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See detailUsing Organigraphs to Map Disaster Risk Management Governance in the Field of Cultural Heritage
Durrant, Louis ULiege; Vadher, Atish; Mirza, Sarač et al

in Sustainability (2022), 14(2),

Global cultural heritage is threatened by the increasing frequency and severity of natural disasters caused by climate change. International experts emphasise the importance of managing cultural heritage ... [more ▼]

Global cultural heritage is threatened by the increasing frequency and severity of natural disasters caused by climate change. International experts emphasise the importance of managing cultural heritage sustainably as part of a paradigm shift in cultural heritage perception, understanding, and management. This paradigm shift has stimulated a need to integrate cultural heritage into pre-existing disaster risk management governance. However, there is currently a lack of robust and practical approaches to map the complex nature of disaster risk management governance. It is here considered that a shared understanding of the respective roles and responsibilities of the different organisations involved in risk management is a critical element in improving the preparedness of cultural heritage sites. The purpose of this article is to present the utility of the Organigraph technique and its main components as a tool to map governance structures, identify key stakeholders, and integrate cultural heritage experts into wider disaster risk management. The article presents a semi-empirical research approach, consisting of four iterative phases in which a series of digital workshops, semi-structured meetings, and bilateral expert meetings were used to co-produce five Organigraphs for heritage sites participating in an ongoing European Project. Our findings suggest that Organigraphs provide a valuable tool at the disposal of practitioners and academics with the potential to provide a basis for cross-national, cross-issue, and cross-scale peer learning between heritage sites. Furthermore, the technique is a valuable self-diagnostic tool to facilitate learning and proactive discussions in the preparedness phase of disaster risk management. Finally, they facilitate the co-creation of solutions through an evolving, interactive platform to integrate data-driven approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailOntologies of live-work mix in Amsterdam, Brussels and Stockholm: an institutionalist approach drawing on path dependency
Uyttebrouck, Constance ULiege; De Decker, Pascal; Teller, Jacques ULiege

in European Planning Studies (2021)

This paper examines the impact of institutional frameworks on ontologies of ‘live-work mix’, i.e., the renewed intertwining of residential and economic uses in urban developments. We aim to understand how ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the impact of institutional frameworks on ontologies of ‘live-work mix’, i.e., the renewed intertwining of residential and economic uses in urban developments. We aim to understand how local housing and planning regimes influence the nature of live-work mix by comparing three contrasting institutional frameworks (Amsterdam, Brussels, Stockholm), using an institutionalist approach to governance drawing on the concept of path dependency. We address two research questions: how have each city’s housing and planning regimes influenced current urban development strategies, and what ontologies of live-work mix do these regimes and strategies underlie. Based on a literature review, document analysis and exploratory interviews, we show that live-work goals are defined in instruments underpinned by different discourses and early planning directions, but in which housing supply is instrumental to economic growth. Market parties play an essential role in implementing these goals as a result of critical junctures and dependencies affecting the actors involved and their governance capacity. Overall, the local ontologies of live-work mix reflect broader city understandings and are either consistently oriented towards attractiveness or, on the contrary, overlapping between, sometimes, antagonistic agendas. Used sensitively, our analytical framework appears to be relevant to understanding the local mitigation of global developments. [less ▲]

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See detailUrban Integration of Green Roofs: Current Challenges and Perspectives
Joshi, Mitali Yeshwant ULiege; Teller, Jacques ULiege

in Sustainability (2021), 13(22), 33

Green roofs (GRs) are a sustainable alternative to conventional roofs that provide multiple ecosystem services. Integrating GRs into urban areas is highly relevant considering the rapidly increasing built ... [more ▼]

Green roofs (GRs) are a sustainable alternative to conventional roofs that provide multiple ecosystem services. Integrating GRs into urban areas is highly relevant considering the rapidly increasing built-up in cities. Therefore, this paper systematically and comprehensively reviews the recent literature from 2011 to 2019 on GRs to identify the challenges and perspectives related to the urban integration of GRs. The review suggests that the effectiveness of GRs in delivering ecosystem services is largely dependent on context-specific parameters such as weather conditions and existing construction or design-related parameters. Integrating GRs into urban areas can be challenging given the diversity of actors, functions, and conditions characterizing these areas. Although significant research has already been conducted on GRs, research covering more geographical locations and contexts is needed. The review points out the need to include future urbanization scenarios, such as tall buildings while analyzing the impact of GRs on ecological networks. Additionally, the review emphasizes the inclusion of urban morphological parameters alongside an analysis of the impact of GRs on microclimate regulation and air quality. In terms of social acceptance, this review points out the need to consider the temporal cycles of vegetation for noting users’ perspectives. Additionally, further research is required on the social impact of GRs, considering their influence on property prices. Lastly, the review stresses the need for more city-scale studies on the impact of GRs on ecosystem services. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Street Walkability and Thermal Comfort Index (SWTCI): A new assessment tool combining street design measurements and thermal comfort
Labdaoui, Kahina; Mazouz, Said; Moeinaddini, Mahdi et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2021)

In recent years, walkability is increasingly integrated into sustainability strategies, considering its many health and environmental benefits. Besides, thermal comfort also has been progressively ... [more ▼]

In recent years, walkability is increasingly integrated into sustainability strategies, considering its many health and environmental benefits. Besides, thermal comfort also has been progressively promoted as a critical measure for pedestrian comfort and wellbeing. Despite the relevance of the two concepts, few studies combined them in a comprehensive model. This study considers thermal comfort in assessing walkability by developing a new measurement tool, the Street Walkability and Thermal Comfort Index (SWTCI), which focuses on comfort facilities and Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), at the street scale. The applied point system method requires combining a questionnaire survey, observations, and in situ measurements (air temperature, wind velocity, and relative humidity). The questionnaire survey (330 responders) measured 21 street design indicators' importance, using a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (least important) to 5 (very important). The observation technique seeks to evaluate every pedestrian comfort indicator score (Sis). The in situ measurements permit Envi-met's calibrated data validation and getting the mean radian temperature (Tmrt). Those were considered in the PET's calculation using Rayman software. Three distinct streets have been chosen in Annaba city, Algeria, within the Mediterranean climate (Csa). The results show that the SWTCI achieves its highest score on the three streets when the thermal perception is neutral (20 < PET <26), and its lowest score, with a warm thermal sensation (28 < PET < 31). Despite the divergence in PET values, the highest score of SWTCI was 33%, reflecting a low comfort quality and minimal pedestrian facilities. Applying the SWTCI method can transform uncomfortable streets into an ideal walkable and pleasant path by finding the problems and proposing improvements. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes mosque location matter? Mosque and Islamic shops in the European context
El Boujjoufi, Mohamed ULiege; Mustafa, Ahmed; Teller, Jacques ULiege

in Journal of Islamic Marketing (2021)

Purpose: Mosques influence the surrounding neighborhoods' demographic patterns and motivate investors to establish new businesses and commercial activities. This study explores the impact of the mosque on ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Mosques influence the surrounding neighborhoods' demographic patterns and motivate investors to establish new businesses and commercial activities. This study explores the impact of the mosque on the emergence of new businesses. Furthermore, we examine the demography of neighborhoods in which mosques are located. Design/methodology/approach: This study opts for an exploratory study using a retrospective analysis approach to explore the mosque's impact on the social and functional aspects of neighborhoods. The emerging shops around mosques in the city of Liège (Belgium) are analyzed using a logistic regression model. The criterion for the location of Islamic shops was cross-referenced with other variables, such as distance from the center, proximity to supermarkets and shopping malls, distance from the mosque, socio-economic variables (immigration, income nationalities, etc.), and bus accessibility data. Several zones around mosques, ranging from 100 to 1000 meters, are established to examine the correlation between types of businesses and distance to the mosque. Five types of businesses are identified: regular trade, light semi-regular trade, heavy semi-regular trade, Horeca, and services. Islamic shops are identified based on on-site observations and interviews and classified by type. Findings: The results show that mosques significantly impact the establishment of new businesses in the surrounding urban space (especially Islamic shops). In terms of the types of Islamic businesses surrounding the mosques, we found a strong presence of "Horeca" (cafes, restaurants, and snack bars), and "Light semi-regular trade" (mainly personal care). [less ▲]

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See detailLandslide Susceptibility Mapping of Urban Areas: Logistic Regression and Sensitivity Analysis applied to Quito, Ecuador
Puente Sotomayor, Fernando Xavier ULiege; Mustafa, Ahmed; Teller, Jacques ULiege

in Geoenvironmental Disasters (2021), 8(19),

Although the Andean region is one of the most landslide-susceptible areas in the world, limited attention has been devoted to the topic in terms of research, risk reduction practice, and urban policy ... [more ▼]

Although the Andean region is one of the most landslide-susceptible areas in the world, limited attention has been devoted to the topic in terms of research, risk reduction practice, and urban policy. Based on the collection of early landslide data for the Andean city of Quito, Ecuador, this article aims to explore the predictive power of a binary logistic regression model (LOGIT) to test secondary data and an official multicriteria evaluation model for landslide susceptibility in this urban area. Cell size resampling scenarios were explored as a parameter, as the inclusion of new “urban” factors. Furthermore, two types of sensitivity analysis (SA), univariate and Monte Carlo methods, were applied to improve the calibration of the LOGIT model. A Kolmogorov–Smirnov (K-S) test was included to measure the classification power of the models. Charts of the three SA methods helped to visualize the sensitivity of factors in the models. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) was a common metric for validation in this research. Among the ten factors included in the model to help explain landslide susceptibility in the context of Quito, results showed that population and street/road density, as novel “urban factors”, have relevant predicting power for high landslide susceptibility in urban areas when adopting data standardization based on weights assigned by experts. The LOGIT was validated with an AUC of 0.79. Sensitivity analyses suggested that calibrations of the best-performance reference model would improve its AUC by up to 0.53%. Further experimentation regarding other methods of data pre-processing and a finer level of disaggregation of input data are suggested. In terms of policy design, the LOGIT model coefficient values suggest the need for deep analysis of the impacts of urban features, such as population, road density, building footprint, and floor area, at a household scale, on the generation of landslide susceptibility in Andean cities such as Quito. This would help improve the zoning for landslide risk reduction, considering the safety, social and economic impacts that this practice may produce. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of MCMC-Based Travel Simulation Framework Using Mobile Phone Data
Gong, Suxia ULiege; Saadi, Ismaïl ULiege; Teller, Jacques ULiege et al

in Frontiers in Future Transportation (2021), 2

An essential step in agent-based travel demand models is the characterization of the population, including transport-related attributes. This study looks deep into various mobility data in the province of ... [more ▼]

An essential step in agent-based travel demand models is the characterization of the population, including transport-related attributes. This study looks deep into various mobility data in the province of Liège, Belgium. Based on the data stemming from the 2010 Belgian HTS, that is, BELDAM, a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling method combined with a cross-validation process is used to generate sociodemographic attributes and trip-based variables. Besides, representative micro-samples are calibrated using data about the population structure. As a critical part of travel demand modeling for practical applications in the real-world context, validation using various data sources can contribute to the modeling framework in different ways. The innovation in this study lies in the comparison of outputs of MCMC with mobile phone data. The difference between modeled and observed trip length distributions is studied to validate the simulation framework. The proposed framework infers trips with multiple attributes while preserving the traveler’s sociodemographics. We show that the framework effectively captures the behavioral complexity of travel choices. Moreover, we demonstrate mobile phone data’s potential to contribute to the reliability of travel demand models. [less ▲]

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See detailTemporal and Spatial Variation in Domestic Water Consumption: The Case of Wallonia, Belgium
Nguyen, Bich Ngoc ULiege; Teller, Jacques ULiege

Poster (2021, May)

Understanding factors influencing water consumption is vital for water utilities and policymakers to predict future demand accurately. Using Wallonia as a case study, mixed effect models were developed ... [more ▼]

Understanding factors influencing water consumption is vital for water utilities and policymakers to predict future demand accurately. Using Wallonia as a case study, mixed effect models were developed and validated to study the temporal and spatial variation in residential water consumption. Results confirmed the importance of household size, income, alternative sources of water, and dwelling characteristics (such as living area and garden) in explaining residential water demand. Additionally, an annual constant drop of 1.5% was observed for household water consumption from 2009 to 2018 in Wallonia. After controlling for these key factors, the location of the household still possesses a marginal, though significant, effect on water consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential of green roofs in the East bank of Liege, Belgium
Joshi, Mitali Yeshwant ULiege; Rohon, Simon; Nys, Gilles-Antoine ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2021, March 30)

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See detailQuantification of the Outdoor Thermal Comfort within Different Oases Urban Fabrics
Matallah, Mohamed Elhadi ULiege; Djamel, Alkama; Teller, Jacques ULiege et al

in Sustainability (2021), 13(3051),

Oases settlements are common entities of human agglomerations throughout desert regions. Oases settlements face several environmental challenges such as climate change, which can render them insufferably ... [more ▼]

Oases settlements are common entities of human agglomerations throughout desert regions. Oases settlements face several environmental challenges such as climate change, which can render them insufferably hot and unlivable within decades. Therefore, this study aims to assess the outdoor thermal comfort variation within three different oases urban fabrics of Tolga Oases Complex in Algeria. The overarching aim is to quantify thermal comfort and guide landscape, and urban designers improve outdoor thermal comfort. The methodology relies on microclimatic measurements and weather datasets (TMY2, TMY3, TMYx), combining observations and numerical simulations. A total of 648 Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) values were calculated in three different urban fabrics in Tolga Oases Complex, Algeria. Between 2003 and 2017, a remarkable microclimatic change was found, causing a high and accelerated heat stress level of 76%. The study results inform architects, urban planners, and climatologists about climate change effects and urban sprawl impact on the oases lands. Moreover, urban strategies should seek mitigation and adaptation benefiting from the existing green infrastructure of palm groves. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulating urban densification: what factors should be used?
Teller, Jacques ULiege

in Buildings & Cities (2021), 2(1), 302317

Urban densification is increasingly accepted as a necessity and is important for no-net land take. Densification occurs in many places, especially fast-growing cities with a combination of demographic ... [more ▼]

Urban densification is increasingly accepted as a necessity and is important for no-net land take. Densification occurs in many places, especially fast-growing cities with a combination of demographic change, economic pressure and large transport infrastructure projects. The costs and benefits of density require a nuanced understanding: potential direct, indirect and cumulative effects (environmental, economic and social), both on- and off-site. The optimisation of densities implies a need to identify the conditions that can create the most value for the city, specify the places most appropriate for future inhabitants and activities, and promote spatial justice. The papers published in this special issue converge in depicting urban densification as a complex, nonlinear process, which has to be addressed at various scales. Multifactorial metrics of density are superior to aggregated ones because they offer a better understanding of the urban forms and how they are experienced by inhabitants and users. Both hard and soft densification have to be duly monitored and regulated if cities are to avoid overcrowding of places and buildings, which can be detrimental to urban resilience. The relation between urban densification and housing affordability is a critical factor that policymakers must address. [less ▲]

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See detailThe governance of live-work mix: actors and instruments in Amsterdam and Brussels development projects
Uyttebrouck, Constance ULiege; Remøy, Hilde; Teller, Jacques ULiege

in Cities (2021), 113(June 2021), 11

This paper addresses the governance of the ‘live-work mix’. This concept refers to the renewed intertwining of living and working activities in new housing and urban development in the context of welfare ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the governance of the ‘live-work mix’. This concept refers to the renewed intertwining of living and working activities in new housing and urban development in the context of welfare state restructuring, development of the knowledge economy and globalisation. Implementing live-work goals can be difficult because a consensus between public and private actors is usually needed to develop such projects. In this paper, we examine the actors and instruments that assist in the implementation of live-work goals in targeted areas. We survey live-work development by analysing three illustrative projects in Brussels and Amsterdam, cities with comparable strategies but distinct planning systems. Our results indicate that state support is essential to enhance live-work mix, especially because the market remains reluctant to mix functions and focuses primarily on housing development. Flexible and tailor-made instruments are used, sometimes co-authored by public and private actors, to reach consensus. These instruments illustrate variants of strategic planning. Despite a shared interest in attracting target groups to redevelopment areas, the consensus-building process is affected by discrepancies in the nature of live-work mix. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental Inequalities in Flood Exposure: A Matter of Scale
Poussard, Clémence; Dewals, Benjamin ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege et al

in Frontiers in Water (2021), 3(633046), 1-14

Studies on inequalities in exposure to flood risk have explored whether population of a lower socio-economic status are more exposed to flood hazard. While evidence exist for coastal flooding, little is ... [more ▼]

Studies on inequalities in exposure to flood risk have explored whether population of a lower socio-economic status are more exposed to flood hazard. While evidence exist for coastal flooding, little is known on inequalities for riverine floods. This paper addresses two issues: (1) is the weakest population, in socio-economic terms, more exposed to flood hazard, considering different levels of exposure to hazard? (2) Is the exposure to flood risk homogeneous across the territory, considering different scales of analysis? An analysis of the exposure of inhabitants of Liège province to flood risk was conducted at different scales (province, districts, and municipalities), considering three levels of exposure to flood hazard (level 1- low hazard, level 3- high hazard), and five socio-economic classes (class 1-poorest, class 5-wealthiest households). Our analysis confirms that weaker populations (classes 2 and 3) are usually more exposed to flood hazards than the wealthiest (classes 4 and 5). Still it should be stressed that the most precarious households (class 1) are less exposed than low to medium-range ones (classes 2 and 3). Further on the relation between socio-economic status and exposure to flood hazard varies along the spatial scale considered. At the district level, it appears that classes 4 and 5 are most exposed to flood risk in some peripheral areas. In municipalities located around the center of the city, differences of exposure to risk are not significant. [less ▲]

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See detailBénéfices rendus par les arbres de la ville de Liège
Selmi, Wissal ULiege; Teller, Jacques ULiege

Report (2021)

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See detailUrbanization and Floods in Sub-Saharan Africa: Spatiotemporal Study and Analysis of Vulnerability Factors—Case of Antananarivo Agglomeration (Madagascar)
Ramiaramanana, Fenosoa Nantenaina ULiege; Teller, Jacques ULiege

in Water (2021), 13(149),

Flooding is currently one of the major threats to cities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The demographic change caused by the high rate of natural increase, combined with the migration toward cities, leads ... [more ▼]

Flooding is currently one of the major threats to cities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The demographic change caused by the high rate of natural increase, combined with the migration toward cities, leads to a strong demand for housing and promotes urbanization. Given the insufficiency or absence of adequate planning, many constructions are installed in flood-prone zones, often without adequate infrastructure, especially drainage systems. This makes them very vulnerable. Our research consists of carrying out a spatiotemporal analysis of the agglomeration of Antananarivo (Madagascar). It shows that urbanization leads to increased exposure of populations and constructions to floods. There is a pressure on land in flood-prone zones due to the exponential growth of the population at the agglomeration level. Some 32% of the population of the Antananarivo agglomeration lived in flood-prone zones in 2018. An analysis of the evolution of built spaces from 1953 to 2017 highlights that urban expansion was intense over those years (6.1% yearly increase of built areas). This expansion triggered the construction of built areas in flood-prone zones, which evolved from 399 ha in 1953 to 3675 ha in 2017. In 2017, 23% of the buildings in the agglomeration, i.e., almost one out of every four buildings, were in flood-prone zones. A share of the urban expansion in flood-prone zones is related to informal developments that gather highly vulnerable groups with very little in terms of economic resources. Better integration of flood risk management in spatial planning policies thus appears to be an essential step to guide decisions so as to coordinate the development of urban areas and drainage networks in a sustainable way, considering the vulnerability of the population living in the most exposed areas. [less ▲]

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See detailLa tragédie d'un commun urbain : le cas des petits opérateurs privés de services d'eau à Cochabamba
Cabrera, Juan Edson ULiege; Teller, Jacques ULiege

in Flux: Cahiers Scientifiques Internationaux Réseaux et Territoires (2021), 2021/2-3(124-125), 59-76

Notre étude est centrée sur l’autogestion de l’eau par les communautés locales de Cochabamba (Bolivie). Nous nous intéressons plus spécifiquement aux effets sur le territoire et la société de la ... [more ▼]

Notre étude est centrée sur l’autogestion de l’eau par les communautés locales de Cochabamba (Bolivie). Nous nous intéressons plus spécifiquement aux effets sur le territoire et la société de la production de l’eau par un foisonnement de petits opérateurs privés agissant dans un cadre non coordonné, sans concertation avec les opérateurs publics. Les résultats de notre étude ne remettent pas en question la valeur de l’eau en tant que bien commun. Ils questionnent comment la création de synergies dans la logique d’une gestion communautaire de l’eau peut être pénalisée par des logiques d’auto-production mal ou non encadrées. Nous mettons en évidence la nécessité d’une gestion partagée de l’eau entre opérateurs communautaires et administrations publiques, considérant, à la suite d’Ostrom, qu’une collaboration entre ces deux types d’acteurs est indispensable pour assurer une forme d’exploitation collective et durable de la ressource. Nous mettons par ailleurs en évidence les processus de fragmentation urbaine, les conflits entre acteurs et l’exploitation non durable de l’eau liés à la prolifération de petits opérateurs locaux. [less ▲]

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See detailThermal perception in outdoor urban spaces under the Mediterranean climate of Annaba, Algeria
Labdaoui, Kahima; Mazouz, Said; Reiter, Sigrid ULiege et al

in Urban Climate (2021), 39

Many studies were investigated to grade outdoor thermal comfort and related thermal sensation during the past years. This study aims to explore thermal comfort conditions and thermal sensation in the hot ... [more ▼]

Many studies were investigated to grade outdoor thermal comfort and related thermal sensation during the past years. This study aims to explore thermal comfort conditions and thermal sensation in the hot Mediterranean climate (Csa), which annually includes 1100-1700 cooling degree days and 1200-1800 heating degree days (CDD=1100-1700, HDD=1200-1800). This research tested the human thermal sensation by applying the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) index. A field survey of 1230 interviewees was conducted in Annaba, Algeria, in four outdoor environments having the same morphology and different green cover. The scientific method involved combining two software. Envi-met was used to calibrate microclimatic data (air temperature, wind velocity, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature); in comparison, RayMan used to calculate PET. The results showed the neutral sensation range for this Mediterranean climate varies between 20 °C and 26°C. The highest scores of neutral thermal sensation were recorded in spaces with vegetation cover, which involves the trees cooling effect in enhancing thermal comfort, especially during the hot hours of the day. The air temperature divergence reached 4°C and 3°C for Tmrt at noon, considered the day's hottest hour. The findings also highlight the existence of a thermal adaptation in outdoor spaces having a green cover. [less ▲]

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See detailFactors influencing residential water consumption in Wallonia, Belgium
Nguyen, Bich Ngoc ULiege; Prevedello, Cédric; Cools, Mario ULiege et al

in Utilities Policy (2021)

Studies on residential water determinants often considered a limited number of possible factors due to lacking data, especially at micro-levels. This study aims to address the simultaneous effects of (1 ... [more ▼]

Studies on residential water determinants often considered a limited number of possible factors due to lacking data, especially at micro-levels. This study aims to address the simultaneous effects of (1) household characteristics, (2) alternative sources of water, (3) dwelling properties, (4) water appliances, (5) attitudes, and (6) urban form on household water use in Wallonia (Belgium). Results emphasize the importance of household characteristics, use of alternative water sources, and dwelling properties. When compared to these variables, the influence of urban density appears very limited. Accordingly, the often-observed location factors are mainly related to the shared household characteristics, such as composition, income, lot area, or the practice of using rainwater. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring of urban forests using 3D spatial indices based on LiDAR point clouds and voxel approach
Zięba-Kulawik, Karolina; Skoczylas, Konrad; Węzyk, Piotr et al

in Urban Forestry and Urban Greening (2021), 65

Modern cities face challenges in responding to the needs of diverse groups, therefore urban space must be appropriately shaped to be as resident-friendly as possible. Particular attention needs to be paid ... [more ▼]

Modern cities face challenges in responding to the needs of diverse groups, therefore urban space must be appropriately shaped to be as resident-friendly as possible. Particular attention needs to be paid to urban vegetation, which is an essential component of a suitable quality of life. Research to date has often relied on two- dimensional (2D) mapping of urban vegetation using remote sensing imagery and vegetation indicators, where greenery is evenly distributed regardless of the cubature. However, in reality, vegetation’s spatial and vertical structure varies, and the layers often overlap. In the current paper concerning Luxembourg City, we propose a novel 3D method exploring such indices as Vegetation 3D Density (V3DI) and Vegetation Volume to Building Volume (VV2BV). The goal of the study is to investigate the spatial relationship between the volume of vege- tation and of buildings in the rapidly developing Luxembourg City. The vegetation volume was calculated using airborne laser scanning point clouds (ALS LiDAR) processed into voxels (0.5 m). The volume of the buildings was calculated based on the results of 3D ALS LiDAR point cloud modelling. Proposed spatial indices were estimated for districts, for cadastral parcels, in a cell grid of 100 m and for each building individually, using a 100 m buffer. We found that in 2019, urban forests covered 1689 ha of Luxembourg City, accounting for 33 per cent of the entire administrative area. The 3D GIS analyses show that the total volume of vegetation (> 1.0 m above ground) was about 40 million m3, equating to 328 m3 of greenery per resident. The V3DI produced a value of 0.77 m3/m2. The overall VV2BV(%) index calculated for Luxembourg was 41.6 per cent. Only five districts of Luxembourg were characterized by a high value for the VV2BV index, which indicates areas with a high level of green infrastructure to contribute to health and a better quality of life. [less ▲]

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