References of "Strivay, David"
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See detailSur les traces des potiers mérovingiens. Analyses physico-chimiques de céramiques à décors identiques
Van Wersch, Line ULiege; Chene, Grégoire ULiege; Strivay, David ULiege et al

in Henningfeld, Yves; Peytremann, Edith (Eds.) Un monde en mouvement : la circulation des hommes, des biens et des idées à l’époque mérovingienne (Ve-VIIIe siècle) (in press)

Sur le territoire des Pays-Bas actuels, le même décor à la molette est présent sur des pots mis au jour dans les nécropoles de Sittard (tombe 86), d’Obbicht (tombe 43) et de Rhenen (tombe 159) ainsi que ... [more ▼]

Sur le territoire des Pays-Bas actuels, le même décor à la molette est présent sur des pots mis au jour dans les nécropoles de Sittard (tombe 86), d’Obbicht (tombe 43) et de Rhenen (tombe 159) ainsi que dans l’atelier de potiers de Maastricht-Wyck. Si Sittard et Obbicht ne sont qu’à une vingtaine de km de Maastricht, Rhenen est en revanche éloigné de plus de 100 km. Ces céramiques nous permettent donc d’envisager le déplacement des biens et des personnes. L’observation minutieuse des objets et l’analyses des matières utilisées pour leur fabrication nous a permis de déterminer que le vase de Rhenen avait été fabriqué en premier lieu et avec des argiles différentes de celles des pots limbourgeois. Dès lors, ce n’est plus la diffusion des vases qui est envisagée mais bien celle de l’outil utilisé pour leur décoration. Plusieurs scenarii pourraient expliquer le déplacement des artisans et l’échange de leurs outils. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, γ-ray spectrometry and multivariate statistical approach for the classification of soil/sand from Douala – Cameroon
Guembou Shouop, Cébastien Joel ULiege; Ndontchueng Moyo, Maurice; Eric Jilbert, NGUELEM MEKONGTSO et al

in Radiation Physics and Chemistry (2021), 188

The distribution of natural radionuclides in sediments from Douala, Cameroon has been carried out based on X- and γ-ray spectrometry. Radiological health parameters were evaluated and found to be lower ... [more ▼]

The distribution of natural radionuclides in sediments from Douala, Cameroon has been carried out based on X- and γ-ray spectrometry. Radiological health parameters were evaluated and found to be lower than the internationally approved values for actions. Soil elemental characterization and differentiation displayed the concentration of major elements. In addition, the principal component analysis (PCA) established correlations between different parameters of the study by calculating linear Pearson, Kendall's tau, Spearman's rho correlation coefficients, and cumulative probabilities. The total average concentrations of radionuclides 235U, 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K were 3.2, 53.1, 33.4, and 301.2 Bq/kg, respectively. The principal component analysis based on linear Pearson, Kendall's tau, Spearman's rho correlation coefficients, and cumulative probabilities calculations displays a strong correlation coefficient only between Ra-226 and U-235. The combination of spectrometry, PCA results, and comparison with previous studies highlighted the main characteristics of the investigated area to be illustrative dregs from the Continental margin. As a pioneering study using both spectrometric and PCA methods in Douala, the method was proved to be useful, and the results would be set as a database for future investigations. [less ▲]

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See detailErratum to: Radiological protection requirements with regard to cosmic-ray exposure during air travel
Guembou Shouop, Cébastien Joel ULiege; NDONTCHUENG MOYO, Maurice; NGUELEM MEKONGTSO, Eric Jilbert et al

in European Physical Journal - Plus (2021), 136

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See detailLe IIe style « ostien » sous enquête. Imagerie et analyses physico-chimiques des enduits peints de la Domus aux Bucranes
Herens, Elodie ULiege; Defeyt, Catherine ULiege; Motta, Lucie et al

in Mainet, Grégory; Graziano, Stella (Eds.) Proceedings of the conference Ricerche Archeologiche alla Foce del Tevere (2021)

La découverte de la Domus aux Bucranes, une maison tardo-républicaine remarquablement bien conservée dans les couches les plus profondes du site de la Schola del Traiano à Ostia Antica , a permis le ... [more ▼]

La découverte de la Domus aux Bucranes, une maison tardo-républicaine remarquablement bien conservée dans les couches les plus profondes du site de la Schola del Traiano à Ostia Antica , a permis le développement d’un projet de recherche interdisciplinaire portant sur le système décoratif de IIe style (pavements, enduits peints et reliefs de stuc) mis en œuvre à l’embouchure du Tibre, au cours du Ier s. av. J.-C. Outre son état de conservation exceptionnel, qu’il s’agisse d’éléments retrouvés in situ ou intégrés sous la forme de fragments dans les couches de remblais liés aux chantiers successifs, le système décoratif de la Domus aux Bucranes se distingue par la qualité des matériaux utilisés aussi bien que par la très grande maîtrise technique et artistique des ateliers alors sollicités. Fait remarquable : la fouille et l’étude de la stratigraphie de ce gisement a permis de restituer une séquence chronologique très précise concernant les phases de construction (60-50 av. J.-C.) et de destruction (30-20 av. J.-C.) de la domus, ainsi qu’une phase de restructuration intermédiaire (40-30 av. J.-C.) limitée à quelques pièces seulement. Si la destruction précoce de l’édifice a favorisé la conservation des pavements, ainsi que des enduits peints et des reliefs de stucs , la succession de deux phases de décoration durant le temps d’une même génération livre des informations de toute première importance quant à l’évolution du IIe style en Italie centrale, dans ses formes esthétiques aussi bien que dans ses compositions chimiques, au cours du deuxième tiers du Ier s. av. J.-C. De ce fait, en complément des traditionnelles études archéologiques et stylistiques, des analyses archéométriques ont été portées sur une partie significative du matériel sous enquête. Une telle démarche n’avait jamais encore été entreprise à Ostia Antica - sur des éléments en contexte aussi anciens - et les résultats obtenus, en cours d’interprétation , composeront une base de données de référence pour l’étude d’autres ensembles contemporains à Rome et ses environs. Nous en livrons ici les prémices, en limitant toutefois nos réflexions sur l’une des pièces restructurées et décorées durant la phase intermédiaire (40-30 av. J.-C.), l’« œcus des nains », ainsi nommée du fait de la nature des personnages mis en scène sur la frise peinte qui dominait la composition de cette pièce hors du commun. [less ▲]

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See detailBarite concrete for 252Cf spontaneous neutron shielding based on Monte Carlo computation
Guembou Shouop, Cébastien Joel ULiege; BAK, Sang-In; NDONTCHUENG MOYO, Maurice et al

Conference (2020, October 29)

Recently, neutron applications as neutron imaging widespread and safety issue related to high neutron penetration is still a concern in neutron industry. Especially, the design of a structure to shield ... [more ▼]

Recently, neutron applications as neutron imaging widespread and safety issue related to high neutron penetration is still a concern in neutron industry. Especially, the design of a structure to shield neutron requires structural stability, high-density material, and large fast-neutron removal cross-section while it must be cost-benefit evaluated and using available materials. In this regard, attention has been paid on different barite composite shielding material and their neutron attenuation property based on the Monte Carlo calculation using Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System. Different types of material as barites aggregate, barites cement, and barites concrete were investigated to find the most appropriate for fast neutron shielding, especially spontaneous neutron emitted from the Cf-252 source. Preliminary results obtained from the geometry presented in Fig. 1 are displayed in Fig. 2. As the barite concrete has high density compared to other materials, and high removal cross-section, the dose computation throughout the geometry and in different tallies show that it is the most appropriate neutron shielding in this case. Besides, gamma radiations generated by neutron interaction are easily shielded by barite concrete. Fast neutron shielding properties obtained by Monte Carlo simulation here are comparable to the experimental value described by William J. Grantham (1961). Barite concrete fast-neutron attenuation good properties were expected as it is the material with the highest removal cross-section among the investigated compounds [less ▲]

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See detailNew Cf-252 neutron source shielding design based Monte Carlo simulation using material combination
Guembou Shouop, Cébastien Joel ULiege; Bak, Sang-In; Ndontchueng Moyo, Maurice et al

in AIP Advances (2020), 10(7), 075203

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See detailRadiological protection requirements with regard to cosmic ray exposure during air travel
Guembou Shouop, Cébastien Joel ULiege; Ndontchueng Moyo, Maurice; NGUELEM, Eric Jilbert et al

in European Physical Journal - Plus (2020), 135(6), 1-21

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See detailSurvey on Van Gogh’s early painting technique through the non-invasive and multi analytical study of Head of peasant
Defeyt, Catherine ULiege; Marechal, Dominique; Vandepitte, Francisca et al

in Heritage Science (2020), 8

The strong lighting of the face against a dark background, the bold brushstroke and the model’s expressiveness that characterize Van Gogh’s Head of peasant, belonging to the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of ... [more ▼]

The strong lighting of the face against a dark background, the bold brushstroke and the model’s expressiveness that characterize Van Gogh’s Head of peasant, belonging to the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium collections, are typical features found in the peasant heads studies painted in Nuenen, in March–April 1885, in prevision of the well- known The Potato Eaters. However, this oil painting additionally testifies of Van Gogh’s early experiments in regards with the laws of colors, the flesh rendering and portraying models under artificial light. In order to collect material and technical information revealing how the painter practically handled these issues, the Brussels peasant head has been investigated in situ by complementary non-invasive imaging and analytical methods. While the identified pigments strictly reflect Van Gogh’s palette in Nuenen, relevant outcomes regarding the flesh tones composition, the rendered forceful expression of the figure, the effect of a face painted by lamplight, and the use of simultaneous color contrasts were achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailAn archaeometric investigation of glass beads decorating the reliquary of Saint Simètre from Lierneux, Belgium
Bruni, Yannick ULiege; Hatert, Frédéric ULiege; George, Philippe ULiege et al

in Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports (2020), 32

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See detailDiscovery and material study of the missing feet part from Magritte’s L’évidence éternelle of 1954
Defeyt, Catherine ULiege; Vandepitte, Francisca; Herens, Elodie ULiege et al

in Heritage Science (2019)

One of the two missing canvases from L’évidence éternelle of 1954, the one of the feet, has been discovered beneath a small woman portrait painted in 1958, La toile de Pénélope. Indeed, the underlying ... [more ▼]

One of the two missing canvases from L’évidence éternelle of 1954, the one of the feet, has been discovered beneath a small woman portrait painted in 1958, La toile de Pénélope. Indeed, the underlying woman’s feet revealed through the IRR and XRR images leave little doubt about the identity of the hidden composition. All the more so as the canvas dimensions perfectly match with the format ascribed to the feet part in the diagram Magritte made of the 1954 variant of L’évidence éternelle. This paper presents the main results of the material study conducted on La toile de Pénélope by means of non-invasive and complementary imaging and analytical techniques. Furthermore, it proposes a virtual colorized reconstruction of the hidden picture, built on the basis of the XRR and IRR images, the elemental information provided by the MA-XRF analysis, the Raman results and the microscope examination of the painting surface. [less ▲]

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See detail12 MeV Proton Activation Analysis combined to IBA techniques for compositional studies of various archeological artefacts from Roman and Merovingian sites (Ostia Antica, Artena, Nevers)
Chene, Grégoire ULiege; Defeyt, Catherine ULiege; Dienst, Simon ULiege et al

Poster (2019, September 18)

A combination of 3MeV proton PIXE-PIGE, MA-XRF and 10-15 MeV proton activation analysis has been recently applied on the external beam line of the cyclotron of IPNAS/CEA laboratory from the University of ... [more ▼]

A combination of 3MeV proton PIXE-PIGE, MA-XRF and 10-15 MeV proton activation analysis has been recently applied on the external beam line of the cyclotron of IPNAS/CEA laboratory from the University of Liège, and thus, to a wide variety of archaeological specimens (glass, pottery, mortars and pigments) all provided by on-going studies and excavations of housing materials, wall decorations, and vessels led on two remarkable Roman sites and one Medieval site: First, from an important agricultural complex excavated on an artificial terrace from a republican town, Artena, located, 40 km South-East from Rome, near the Via Latina and the Campania; second, from the Domus dei bucrani, a house dating from the end of the Republican era discovered on the site of the Schola of the Trajan at Ostia Antica and third, from the sixth-century glass mosaic from Saint Etienne church in Nevers, France. The aim of the present work is to explore and report the specific analytical interests of Charge Particle Activation Analysis implemented with protons ranging from 10 to 15 MeV, as a non-invasive analytical technique for the detection of elements with Z = 11–40 and beyond, and to address its suitability to solve questions raised by archaeologists. We present in this paper the preliminary results obtained following methodologies reported in recent pioneering and more recent works and emphasize on the achieved sensitivities (Limits of Detections) for elements as Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Y, Zr and Sb ranging from percentage to parts per million (ppm) levels. [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneously gamma spectrometry & energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence-based color differentiation analysis of Douala-Bassa area’s soil
Guembou Shouop, Cébastien Joel ULiege; Ndontchueng Moyo, Maurice; Chene, Grégoire ULiege et al

in Environmental Technology and Innovation (2019), 16

The present study aims to characterize soil from the Douala Bassa area in Cameroon using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and gamma-ray spectrometry techniques. In this regard, activity ... [more ▼]

The present study aims to characterize soil from the Douala Bassa area in Cameroon using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and gamma-ray spectrometry techniques. In this regard, activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were assessed using a High Purity Germanium detector. Radium equivalent activity was computed from the measured activities concentrations of radionuclides, and no significant radiological risk due to natural radiation background was observed for the inhabitants and visitors of the investigation zone. The EDXRF technique enabled to determine elemental concentrations of trace elements and major compounds in the analyzed soil samples. The concentrations of different compounds and trace elements found as well as their ranges were displayed in graphical color. The geological provenance of the investigated soil was assessed using the measured data. It was observed that the investigated soil samples are classified as Fe-soil and are illustrative dregs from the Continental margin due to the considerable high concentration of Fe (its concentration ranged from 14.78% to 22.26 %). In addition, the diagram for the tectonic discrimination of sediment provenance provided important remark as studied samples are residue from Passive Margins. It can be concluded that the results of these two analytical methods could be used as baseline data for subsequent investigations of the soil provenance in the Littoral region. [less ▲]

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See detailBackscattered electron emission after proton impact on gold nanoparticles with and without polymer shell coating
Hespeels, Felicien; Heuskin, Anne-Caherine; Tabarrant, Tijani et al

in Physics in Medicine and Biology (2019), 64(12), 125007

This work aims at measuring experimentally proton induced secondary electron energy spectra after interaction with Gold Nano Particles (GNPs) and polymer-coated GNPs. Backscattered electron energy spectra ... [more ▼]

This work aims at measuring experimentally proton induced secondary electron energy spectra after interaction with Gold Nano Particles (GNPs) and polymer-coated GNPs. Backscattered electron energy spectra were collected over a 0 to 1000 eV energy range using a Retarding Field Analyzer. This paper presents the spectra obtained for proton beam energies of 0.5 and 2 MeV and diameter 2.5 and 3.8 nm GNPs. The spectra were also measured for 3.8 nm GNPs after 5 and 10 MeV proton irradiations. GNPs were deposited on a 100 nm carbon film. Each experimental spectrum was compared with dedicated simulations based on existing numerical models used in the TRAX and Geant4 Monte Carlo codes. For 100 nm carbon target, good agreement between experimental, TRAX and Geant4 simulation results can be observed. For 3.8 nm GNPs, the TRAX simulations reproduce with good agreement the electron energy spectra produced after 0.5, 2, 5 and 10 MeV proton irradiations, while Geant4 spectra display a lower secondary electron yield at low energy (<600eV) for all the studied energies. This underestimation can mostly be explained by the 790 eV threshold applied in the condensed history model used by Geant4 which impacts the secondary electron energy distribution. Results obtained for carbon and gold targets highlight the impact of the secondary electron production threshold for proton ionization process considered in condensed history models. The experimental results demonstrate that the single interaction approach used in TRAX is adapted to reproduce secondary electron emission from GNPs. On the other hand, the standard electron generation threshold implement in G4BetheBlochModel and G4BraggModel condensed-history models used in Geant4 is not adapted to reproduce low energy electron emission in gold targets. Finally, the results highlight that the GNP coating leads to a decrease of the electron yield and mostly affects low energy electrons (<500eV) emitted from GNPs. [less ▲]

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See detailPIXE-PIGE and Proton Activation Analysis of Analysis of Roman archeological artefacts
Strivay, David ULiege; Chene, Grégoire ULiege; Dienst, Simon ULiege et al

Poster (2019, June 11)

A combination of 3MeV proton PIXE-PIGE, MA-XRF and 10-15 MeV proton activation analysis has been recently applied on the external beam line of the cyclotron of IPNAS/CEA laboratory from the University of ... [more ▼]

A combination of 3MeV proton PIXE-PIGE, MA-XRF and 10-15 MeV proton activation analysis has been recently applied on the external beam line of the cyclotron of IPNAS/CEA laboratory from the University of Liège, and thus, to a wide variety of archaeological specimens (glass, pottery (terra sigillata), mortars and pigments) all provided by on-going studies and excavations of housing materials, wall decorations, and vessels led on two remarkable Roman sites: First, from an important agricultural complex excavated on an artificial terrace from a republican town, Artena, located, 40 km South-East from Rome, near the Via Latina and the Campania and second, from the Domus dei bucrani, a house dating from the end of the Republican era discovered on the site of the Schola of the Trajan in Ostia. The aim of the present work is to explore and report the specific analytical interests of Charge Particle Activation Analysis implemented with protons ranging from 10 to 15 MeV, as a non-invasive analytical technique for the detection of elements with Z = 11-40 and beyond, and to address its suitability to solve questions raised by archaeologists. We present in this paper the preliminary results obtained following methodologies reported in recent pioneering and more recent works1-4 and emphasize on the achieved sensitivities (Limits of Detections) for elements as Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Y, Zr and Sb ranging from percentage to parts per million (ppm) levels. [less ▲]

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See detailMaterial analysis and testing using a proton therapy facility
Strivay, David ULiege; Chene, Grégoire ULiege

Conference (2019, June 10)

A new Proteus (IBA) proton therapy facility will be installed at the Charleroi hospital in Belgium. In addition to medical applications, material analysis and testing will be developed. We will present ... [more ▼]

A new Proteus (IBA) proton therapy facility will be installed at the Charleroi hospital in Belgium. In addition to medical applications, material analysis and testing will be developed. We will present here the facility and the future material projects with this machine. A special feature will be the ability to get proton beams from 5 to 230 MeV. Ion beams can be used to modify the properties of materials or to carry out ionizing radiation withstand tests, for example for the space industry sector. Studies for applications in the space domain will mainly include radiation withstand testing of electronic components and coatings for the space industry. These measurements will be performed at different energies between 30 and 200 MeV. These energies are required to model the SEE (Single Event Effects) which are one of the main degradation phenomena for space systems subjected to the solar wind. The characteristics in terms of beam size and especially energy modulation will allow to associate ion beam analysis techniques such as PIXE (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission) and PIGE (Particle Induced Range ray emission). in the high energy mode to follow changes in irradiated materials in real time. The use of high energy beam (> 5MeV) will allow the effects to be analyzed at greater depths than by conventional techniques. These studies can therefore also be extended to other areas of research, particularly for the analysis of cultural heritage objects. As with the study of spatial components, the PBS mode (Pencil Beam Scanning) will accurately measure and modulate the dose received by each element of irradiated systems. [less ▲]

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See detailInsight in René Magritte's reused paintings
Defeyt, Catherine ULiege; Vandepitte, Francisca; Herens, Elodie ULiege et al

Conference (2019, May 08)

The research project, Magritte on practice, consists of the systematic study of the world's largest collection of works painted by the Belgian surrealist (1898-1967), housed at the Magritte Museum in ... [more ▼]

The research project, Magritte on practice, consists of the systematic study of the world's largest collection of works painted by the Belgian surrealist (1898-1967), housed at the Magritte Museum in Brussels, through a large panel of non-invasive scientific imaging and analytical techniques (Raman, FTIR, MA-XRF, hyperspectral, IRR, XRR and digital microscopy) [1]. The technical and material study conducted on a corpus of works covering the entire career of the artist (60 oil paintings realised between 1921 and 1967), appeared highly informative about the making process of Magritte’s pictures but also lead to the discovery of six overpainted compositions, among which the last missing part of La pose enchantée, a 1927 large-scale painting transformed into four separate new pictures that are currently dispersed across the world [2]. The present study proposes an overview of the freshly discovered paintings and explores how the painter reused specific elements from the sacrificed compositions for creating the new ones. References [1] C. Defeyt and F. Vandepitte, (in preparation). René Magritte: The artist’s materials. (Los Angeles, CA: Getty Publications) [2] C. Defeyt, E. Herens, F. Leen, F. Vandepitte and D. Strivay, Heritage Sci., 6 (2018) [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation and study of degradation of daylight and UV-light fluorescent pigments in modern art through non-invasive methods
Rigoreau, Manon ULiege; Defeyt, Catherine ULiege; Strivay, David ULiege

Poster (2019, May)

Artists started to experiment fluorescent colours shortly after the discovery of daylight pigments by the Switzer brothers in the 1940s. It is a new way of expression for painters from the 20th century ... [more ▼]

Artists started to experiment fluorescent colours shortly after the discovery of daylight pigments by the Switzer brothers in the 1940s. It is a new way of expression for painters from the 20th century such as Andy Warhol, Martial Raysse, Keith Haring and Pierre Alechinsky. More recently, artists from the 21st century use the daylight colours through new technics like aerosol spray paint [1]. It is well known that some fluorescent pigments are unstable. Indeed, phenomena of discolourations and fluorescence losses are often observed. The companies that provide this type of pigments kept secret the composition of their paints and aerosols. Moreover, knowledge of materials used by artists is so important for the history of the art of techniques but also for conservation issues. The aim of the study is to characterise and found identification markers from distinct fluorescent colours, from different manufacturers, using non-invasive methods namely Raman [2] and FT-IR spectroscopy, macro-XRF, X-ray diffraction and hyperspectral imaging. In a second step, after an artificial aging, the goal will be to observe how each pigment evolve to discern which are the most subject to the fading phenomenon. The final step of this study is to find the most optimal analytic strategy for the analysis of works of art, preserved at the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium, to identify pigments that are more susceptible to fade and enforce preventive conservation for this one. References [1] A. Colombini and C. Valageas, Technè, 38 (2013) 34-38 [2] W. Fremout, in: Conference paper from IRUG 11. (Boston, MA) (2014) [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-analytical study of mural paintings from a Republican house from 1st BC in Ostia
Herens, Elodie ULiege; Defeyt, Catherine ULiege; Motta, Lucie ULiege et al

Poster (2019, May)

Ostia Antica, the ancient port of Rome, is overflowing with many remains, proofs of the greatness and the important activity of this area. Among them, the Schola del Traiano, along the Decumanus Maximus ... [more ▼]

Ostia Antica, the ancient port of Rome, is overflowing with many remains, proofs of the greatness and the important activity of this area. Among them, the Schola del Traiano, along the Decumanus Maximus in the neighbourhood of Porta Marina , presents a complex history. In addition to the excavation by archaeologists of three successive buildings on this parcel, the discovery of an uncommon dwarfs frieze (dating from 40 - 30 BC) brought attention. Usually depicted in decadent or ridiculous scenes, dwarfs are pictured here in scenes of daily life. This frieze is surrounded by other very elaborated friezes and tiles: Green and red masks friezes, dentils, the dwarfs frieze, a vegetal frieze, coloured tiles, a fruits frieze, and big red tiles surrounded by coloured lines combine to form a colourful room decoration. To deepen our understanding of this particular decor, various complementary analytical techniques were used: Raman spectroscopy, MA-XRF, hyperspectral imaging and digital microscopy. Besides the identification of the pigments used for each colour (Egyptian blue, cinnabar, iron oxide, chalk, ...), these techniques also allow to compare the different decoration parts together and to highlight common points and differences between them, in term of chemical composition but also concerning the decor elaboration and the successive steps in the painting implementation. [less ▲]

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