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See detailA mass spectrometry method for sensitive, specific and simultaneous detection of bovine blood meal, blood products and milk products in compound feed
Lecrenier, Marie-Caroline ULiege; Planque, Mélanie; Dieu, Marc et al

in Food Chemistry (2018), 245

Feed sustainability is one of the biggest challenges for the next few years. Solutions have to be found that take feed quality and safety into account. Animal by-products are one valuable source of ... [more ▼]

Feed sustainability is one of the biggest challenges for the next few years. Solutions have to be found that take feed quality and safety into account. Animal by-products are one valuable source of proteins. However, since the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, their use has been strictly regulated. The objective of this study was to propose a routine, sensitive and specific method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of blood-derived products and milk powder in feed. Contaminated aquafeeds were analysed in order to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the method. This new method meets both selectivity and sensitivity (0.1% (w/w)) requirements imposed by the European Commission for animal proteins detection methods. It offers an innovative and complementary solution for the simultaneously identification of authorised and unauthorised animal by-products such as processed animal proteins (PAPs). [less ▲]

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See detailSpatio-temporal patterns of foot-and-mouth disease transmission in cattle between 2007 and 2015 and quantitative assessment of the economic impact of the disease in Niger.
Souley Kouato, B.; Thys, E.; Renault, Véronique ULiege et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2018)

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Niger, with outbreaks occurring every year. Recently, there was an increasing interest from veterinary authorities to implement preventive and control measures ... [more ▼]

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Niger, with outbreaks occurring every year. Recently, there was an increasing interest from veterinary authorities to implement preventive and control measures against FMD. However, for an efficient control, improving the current knowledge on the disease dynamics and factors related to FMD occurrence is a prerequisite. The objective of this study was therefore to obtain insights into the incidence and the spatio-temporal patterns of transmission of FMD outbreaks in Niger based on the retrospective analysis of 9-year outbreak data. A regression tree analysis model was used to identify statistically significant predictors associated with FMD incidence, including the period (year and month), the location (region), the animal-contact density and the animal-contact frequency. This study provided also a first report on economic losses associated with FMD. From 2007 to 2015, 791 clinical FMD outbreaks were reported from the eight regions of Niger, with the number of outbreaks per region ranging from 5 to 309. The statistical analysis revealed that three regions (Dosso, Tillabery and Zinder), the months (September, corresponding to the end of rainy season, to December and January, i.e., during the dry and cold season), the years (2007 and 2015) and the density of contact were the main predictors of FMD occurrence. The quantitative assessment of the economic impacts showed that the average total cost of FMD at outbreak level was 499 euros, while the average price for FMD vaccination of one outbreak was estimated to be more than 314 euros. Despite some limitations of the clinical data used, this study will guide further research into the epidemiology of FMD in Niger and will promote a better understanding of the disease as well as an efficient control and prevention of FMD. [less ▲]

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See detailTransmission of cattle diseases and biosecurity in cattle farms.
Sarrazin, S.; Damiaans, B.; Renault, Véronique ULiege et al

in Biosecurtiy in animal production and veterinary medicine (2018)

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See detailRural veterinarian’s perception and practices in terms of biosecurity across three European countries
Renault, Véronique ULiege; Humblet, Marie-France ULiege; Moons, V et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2018)

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See detailSerogroups and genotypes of Leptospira 1 spp. strains from bovine aborted fetuses
Delooz, Laurent ULiege; Czaplicki, G; Grégoire, F et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2018)

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See detailOutbreak investigations and molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in southwest Niger
Souley Kouato, Bachir ULiege; Fana, EM; King, DP et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2018)

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See detailModelo de simulacion intra rodeo de brucelosis bovine
Aznar, MN; Rose, N; Andraud, M et al

Conference (2017, October 17)

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See detailResurgence of Schmallenberg virus in Belgium after 3 years of epidemiological silence
Delooz, L; Saegerman, Claude ULiege; Quinet, C et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2017), 64(5), 1641-1642

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See detailMicrobiological zoonotic emerging risks, transmitted between livestock animals and humans (2007-2015)
Filippitzi, ME; Goumperis, T; Robinson, T et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2017), 64(4), 1059-1070

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See detailThe unexpected discovery of Brucella abortus Buck 19 vaccine in goats from Ecuador underlines the importance of biosecurity measures
Ron-Roman, J; Berkvens, D; Barzallo-Rivadeneira, D et al

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2017), 49(3), 569-574

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See detailObservations as a way to assess the compliance of veterinary students with biosecurity procedures
Humblet, Marie-France ULiege; Vanderschueren, P; Grignet, Christine ULiege et al

in Revue scientifique et technique - Office international des épizooties (2017), 36(3),

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See detailQ Fever Serological Survey and Associated Risk Factors in Veterinarians, Southern Belgium, 2013
Dal Pozzo, Fabiana ULiege; Martinelle, Ludovic ULiege; Léonard, Philippe ULiege et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2017), 64(3), 959-966

A sero-epidemiological survey was organized among veterinarians working in Southern Belgium to estimate the seroprevalence of Q fever and the risk factors associated with exposure. A total of 108 ... [more ▼]

A sero-epidemiological survey was organized among veterinarians working in Southern Belgium to estimate the seroprevalence of Q fever and the risk factors associated with exposure. A total of 108 veterinarians took part to this cross-sectional study, with a majority practicing with livestock animals. The overall seroprevalence was 45.4%, but it increased to 58.3% among veterinarians having contact with livestock. Three main serological profiles were detected (relatively recent, past and potentially chronic infections). The contact with manure during the prior month was the risk factor associated with seropositivity after multivariate logistic regression analysis. Classification and regression tree analysis identified the age as the most predictive variable to exclude potentially chronic infection in apparently healthy seropositive veterinarians. In conclusion, livestock veterinarians practicing in Southern Belgium are highly exposed to Q fever, a neglected zoonosis for which serological and medical examinations should be envisaged in at risk groups. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH [less ▲]

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See detailVirulence and immunogenicity of genetically defined human and porcine isolates of M. avium subsp. hominissuis in an experimental mouse infection
Bruffaerts, N.; Vluggen, C.; Roupie, V. et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(2),

Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (Mah) represents a health concern for humans and to a lesser extent for pigs, but its zoonotic potential remains elusive. Using multispacer sequence typing (MST) we ... [more ▼]

Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (Mah) represents a health concern for humans and to a lesser extent for pigs, but its zoonotic potential remains elusive. Using multispacer sequence typing (MST) we previously identified 49 different genotypes of Mah among Belgian clinical and porcine isolates, with 5 MSTs shared by both hosts. Using experimental intranasal infection of BALB/c mice, we compared the virulence and immunogenicity of porcine and clinical human isolates with shared genotype or with a genotype only found in humans or pigs. Bacterial replication was monitored for 20 weeks in lungs, spleen and liver and mycobacteria specific spleen cell IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 production as well as serum antibody responses were analyzed. Isolates varied in virulence, with human and porcine isolates sharing MST22 genotype showing a thousand fold higher bacterial replication in lungs and more dissemination to spleen and liver than the human and porcine MST91 isolates. Virulent MST22 type was also associated with progressive suppression of IFN-γ and IL-17 responses, and increased IL-10 production. Whole genome sequencing of the two virulent isolates with MST22 genotype and two avirulent isolates of genotype MST91 and comparison with two well-studied M. avium subsp. hominissuis reference strains i.e. Mah 104 and Mah TH135, identified in the two MST22 isolates nine specific virulence factors of the mammalian cell entry family, that were identical with Mah 104 strain. Despite the obvious limitations of the mouse model, a striking link of virulence and identity at the genome level of porcine and human isolates with the same multisequence type, for which no correlation of place of residence (humans) or farm of origin (pigs) was observed, seems to point to the existence in the environment of certain genotypes of Mah which may be more infectious both for humans and pigs than other genotypes. © 2017 Bruffaerts et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. [less ▲]

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See detailShort communication: Trend analysis suggested a change in subspecies among Mycobacterium avium isolated from pigs in Belgium, 1967-2013
Soetaert, K.; Vluggen, C.; Duytschaever, L. et al

in Veterinary Record (2017), 180(18), 449

[No abstract available]

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See detailLaboratory Findings Suggesting an Association Between BoHV-4 and Bovine Abortions in Southern Belgium
Delooz, L.; Czaplicki, G.; Houtain, J. Y. et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2017), 64(4), 1100-1109

Abortions cause heavy economic losses for the bovine sector. The use of a standardized panel of analyses covering a large spectrum of pathogens responsible of abortion in cattle allowed demonstrating the ... [more ▼]

Abortions cause heavy economic losses for the bovine sector. The use of a standardized panel of analyses covering a large spectrum of pathogens responsible of abortion in cattle allowed demonstrating the direct involvement of at least one pathogen in 57% of analysed abortions in the southern part of Belgium. This result suggests a margin of improvement in the diagnostic efficacy. In order to evaluate the interest to broaden the list of pathogens included in the panel of analyses, the implication of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) in abortion was assessed by two different studies. In the first study, coupled serology was performed after abortion on 714 dams to identify specific seroconversion against BoHV-4. The overall seroconversion in cows was 19.5%, with a higher frequency in primiparous compared to multiparous females. In addition, the type of breed (beef cattle) and the time period from the fourth quarter 2008 until the last quarter 2009 were significantly related to the seroconversion of cows. The second study investigated the virus ability to infect the foetus. In this study, 368 cases of bovine abortions were specifically tested for BoHV-4, using PCR on foetus tissues and ELISA on dam and foetus sera. The results showed a maternal seroprevalence of 64.7%, a foetal seroprevalence of 0.8% and a PCR prevalence in foetuses of 1.1%, demonstrating the ability of BoHV-4 to infect the foetus. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH [less ▲]

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See detailThree Different Routes of Inoculation for Experimental Infection with Schmallenberg Virus in Sheep
Martinelle, Ludovic ULiege; Poskin, A.; Dal Pozzo, Fabiana ULiege et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2017), 64(1), 305-308

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging Orthobunyavirus affecting European domestic ruminants. In this study, three groups of ewes (n = 3) were inoculated with 1 ml of an SBV infectious serum, via the ... [more ▼]

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging Orthobunyavirus affecting European domestic ruminants. In this study, three groups of ewes (n = 3) were inoculated with 1 ml of an SBV infectious serum, via the subcutaneous (SC), intradermal (ID) or intranasal (IN) route. The ewes were monitored for 10 days and no clinical signs were reported. IN inoculation failed to generate any detectable RNAemia. SC and ID inoculation induced typical SBV RNAemia and seroconversion upon day 6 post-inoculation in 3/3 and 2/3 sheep, respectively. In all the animals that showed RNAemia, the viral genome could be detected in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Both the SC and ID routes seem suitable to properly reproduce field conditions, as comparable observations were reported regarding RNAemia, seroconversion and viral genome detection in organs. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Brussels, 2010-2013
Vluggen, C.; Soetaert, K.; Groenen, G. et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(2),

The tuberculosis (TB) incidence rate in Brussels-Capital Region is 3-fold higher than in Belgium as a whole. Eight years after the realization of initial prospective population-based molecular ... [more ▼]

The tuberculosis (TB) incidence rate in Brussels-Capital Region is 3-fold higher than in Belgium as a whole. Eight years after the realization of initial prospective population-based molecular epidemiology investigations in this Region, a similar study over the period 2010-2013 was conducted. TB strains isolated from 945 patients were submitted to genotyping by standardized 24-locus-MIRU-VNTR typing and spoligotyping. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the LAM (16.7%) and Haarlem (15.7%) branches are the two most prevalent TB lineages circulating in Brussels. Analysis of the MDR subgroup showed an association with Beijing strains (39.9%) and patients native of Eastern Europe (40.7%). Genotyping detected 113 clusters involving 321 patients, giving a recent transmission index of 22.9%. Molecular-guided epidemiological investigations and routine surveillance activities revealed family transmission or social contact for patients distributed over 34 clusters. Most of the patients were foreign-born (75.7%). However, cluster analysis revealed only limited transnational transmission. Comparison with the previous study shows a stable epidemiological situation except for the mean age difference between Belgian-born and foreign-born patients which has disappeared. This study confirms that molecular epidemiology has become an important determinant for TB control programs. However, sufficient financial means need to be available to perform all required epidemiological investigations. © 2017 Vluggen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. [less ▲]

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See detailShort communication: Trend analysis suggested a change in subspecies among Mycobacterium avium isolated from pigs in Belgium, 1967-2013
Soetaert, K; Vluggen, C; Duytschaever, L et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2017)

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See detailGenetic assessment of african swine fever isolates involved in outbreaks in the Democratic Republic Of Congo between 2005 and 2012 reveals co-circulation of p72 genotypes I, IX and XIV, including 19 variants
Mulumba-Mfumu, L. K.; Achenbach, J. E.; Mauldin, M. R. et al

in Viruses (2017), 9(2),

African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating disease of domestic pigs. It is a socioeconomically important disease, initially described from Kenya, but subsequently reported in most Sub-Saharan countries ... [more ▼]

African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating disease of domestic pigs. It is a socioeconomically important disease, initially described from Kenya, but subsequently reported in most Sub-Saharan countries. ASF spread to Europe, South America and the Caribbean through multiple introductions which were initially eradicated—except for Sardinia—followed by re-introduction into Europe in 2007. In this study of ASF within the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 62 domestic pig samples, collected between 2005-2012, were examined for viral DNA and sequencing at multiple loci: C-terminus of the B646L gene (p72 protein), central hypervariable region (CVR) of the B602L gene, and the E183L gene (p54 protein). Phylogenetic analyses identified three circulating genotypes: I (64.5% of samples), IX (32.3%), and XIV (3.2%). This is the first evidence of genotypes IX and XIV within this country. Examination of the CVR revealed high levels of intra-genotypic variation, with 19 identified variants. © 2017 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodology for the assessment of brucellosis management practices and its vaccination campaign: example in two Argentine districts.
Aznar, Maria Natalia ULiege; Arregui, M.; Humblet, M. F. et al

in BMC Veterinary Research (2017), 13(1), 281

BACKGROUND: In Argentina, vaccination with Brucella abortus Strain 19 vaccine is mandatory. The objective of the study was to develop and test a method for evaluating, in an innovative way, some farmers ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In Argentina, vaccination with Brucella abortus Strain 19 vaccine is mandatory. The objective of the study was to develop and test a method for evaluating, in an innovative way, some farmers' and veterinarians' management practices in relation to brucellosis and to assess the vaccination campaign and coverage. The work took place in Brandsen and Navarro districts. Four questionnaires were designed (for officials from Local Sanitary Entities, vaccinators, vet practitioners and farmers). Responses were coded as "ideal" (0) and "not ideal" (1). To assess the relative weight of each question ("item"), experts ranked the items according to their impact on management practices and vaccination. A weighted score was then calculated. A higher weighted score was assigned to the worse practices. Farmers obtaining a global weighted score above the third quartile were classified as "inappropriately managed farms", to be compared per type of production system and district. To assess the immunization coverage, female calves were sampled 30 to 50 days post vaccination; they were expected to react positively to serological diagnostic tests (DT+). RESULTS: There were significantly more inappropriately managed farms and higher global scores among beef farmers and in Brandsen. Eighty three percent (83%) of female calves were DT+, significantly under the ideal immunization coverage (95%). Only 48% of farms were considered well vaccinated. DT+ results were positively associated with the Brandsen district (OR = 25.94 [4.60-1146.21] and with the farms having more than 200 cow heads ((OR = 78.34 [4.09-1500.00]). On the contrary, DT+ were less associated with vaccinators being veterinary practitioners (OR = 0.07 [0.006-0.78]). Farmers are well advised by their veterinary practitioners but they should improve some management practices. CONCLUSIONS: The vaccination campaign is globally well implemented, but the immunization coverage and some vaccinators' practices should be improved. This study leads to a better understanding of the most common used management and control practices regarding brucellosis, which affect its epidemiology. Any vaccination campaign should be periodically assessed to highlight possible fails. The described methodology can be extrapolated to other countries and different contexts. [less ▲]

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