epithelial cells with numerous microvilli, basolateral invaginations, and apical tight junctions. Immunoblotting for markers of distinct parts of the nephron demonstrated that these primary cultures only expressed PT-specific proteins. Moreover immunodetection of distinct components of the receptor-mediated endocytic pathway and uptake of FITC-albumin indicated that these cells expressed a functional endocytotic apparatus. In addition, primary cultures possessed the PT brush-border enzymes, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl-transferase, and a phloridzin-sensitive sodium-dependent glucose transport at their apical side. Electrophysiological measurements show that the primary cultured cells have a low transepithelial resistance and high short-circuit current that was completely carried by Na(+) similar to a leaky epithelium like proximal tubule cells. This novel method established well-differentiated PTC cultures. [less ▲]

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