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See detailVariabilité des concentrations cellulaires phytoplanctoniques de diméthylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) et de diméthylsulfoxyde (DMSO) en Baie Sud de la Mer du Nord
Speeckaert, Gaëlle ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2018)

The eutrophication of the Southern Bight of the North Sea has been benefitting to the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis globosa (P. globosa). This species is a known high dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP ... [more ▼]

The eutrophication of the Southern Bight of the North Sea has been benefitting to the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis globosa (P. globosa). This species is a known high dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) producer whose bloom accounts for 95% of spring phytoplankton biomass. An increase in DMS(P) and its oxidation product dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) cellular contents have been frequently observed in cellular stress conditions. To test this, we have first analysed the natural distribution of DMS(P,O) cellular contents in the North Sea. Secondly, we have measured DMS(P,O) cellular contents in monospecific cultures of several key species of the North Sea and their responses to salinity variations. Our main working hypothesis is that DMSP acts as an osmoregulator and/or as an antioxidant, depending on the species. The DMS(P,O) annual cycle in the Southern Bight of the North Sea revealed a seasonality linked to the spring phytoplankton communities succession: (1) colonial diatoms (reappearing in autumn), (2) Chaetoceros spp., (3) P. globosa, (4) large-size summer diatoms (mainly Guinardia spp.), and (5) dinoflagellates. Spatial gradients of DMS(P) were related to those of phytoplankton biomass, itself related to the inputs of nutrients from the Scheldt estuary. It also discharges suspended matter in which DMSO may have been produced by anaerobic oxidation of DMS. Laboratory measurements confirmed a large variability in DMSP cellular contents between the six studied diatoms (Nitzschia closterium, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassiosira rotula, Chaetoceros socialis, Chaetoceros debilis, and Guinardia delicatula), low producers in comparison with P. globosa and even more with Heterocapsa triquetra (Dinoflagellate). In particular, communities 2 and 4 have lower DMSP cellular contents than community 1 (N. closterium, S. costatum and T. rotula). Senescence induces a decrease in DMSP/DMSO suggesting an oxidative stress caused by nutrients and/or light limitation in DMSP producers. In S. costatum, DMSP seems to play an osmoregulatory role and is oxidised into DMSO in hyposaline conditions. In P. globosa and H. triquetra, an oxidative stress appears in hypo- and hypersaline conditions diverging from their salinity optimum. [less ▲]

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See detailAnnual cycle of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) related to phytoplankton succession in the Southern North Sea
Speeckaert, Gaëlle ULiege; Borges, Alberto ULiege; Champenois, Willy ULiege et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2018), 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.359

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See detailProductivity and temperature as drivers of seasonal and spatial variations of dissolved methane in the Southern Bight of the North Sea
Borges, Alberto ULiege; Speeckaert, Gaëlle ULiege; Champenois, Willy ULiege et al

in Ecosystems (2017), doi:10.1007/s10021-017-0171-7

Dissolved CH4 concentrations in the Belgian coastal zone (North Sea) ranged between 670 nmol L-1 near-shore and 4 nmol L-1 off-shore. Spatial variations of CH4 were related to sediment organic matter (OM ... [more ▼]

Dissolved CH4 concentrations in the Belgian coastal zone (North Sea) ranged between 670 nmol L-1 near-shore and 4 nmol L-1 off-shore. Spatial variations of CH4 were related to sediment organic matter (OM) content and gassy sediments. In near-shore stations with fine sand or muddy sediments, the CH4 seasonal cycle followed water temperature, suggesting methanogenesis control by temperature in these OM rich sediments. In off-shore stations with permeable sediments, the CH4 seasonal cycle showed a yearly peak following the Chlorophyll-a spring peak, suggesting that in these OM poor sediments, methanogenesis depended on freshly produced OM delivery. This does not exclude the possibility that some CH4 might originate from dimethylsulfide (DMS) or dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) or methylphosphonate transformations in the most off-shore stations. Yet, the average seasonal CH4 cycle was unrelated to those of DMS(P), very abundant during the Phaeocystis bloom. The annual average CH4 emission was 126 mmol m-2 yr-1 in the most near-shore stations (~4 km from the coast) and 28 mmol m-2 yr-1 in the most off-shore stations (~23 km from the coast), 1,260 to 280 times higher than the open ocean average value (0.1 mmol m-2 yr-1). The strong control of CH4 by sediment OM content and by temperature suggests that marine coastal CH4 emissions, in particular in shallow areas, should respond to future eutrophication and warming of climate. This is supported by the comparison of CH4 concentrations at five stations obtained in March 1990 and 2016, showing a decreasing trend consistent with alleviation of eutrophication in the area. [less ▲]

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See detailHow phosphorus limitation can control climatic gas emission
Gypens; Borges, Alberto ULiege; Speeckaert, Gaëlle ULiege et al

Conference (2015, April 12)

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See detailDimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) cell quota of key Southern North Sea spring diatoms and Phaeocystis globosa
Speeckaert, Gaëlle ULiege; Gypens, Nathalie; Lancelot, Christiane et al

Poster (2015, April)

Dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the ocean results of complex transformations of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) produced by phytoplankton under different controls, including microbial transformation pathways ... [more ▼]

Dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the ocean results of complex transformations of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) produced by phytoplankton under different controls, including microbial transformation pathways. The phytoplankton composition is an important factor of variability due to the species dependence of the DMSP production and conversion to DMS. To better appraise the link between phytoplankton diversity and the DMS(P) cycling in the Southern North Sea we present measurements of the DMSP cell quota of key spring phytoplankton species (Skeletonema costatum, Thalassiosira rotula, Rhizosolenia delicatula, Asterionella glacialis, Nitzschia closterium, Chaetoceros debilis, Chaetoceros socialis and Phaeocystis globosa) isolated from the North Sea and maintained in non-limiting and axenic laboratory culture conditions. Results are discussed with regards to literature data and hypothesis currently used in DMS(P) biogeochemical models. [less ▲]

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See detailDMSP cell quota and the conversion into DMS by key Southern North Sea spring diatoms (Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros socialis) and Phaeocystis globosa
Speeckaert, Gaëlle ULiege; Lancelot, Christiane; Borges, Alberto ULiege et al

Poster (2014, May)

DMSP cell quota and the conversion into DMS by key Southern North Sea spring diatoms (Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros socialis) and Phaeocystis globosa

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See detailThe Dimethylsulfide Cycle in the Eutrophied Southern North Sea: A Model Study Integrating Phytoplankton and Bacterial Processes
Gypens, N; Borges, Alberto ULiege; Speeckaert, Gaëlle ULiege et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(1)(e85862 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085862),

We developed a module describing the dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) dynamics, including biological transformations by phytoplankton and bacteria, and physico-chemical ... [more ▼]

We developed a module describing the dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) dynamics, including biological transformations by phytoplankton and bacteria, and physico-chemical processes (including DMS air-sea exchange). This module was integrated in the MIRO ecological model and applied in a 0D frame in the Southern North Sea (SNS). The DMS(P) module is built on parameterizations derived from available knowledge on DMS(P) sources, transformations and sinks, and provides an explicit representation of bacterial activity in contrast to most of existing models that only include phytoplankton process (and abiotic transformations). The model is tested in a highly productive coastal ecosystem (the Belgian coastal zone, BCZ) dominated by diatoms and the Haptophyceae Phaeocystis, respectively low and high DMSP producers. On an annual basis, the particulate DMSP (DMSPp) production simulated in 1989 is mainly related to Phaeocystis colonies (78%) rather than diatoms (13%) and nanoflagellates (9%). Accordingly, sensitivity analysis shows that the model responds more to changes in the sulfur:carbon (S:C) quota and lyase yield of Phaeocystis. DMS originates equally from phytoplankton and bacterial DMSP-lyase activity and only 3% of the DMS is emitted to the atmosphere. Model analysis demonstrates the sensitivity of DMS emission towards the atmosphere to the description and parameterization of biological processes emphasizing the need of adequately representing in models both phytoplankton and bacterial processes affecting DMS(P) dynamics. This is particularly important in eutrophied coastal environments such as the SNS dominated by high non-diatom blooms and where empirical models developed from data-sets biased towards open ocean conditions do not satisfactorily predict the timing and amplitude of the DMS seasonal cycle. In order to predict future feedbacks of DMS emissions on climate, it is needed to account for hotspots of DMS emissions from coastal environments that, if eutrophied, are dominated not only by diatoms. [less ▲]

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