References of "Sindic, Marianne"
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See detailCarcass traits and lamb meat quality assessment of Beni G uil's PGI sheep from eastern Morocco
Belhaj, K.; Tikent, A.; Mansouri, A. et al

Poster (2019, February)

In Morocco, Breeding is one of the primordial sectors in the national economy, playing an important socio-economic role. The "ANOC" a Moroccan national association for sheep and goat breeders, has ... [more ▼]

In Morocco, Breeding is one of the primordial sectors in the national economy, playing an important socio-economic role. The "ANOC" a Moroccan national association for sheep and goat breeders, has achieved the "PGI Beni Guil Sheep". Many breeders from eastern Morocco contributed into this labialization process and an agreement between "ANOC" and the certification body “NORMACERT” has been signed to certify the labeling of meat from Beni Guil lambs. The first batch of labeled lambs was produced in 2012 [1]. The objective of this study is to determine the characteristics of the carcass and meat quality of "Beni Guil" female lambs reared in this semi-arid region (eastern plateau of Morocco), because female lambs are most available for slaughter during all the year, whereas male lambs are generally fattened and reserved for the festival of sacrifice "Aid Aladha". [less ▲]

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See detailDate Palm Fruits as a Potential Source of Functional Dietary Fiber : A Review
Mrabet, Abdessalem ULiege; Hammadi, Hamza; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Guillermo et al

in Food Science and Technology Research (2019), 25(1), 1-10

Date palm fruits and their seeds are excellent sources of dietary fiber (DF). Date fruits contain 8.1 - 12.7 % Total DFs (of which 84-94 % is insoluble and 6-16 % soluble DF) and is very rich in phenolic ... [more ▼]

Date palm fruits and their seeds are excellent sources of dietary fiber (DF). Date fruits contain 8.1 - 12.7 % Total DFs (of which 84-94 % is insoluble and 6-16 % soluble DF) and is very rich in phenolic antioxidants (1-2 %). Date fruit fibers are composed of cellulose and NSP. Moreover, date DF has important functional properties, such as water-holding capacity and oil-holding capacity. Date seeds contain about 15 % fiber, characterized by a high level of water-insoluble mannan fibers. It has been suggested that date fruits and seeds can be exploited in some food applications. In order to improve fiber yields, pretreatment procedures can be applied, which give excellent results in the case of date palm fibers. Date fruits are widely available in the global market, but there is still room for improvement, particularly in the revalorization of date processing waste, and secondary cultivars. The incorporation of date fruits and seeds as food ingredients would promote the presence of dates in the modern’s consumer shopping basket. Present knowledge about different aspects of date DF, and suitable extraction methods and applications of date fiber (flesh and seed), will be the focus of this report. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysico-chemical characteristics of Belgian artisanal cheeses and prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in these products
Gerard, Amaury ULiege; Daube, Georges ULiege; Sindic, Marianne ULiege

Poster (2018, October 04)

Introduction Regulation (EC) N°2073/2005 demands the absence of L. monocytogenes in 25g of cheeses theoretically allowing the growth of the bacterium. It is assumed that the bacterium cannot develop if ... [more ▼]

Introduction Regulation (EC) N°2073/2005 demands the absence of L. monocytogenes in 25g of cheeses theoretically allowing the growth of the bacterium. It is assumed that the bacterium cannot develop if the pH is under 4.4 or if the water activity (aw) is under 0.92. Furthermore, a combination of pH<5 and aw<0.94 could also prevent its growth (1). A study was performed among Belgian artisanal cheeses in order to investigate their physico-chemical properties, as well as the prevalence of L. monocytogenes. Materials and Methods Sixty-five Belgian artisanal cheeses were collected, respecting geographical dispersion and taking into account several parameters, including type of milk, milk heat treatment, ripening and texture. Salt, fat and dry matter content, as well as aw in the core and pH in the core and on the surface were measured for all samples. The presence of L. monocytogenes in 25g was also tested, with an enumeration in case of detection. For one highly contaminated cheese, the whole batch (10 pieces) was stored until the end of shelf-life. Enumeration was then done with 30 repetitions. Discussion Regarding physico-chemical characteristics, fresh, soft and hard cheeses, pH in the core ranged respectively from 4.5 to 4.7, from 4.7 to 6.9 and from 4.7 to 6.0. On the surface, pH of some cheeses was higher than 7, probably due to the proteolytic activity of the surface microflora. Regarding aw, values were always >0.95. Only based on these pH and aw values, all cheeses from the panel have to be considered as risky regarding L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 2 of the 65 cheeses (3.07%).The first one was a semi-hard soft cheese from raw cow milk, for which enumeration was under the LOQ. The second one was a mold-ripened soft cheese from raw goat milk. Enumeration was higher than 4 log cfu/g. This contamination is really high but not really surprising, given that this type of cheese is known for supporting the growth of the pathogen (2). At the end of shelf-life, 14 of 30 samples from this batch were still positive, with levels of contamination ranging from 2 to 6 log cfu/g. A great heterogeneity in the distribution of L. monocytogenes was observed between pieces from this batch, but also inside some pieces. For instance, 3 repetitions in one cheese gave levels of the pathogen ranging from 10 to 17 000 cfu/g. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence and survival of Listeria monocytogenes in various types of cheese - A review
Gerard, Amaury ULiege; El-Hajjaji, Soundous; Niyonzima, Eugène et al

in International Journal of Dairy Technology (2018), 71(4), 825-843

Since the publication of Regulation (EC) N°2073/2005, ready-to-eat (RTE) food allowing the devel-opment of Listeria monocytogenes, including cheese, has to be free of this pathogen in 25 g of pro-duct ... [more ▼]

Since the publication of Regulation (EC) N°2073/2005, ready-to-eat (RTE) food allowing the devel-opment of Listeria monocytogenes, including cheese, has to be free of this pathogen in 25 g of pro-duct. This review was carried out to gather studies on the prevalence of the pathogen in varioustypes of cheese in Europe, while also including data from other continents. Given that Regulation(EC) N° 2073/2005 distinguishes cheeses allowing or not the survival of L. monocytogenes basedon the food’s pH and water activity (aw), the review also focuses on the determi nants of thisgrowth/no growth in the same types of cheese. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of glycerol, peanut oil and soybean lecithin contents on the properties of biodegradable film of improved cassava starches from Côte d’Ivoire
Adjouman Yao, Désiré; Nindjin, Charlemagne; Konan Brou, Roger et al

in International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (2018), 3(4),

Edible films have been successfully used in the food packaging industry for several decades. Today natural polysaccharides, including cassava starch, are increasingly being used in the production of such ... [more ▼]

Edible films have been successfully used in the food packaging industry for several decades. Today natural polysaccharides, including cassava starch, are increasingly being used in the production of such biodegradable edible films and food packaging. In Côte d'Ivoire, there are improved cassava varieties whose starches have not yet been tested in the production of biodegradable films. In this study, the optical and mechanical properties and the water solubility of starchbased composite films of four improved cassava varieties with added glycerol, peanut oil and soy lecithin were determined. Starch was obtained by cold water extraction from native cassava from the varieties Bocou 1, Bocou 2, Yavo and TMS. Films preparation was made bycasting method with cassava, glycerol (25-30 %), peanut oil (5-10%) and soybean lecithin (0-5 %). Increasing the glycerol content, increased L*color value and elongation at break and decreased a*, b*, colourdifference (ΔE* ab) and tensiles trength of the composite films. Also, increasing the oil content from 5 to 10%, increased the opacity, b*, ΔE*ab, water solubility, elongation at break but decreased L*, a* and tensiles trength. Similarly, increasing the soy lecithin content from 0 to 5%, increased the opacity, L*, b* and ΔE*ab, but decreased a*, of the starch-based composite films. The results suggest an ideal formulation of 4% starch/25% glycerol/5% oil/5% soy lecithin for a film with optimum mechanical properties with low solubility. [less ▲]

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See detailValorization Challenges to Almonds and their Co-products: Characterization of Oils Extracted from Broken Almonds Springing from Shelling and Sorting Operations.
Elamrani, Ahmed; Melhaoui, Reda; Houmy, Nadia ULiege et al

Conference (2018, May 09)

The almond tree (Prunus dulcis) is one of the most popular nut trees grown worldwide under arid conditions. In north eastern region of Morocco, after the olive tree the almond tree is the second most ... [more ▼]

The almond tree (Prunus dulcis) is one of the most popular nut trees grown worldwide under arid conditions. In north eastern region of Morocco, after the olive tree the almond tree is the second most important tree crop in this region, due to its resistance and capacity against water shortage and irrigation deficit. During this decade, new orchards of almond trees have emerged, thanks to the program Green Morocco, supported by the BTC (*BTC-PROFAO project). Thus 6.000 hectares of new orchards of almond trees were planted using the association Ferragnes / Ferraduel, which is a couple of French cultivars known for their late blooming. In the aim to improve the income of this rural population, cooperatives and economic interest groups were created; farmers have been trained for good almond cultivation practices as well as almond harvesting and processing. In eastern Morocco, traditionally almonds are hulled and shelled, manually by rural women, but currently, almonds processing machines are under installation. Manually or mechanically, almonds’ hulling and shelling operations generate many byproducts which are hulls (thin mesocarp, green shell cover), shells (Hardened endocarp) but also broken kernels from almonds sorting and brown skin as byproduct of almonds’ blanching. Taking in consideration the importance of valorization of almond byproduct, this work deals with the agro economical relevance and added value that could be generated by using broken almonds (as a co product) for Almond oils extraction. Thus this oral communication focuses on (i) the characterization of Almond oils produced by cooperatives in this region as an adding value to this almond’s co-products (ii) Paths of research for the valorization of the other by-products mainly almonds’ shells and hulls. Briefly, almond oils were extracted from broken almond (as a co-product) by screw press, oil yield rage between 48 and 56%. Fatty Acids (FA) profile, determined by GC-FID, shows dominance of unsaturated fatty acids fraction [USFA > 85% ] which is mainly represented by oleic Acid (61-69%) and linoleic acid (22-27% ). Saturated fatty acids fraction (SFA <11%) is represented mainly by palmitic acid (7-8%). and stearic acid (2-3%). Total phenol content range between 40-45 mg/kg-oil, however total tocopherols content is important and range between 510-530 mg/kg-oil with a large dominance of α tocopherol. The presence of these compounds is important in relation to oil stability and as nutritional quality label. Thus, consumption of almond oil is recommended thanks to their beneficial effects on health, but it’s also recommended for cosmetic uses. Keywords: Almond Tree, Almonds, almond co-products, Almond Oils. [less ▲]

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See detailMeat quality traits of Béni Guil lamb raised in eastern Morocco
Belhaj, K.; Mansouri, Farid; Serghini-Caid, H. et al

Poster (2018, May)

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See detailPomological evaluation of four mains introduced almond cultivars in North Eastern region of Morocco
Melhaoui, R.; Houmy, Nadia ULiege; Mihamou, A. et al

Poster (2018, May)

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See detailMorphological and chemical characterization of almond's fruits of Ferragnes and Ferraduel cultivars recently introduced in eastern Morocco
Melhaoui, Reda; Houmy, Nadia ULiege; Abid, Malika et al

Poster (2018, April 04)

Morocco has a mild Mediterranean climate with agro-ecological zones well adapted to almond cultivation. Thus, the almond tree well adapted to the mild winter and hot and dry summer in eastern Morocco, is ... [more ▼]

Morocco has a mild Mediterranean climate with agro-ecological zones well adapted to almond cultivation. Thus, the almond tree well adapted to the mild winter and hot and dry summer in eastern Morocco, is the most important nut crop in this region. It’s generates 15% of Moroccan production of shelled almonds (1). Almond varieties have different earliness in respect to the flowering. In this region, it has been noted that the production of almonds from local ecotypes and some varieties that bloom early is often limited by their susceptibility to spring frost. For this reason, the program "* PROFAO" supported by *BTC, for the extension of almond plantations, has chosen to introduce in this region two French varieties Ferragnes, Ferraduel (F/F). This couple of cultivars is characterized by late bloom to avoid the harmful effects of late frost in February, but must absolutely be combined for cross fertilization, This study has been conducted on young almond F/F orchards and in the five main areas of almond tree growing in eastern morocco. The aim is to define morphological and chemical traits of this almond couple F/F. The inter-varietal comparison of pomological traits have shown that Ferragnes cultivar have the best kernels which are characterized by a high values for weight, length, thickness and volume. In addition the F/F association presents a high shelling yield in the 5 studied areas. Chemical analysis of almond flour (F/F deoiled fraction) shows protein richness (35%), 14% sugar and 4.5% ashes. Fatty acids analysis of F/F almond oil fraction shows dominance of two unsaturated fatty acids; oleic acid (68.93%) and linoleic acid (21.84%). We conclude that shelled almonds of this F/F association present good commercial traits (nut shape, kernel size, kernel appearance) and an interesting chemical composition. All of these traits should translate into good commercial value added. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of almond oils and cakes, obtained from broken almonds discarded by sorting during shells' cracking process for almond kernels separation
Houmy, Nadia ULiege; Melhaoui, Reda; Sindic, Marianne ULiege et al

Poster (2018, April 04)

In eastern Morocco, after harvesting, cracking of hard shells, for manual separating of almonds is traditionally performed by rural women. Fortunately, along this later decade, almond production has ... [more ▼]

In eastern Morocco, after harvesting, cracking of hard shells, for manual separating of almonds is traditionally performed by rural women. Fortunately, along this later decade, almond production has increased significantly and farmers organize themselves into cooperatives, some of which are now equipped with almond cracking and shelling machine. Undamaged almond are separated from shell fragments. Partly damaged or broken almonds are sorted and collected to be used for almond oil’s extraction in order to give them the best commercial added value. This work focuses on the characterization of oilcakes and almond oils extracted from the main sweet almonds (Marcoma, Fournat, Ferragnes/Ferraduel and Beldi) cultivated in this region. Oil contents, triacylglycerols and fatty acids profiles tocopherols, total phenols, carbohydrates, proteins, fiber and ash compositions were determined. Thus, CPG-FID analysis of fatty acids (FA) of almond oils (AO) shown the dominance of two FA oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2); Almond Oils of Ferragnes/Ferraduel association and Beldi show the highest percentage values of C18:1 respectively of 70.33% and 62.09 %. Marcona’s almond oil shows the lowest content of C18:1 (57.54 %). HPLC analysis of triacylglycerols shown that analyzed almond oils are characterized by the dominance of trioleylglycerol (OOO). Tocopherols and phenols are the natural antioxidant analyzed in the studied almond oils. Results show that the α-tocopherol is the principal homologue of tocopherols of AO, its contents range between a minimum of 231.24 mg/kg for Beldi and 332.24 mg/kg for Ferragnes-Ferraduel. Total phenols range from 99.60 mg/kg for Fournat to 220.15 mg/kg for Marcona. Carbohydrates, fiber, ash and proteins were analyzed in almond oilcakes. They range respectively for: (1) Carbohydrates between 15.02% for Marcona and 19.21% for Fournat; (2) Fiber between 32.8 % for Fournat and 35.5% for Beldi; (3) Ash between 4.75% for Marcona and 7.25% for Fournat; (4) Proteins between 43.9% for Beldi and 48.5 % for Ferragnes/Ferraduel. According to the observed results we conclude that Ferragnes/Ferraduel seems to be the best source for almond oil among the analyzed almond oils, his richness of tocopherols allow good stability to oxidation; Equally , the corresponding oilcake seems to be an interested source of proteins and fiber to be valued for human nutrition [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of crop season on the quality and composition of virgin olive oils from Greek and Spanish varieties grown in north-eastern Morocco
Mansouri, Farid; Ben Moumen, Abdessamad; Belhaj, Kamal et al

Scientific conference (2018, April)

This study aims to evaluate the variations in the quality and composition of virgin olive oils of Spanish (Arbequina and Arbosana) and Greek (Koroneiki) varieties produced in northeastern Morocco, taking ... [more ▼]

This study aims to evaluate the variations in the quality and composition of virgin olive oils of Spanish (Arbequina and Arbosana) and Greek (Koroneiki) varieties produced in northeastern Morocco, taking into consideration the influence of crop season. To this end, serval parameters were evaluated, such as quality indices, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, minor compounds (phytosterols, phenolic compounds, tocopherols and pigments) and oxidative stability. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Edible Coating based on improved Cassava Starch on Post-Harvest quality of fresh Tomatoes (solanum lycopersicum l.)
Adjouman, Yao Désiré; Nindjin, Charlemagne; Kouassi, Kouakou N. et al

in International Journal of Nutritional Science and Food Technology (2018), 4(1), 1-10

Composite coatings based on improved cassava starch have the capacity to preserve the quality and extend the shelf life of fresh tomatoes. Two new edible composites coatings C1 (4% starch/25% glycerol/5 ... [more ▼]

Composite coatings based on improved cassava starch have the capacity to preserve the quality and extend the shelf life of fresh tomatoes. Two new edible composites coatings C1 (4% starch/25% glycerol/5% oil/5% soybean lecithin) and C2 (4% cassava starch/microcrystalline cellulose 30%/25% glycerol/5% oil/5% lecithin) were compared with the commercially available SemperfreshTM coating and no coating. Different coatings/no coating were applied to fresh tomatoes that were subsequently stored at 20 ± 2°C and 70 ± 2% relative humidity for 4 weeks. Tomatoes coated with the composite coatings C1 and C2 based on improved cassava starch showed a significant (P < 0.05) delay in changes of firmness, weight, titratable acidity, pH, total soluble solids, sugar/acidity ratio and colour development compared with both SemperfreshTM and uncoated control fruit. The results demonstrated that our assessed combination of improved cassava variety starch vegetable oil, glycerol, soy lecithin and cellulose and derivates can be used as edible coating to increase the shelf life of tomatoes stored at 20 ± 2°C up to four weeks. [less ▲]

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See detailMeat retail conditions within the establishments of Kigali city (Rwanda): bacteriological quality and risk factors for Salmonella occurrence
Niyonzima, Eugene ULiege; Ongol, Martin Patrick; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2018), 50(3), 537546

Meat constitutes one of the major vehicles for human foodborne infections. This study aimed to assess the retail conditions and to determine the microbiological quality and safety of meat retailed within ... [more ▼]

Meat constitutes one of the major vehicles for human foodborne infections. This study aimed to assess the retail conditions and to determine the microbiological quality and safety of meat retailed within the establishments of Kigali (Rwanda). A questionnaire survey was carried out in 150 retail outlets to characterise meat retail conditions. Additionally, 270 retail meat samples were analysed for the enumeration of hygiene indicator bacteria (total mesophilic bacteria and Escherichia coli) and for the qualitative detection of Salmonella, using conventional culture methods. The results revealed that beef was the predominant meat sold within the retail premises of Kigali city, while meat from non-bovine animal species was mainly sold in large establishments. Salmonella was detected in 19.6% of all the retailed meat samples evaluated, whereas the mean loads for total mesophilic bacteria and E. coli were 7.3 and 3.5 log cfu/g, respectively. Three factors, namely the temperature conditions of the meat under retail, the cleanability of the used meat cutting boards, and the training of personnel in hygienic meat handling practices, were found to be significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with the risk of Salmonella occurrence in the retailed meat. The findings from this study highlight the need for improvements in hygienic meat handling practices, particularly, in small and medium meat retail establishments in Kigali. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the development of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk butter
El-Hajjaji, Soundous ULiege; De Laubier, Juliette ULiege; Di Tanna, Sybille ULiege et al

Poster (2018, February 08)

Currently, Listeria monocytogenes is considered one of the most important foodborne pathogens. It is often implicated in epidemics of human listeriosis that represents a real health risk, given the high ... [more ▼]

Currently, Listeria monocytogenes is considered one of the most important foodborne pathogens. It is often implicated in epidemics of human listeriosis that represents a real health risk, given the high mortality rate (over 25%) of infected persons. Listeria monocytogenes can directly or indirectly contaminate products and the environment, which makes Listeria a worrying pathogen for the dairy industry. The Commission Regulation (EC) 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, imposes an absence of this pathogen in 25g of the products able to support the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. This criterion is applicable to products before they leave the immediate control of the food business operator, unless the manufacturer is able to demonstrate, to the satisfaction of the competent authority, that the product will comply with the limit of 100 cfu/g throughout the shelf life. As butter is a product with a wide variation in the production process, more information and data on the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes in relation to formulation and butter structure are therefore needed. [less ▲]

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See detailInventory of the raw milk butter production in Wallonia (Belgium)
El-Hajjaji, Soundous ULiege; De Laubier, Juliette ULiege; Di Tanna, Sybille ULiege et al

Poster (2018, February 08)

Since the fourteenth century, the marketing of butter, which is considered one of the first dairy products, is done on an international scale. In Belgium, butter production in 2016 increased by 7.7% in ... [more ▼]

Since the fourteenth century, the marketing of butter, which is considered one of the first dairy products, is done on an international scale. In Belgium, butter production in 2016 increased by 7.7% in comparison with 2015 to reach 87,506 tons. According to the scientific opinion 09/2016 of the Scientific Committee of the Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain, there is a wide variation in the production processes and types of farm butter made from raw milk. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is the landscape of artisanal cheese production in Belgium?
Gerard, Amaury ULiege; Daube, Georges ULiege; Sindic, Marianne ULiege

Poster (2018, February 08)

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See detailWhat is the landscape of artisanal cheese production in Belgium?
Gerard, Amaury ULiege; Daube, Georges ULiege; Sindic, Marianne ULiege

Conference (2018, February 08)

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See detailTocopherol content of almond oils produced in eastern Morocco
Melhaoui, R.; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULiege; Sindic, Marianne ULiege et al

Conference (2018, February 08)

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