References of "Sérusiaux, Emmanuël"
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See detailThe fruticose genera in the Ramalinaceae (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes): their diversity and evolutionary history
Spjut, Richard; Simon, Antoine ULiege; Guissard, Martin et al

in MycoKeys (2020), 73

We present phylogenetic analyses of the fruticose Ramalinaceae based on extensive collections from many parts of the world, with a special focus on the Vizcaíno deserts in northwestern Mexico and the ... [more ▼]

We present phylogenetic analyses of the fruticose Ramalinaceae based on extensive collections from many parts of the world, with a special focus on the Vizcaíno deserts in northwestern Mexico and the coastal desert in Namibia. We generate a four-locus DNA sequence dataset for accessions of Ramalina and two additional loci for Niebla and Vermilacinia. Four genera are strongly supported: the subcosmopolitan Ramalina, the new genus Namibialina endemic to SW Africa, and a duo formed by Niebla and Vermilacinia, endemic to the New World except the sorediate V. zebrina that disjunctly occurs in Namibia. The latter three genera are restricted to coastal desert and chaparral where vegetation depends on moisture from ocean fog. Ramalina is subcosmopolitan and much more diverse in its ecology. We show that Ramalina and its sister genus Namibialina diverged from each other at c. 48 Myrs, whereas Vermilacinia and Niebla split at c. 30 Myrs. The phylogeny of the fruticose genera remains unresolved to their ancestral crustose genera. Species delimitation within Namibialina and Ramalina is rather straightforward. The phylogeny and taxonomy of Vermilacinia are fully resolved, except for the two youngest clades of corticolous taxa, and support current taxonomy, including four new taxa described here. Secondary metabolite variation in Niebla generally coincides with major clades which are comprised of species complexes with still unresolved phylogenetic relationships. A micro-endemism pattern of allopatric species is strongly suspected for both genera, except for the corticolous taxa within Vermilacinia. Both Niebla and saxicolous Vermilacinia have chemotypes unique to species clades that are largely endemic to the Vizcaíno deserts. The following new taxa are described: Namibialina gen. nov. with N. melanothrix (comb. nov.) as type species, a single new species of Ramalina (R. krogiae) and four new species of Vermilacinia (V. breviloba, V. lacunosa, V. pustulata and V. reticulata). The new combination V. granulans is introduced. Two epithets are reintroduced for European Ramalina species: R. crispans (= R. peruviana auct. eur.) and R. rosacea (= R. bourgeana auct. p.p). A lectotype is designated for Vermilacinia procera. A key to saxicolous species of Vermilacinia is presented. [less ▲]

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See detailCophylogenetic patterns in algal symbionts correlate with repeated symbiont switches during diversification and geographic expansion of lichen-forming fungi in the genus Sticta (Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae)
Lindgren, Hanna; Moncada, Bibiana; Lucking, Robert et al

in Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (2020)

Highlights • We explored cophylogenetic patterns of fungal and algal partners in the genus Sticta. • Sticta associates with green algae from five genera in Trebouxiophyceae. • Sticta are selective towards ... [more ▼]

Highlights • We explored cophylogenetic patterns of fungal and algal partners in the genus Sticta. • Sticta associates with green algae from five genera in Trebouxiophyceae. • Sticta are selective towards their algal symbionts. • Photosymbiodemes with green algae evolved multiple times in Sticta. Abstract Species in the fungal genus Sticta form symbiotic associations primarily with either green algae or cyanobacteria, but tripartite associations or photosymbiodemes involving both types of photobionts occur in some species. Sticta is known to associate with green algae in the genus Symbiochloris. However, previous studies have shown that algae from other genera, such as Heveochlorella, may also be suitable partners for Sticta. We examined the diversity of green algal partners in the genus Sticta and assessed the patterns of association between the host fungus and its algal symbiont. We used multi-locus sequence data from multiple individuals collected in Australia, Cuba, Madagascar, Mauritius, New Zealand, Reunion and South America to infer phylogenies for fungal and algal partners and performed tests of congruence to assess coevolution between the partners. In addition, event-based methods were implemented to examine which cophylogenetic processes have led to the observed association patterns in Sticta and its green algal symbionts. Our results show that in addition to Symbiochloris, Sticta associates with green algae from the genera Chloroidium, Coccomyxa, Elliptochloris and Heveochlorella, the latter being the most common algal symbiont associated with Sticta in this study. Geography plays a strong role in shaping fungal-algal association patterns in Sticta as mycobionts associate with different algal lineages in different geographic locations. While fungal and algal phylogenies were mostly congruent, event-based methods did not find any evidence for cospeciation between the partners. Instead, the association patterns observed in Sticta and associated algae, were largely explained by other cophylogenetic events such as host-switches, losses of symbiont and failure of the symbiont to diverge with its host. Our results also show that tripartite associations with green algae evolved multiple times in Sticta. [less ▲]

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See detailPhylogenetic evidence for an expanded circumscription of Gabura (Arctomiaceae)
Magain, Nicolas ULiege; Spribille, Toby; DiMeglio, Joseph et al

in Lichenologist (2020), 52(1), 3-15

Since the advent of molecular taxonomy, numerous lichen-forming fungi with homoiomerous thalli initially classified in the family Collemataceae Zenker have been transferred to other families, highlighting ... [more ▼]

Since the advent of molecular taxonomy, numerous lichen-forming fungi with homoiomerous thalli initially classified in the family Collemataceae Zenker have been transferred to other families, highlighting the extent of morphological convergence within Lecanoromycetes O. E. Erikss. & Winka. While the higher level classification of these fungi might be clarified by such transfers, numerous specific and generic classifications remain to be addressed. We examined the relationships within the broadly circumscribed genus Arctomia Th. Fr., which has been the recipient of several transfers from Collemataceae. We demonstrated that Arctomia insignis (P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg) Ertz does not belong to Arctomia s. str. but forms a strong monophyletic group with Gabura fascicularis (L.) P. M. Jørg. We also confirmed that Arctomia borbonica Magain & Sérus. and the closely related Arctomia insignis represent two species. We formally transferred A. insignis and A. borbonica to the genus Gabura Adans. and introduced two new combinations: Gabura insignis and Gabura borbonica. We reported Gabura insignis from Europe (Scotland and Ireland) for the first time. While material from Europe and North America is genetically almost identical, specimens from Madagascar, South Africa and Reunion Island belong to three distinct phylogenetic lineages, all of which are present in the latter area and may represent distinct species. In its current circumscription, the genus Gabura may contain up to six species, whereas Arctomia s. str. includes only two species (A. delicatula Th. Fr. and A. teretiuscula P. M. Jørg.). The Gabura insignis group is shown to have an unexpectedly large, subcosmopolitan distribution. With the extended sampling from Arctomiaceae Th. Fr., the placement of Steinera sorediata P. James & Henssen in the genus Steinera Zahlbr. is confirmed and the presence of a new Steinera species from Chile is highlighted. [less ▲]

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See detailSharpening species boundaries in the Micarea prasina group, with a new circumscription of the type species M. prasina
Launis, Annina; Malícek, Jirí; Svensson, Mans et al

in Mycologia (2019)

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See detailUnderstanding the evolution of phenotypical characters in the Micarea prasina group (Pilocarpaceae) and descriptions of six new species within the group
Guzow-Krzemińska, Beata; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULiege; van den Boom, Pieter P.G. et al

in MycoKeys (2019), 57

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See detailFour new epiphytic species in the Micarea prasina group from Europe
Launis, Annina; Pykälä, Juha; van den Boom, Pieter et al

in Lichenologist (2019), 51(1), 7-25

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See detailETAT DU TERRITOIRE WALLON - PARTIE 2 : DYNAMIQUES SECTORIELLES TERRITORIALISÉES
Godart, Marie-Françoise; Lambotte, Jean-Marc ULiege; Bianchet, Bruno ULiege et al

Conference (2018, December 08)

Ce support PPT est basé sur les travaux menés sur le volet Analyses sectorielles de l'Etat du territoire wallon réalisé en 2015-2016 par la CPDT. Il a servi de base lors d'un exposé réalisé dans le cadre ... [more ▼]

Ce support PPT est basé sur les travaux menés sur le volet Analyses sectorielles de l'Etat du territoire wallon réalisé en 2015-2016 par la CPDT. Il a servi de base lors d'un exposé réalisé dans le cadre du Colloque 2016 de la CPDT sur le thème : Territoire(s) wallon(s) : tendances et perspectives. Dans ce cadre, le Lepur-ULiège a pris en charge l'analyse de 7 des 16 secteurs étudiés : COMMERCE, ACTIVITÉS ÉCONOMIQUES MARCHANDES, PRODUCTION, TRANSPORT ET STOCKAGE DE L’ÉNERGIE, TECHNOLOGIES DE L’INFORMATION ET DE LA COMMUNICATION, EAU, PATRIMOINE BÂTI, BIODIVERSITÉ [less ▲]

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See detailSpecies in section Peltidea (aphthosa group) of the genus Peltigera remain cryptic after molecular phylogenetic revision
Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Magain, Nicolas ULiege; Pardo de la Hoz, Carlos et al

in Plant and Fungal Systematics (2018), 63(2), 4564

Closely related lichen-forming fungal species circumscribed using phenotypic traits (morphospecies) do not always align well with phylogenetic inferences based on molecular data. Using multilocus data ... [more ▼]

Closely related lichen-forming fungal species circumscribed using phenotypic traits (morphospecies) do not always align well with phylogenetic inferences based on molecular data. Using multilocus data obtained from a worldwide sampling, we inferred phylogenetic relationships among five currently accepted morphospecies of Peltigera section Peltidea (P. aphthosa group). Monophyletic circumscription of all currently recognized morphospecies (P. britannica, P. chionophila, P. frippii and P. malacea) except P. aphthosa, which contained P. britannica, was confirmed with high bootstrap support. Following their re-delimitation using bGMYC and Structurama, BPP validated 14 putative species including nine previously unrecognized potential species (five within P. malacea, five within P. aphthosa, and two within P. britannica). Because none of the undescribed potential species are corroborated morphologically, chemically, geographically or ecologically, we concluded that these monophyletic entities represent intraspecific phylogenetic structure, and, therefore, should not be recognized as new species. Cyanobionts associated with Peltidea mycobionts (51 individuals) represented 22 unique rbcLX haplotypes from five phylogroups in Clade II subclades 2 and 3. With rare exceptions, Nostoc taxa involved in trimembered and bimembered associations are phylogenetically closely related (subclade 2) or identical, suggesting a mostly shared cyanobiont pool with infrequent switches. Based on a broad geographical sampling, we confirm a high specificity of Nostoc subclade 2 with their mycobionts, including a mutualistically exclusive association between phylogroup III and specific lineages of P. malacea [less ▲]

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See detailSpecies delimitation at a global scale reveals high species richness with complex biogeography and patterns of symbiont association in Peltigera section Peltigera (lichenized Ascomycota: Lecanoromycetes)
Magain, Nicolas ULiege; Truong, Camille; Goward, Trevor et al

in Taxon (2018), 67(5), 836-870

This comprehensive phylogenetic revision of sections Peltigera and Retifoveatae of the cyanolichen genus Peltigera is based on DNA sequences from more than 500 specimens from five continents. We amplified ... [more ▼]

This comprehensive phylogenetic revision of sections Peltigera and Retifoveatae of the cyanolichen genus Peltigera is based on DNA sequences from more than 500 specimens from five continents. We amplified five loci (nrITS, β-tubulin and three intergenic spacers part of colinear orthologous regions [COR]) for the mycobiont, and the rbcLX locus for the cyanobacterial partner Nostoc. Phylogenetic inferences (RAxML, BEAST) and species delimitation methods (bGMYC, bPTP, bPP) suggest the presence of 88 species in section Peltigera, including 50 species new to science, hence uncovering a surprisingly high proportion of previously unnoticed biodiversity. The hypervariable region in ITS1 (ITS1-HR) is a powerful marker to identify species within sections Peltigera and Retifoveatae. Most newly delimited species are restricted to a single biogeographic region, however, up to ten species have a nearly cosmopolitan distribution. The specificity of mycobionts in their association with Nostoc cyanobionts ranges from strict specialists (associate with only one Nostoc phylogroup) to broad generalists (up to eight Nostoc phylogroups uncovered), with widespread species recruiting a broader selection of Nostoc phylogroups than species with limited distributions. In contrast, species from the P. didactyla clade characterized by small thalli and asexual vegetative propagules (soredia) associate with fewer Nostoc phylogroups (i.e., are more specialized) despite their broad distributions, and show significantly higher rates of nucleotide substitutions. [less ▲]

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See detailOligocene origin and drivers of diversification in the genus Sticta (Lobariaceae, Ascomycota)
Widhelm, Todd J.; Bertolettiq, Francesca R.; Asztalos, Matt J. et al

in Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (2018), 126

A major challenge to evolutionary biologists is to understand how biodiversity is distributed through space and time and across the tree of life. Diversification of organisms is influenced by many factors ... [more ▼]

A major challenge to evolutionary biologists is to understand how biodiversity is distributed through space and time and across the tree of life. Diversification of organisms is influenced by many factors that act at different times and geographic locations but it is still not clear which have a significant impact and how drivers interact. To study diversification, we chose the lichen genus Sticta, by sampling through most of the global range and producing a time tree. We estimate that Sticta originated about 30 million years ago, but biogoegraphic analysis was unclear in estimating the origin of the genus. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of dispersal ability finding that Sticta has a high dispersal rate, as collections from Hawaii showed that divergent lineages colonized the islands at least four times. Symbiont interactions were investigated using BiSSE to understand if green-algal or cyanobacterial symbiont interactions influenced diversification, only to find that the positive results were driven almost completely by Type I error. On the other hand, another BiSSE analysis found that an association with Andean tectonic activity increases the speciation rate of species. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh diversity, high insular endemism and recent origin in the lichen genus Sticta (lichenized Ascomycota, Peltigerales) in Madagascar and the Mascarenes
Simon, Antoine ULiege; Goffinet, Bernard; Magain, Nicolas ULiege et al

in Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (2018), 22

Lichen biodiversity and its generative evolutionary processes are practically unknown in the MIOI (Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands) biodiversity hotspot. We sought to test the hypothesis that ... [more ▼]

Lichen biodiversity and its generative evolutionary processes are practically unknown in the MIOI (Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands) biodiversity hotspot. We sought to test the hypothesis that lichenized fungi in this region have undergone a rapid radiation, following a single colonization event, giving rise to narrow endemics, as is characteristic of other lineages of plants. We extensively sampled specimens of the lichen genus Sticta in the Mascarene archipelago (mainly Réunion) and in Madagascar, mainly in the northern range (Amber Mt and Marojejy Mt) and produced the fungal ITS barcode sequence for 148 thalli. We further produced a four-loci data matrix for 68 of them, representing the diversity and geographical distribution of ITS haplotypes. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships within this group, established species boundaries with morphological context, and estimated the date of the most recent common ancestor. Our inferences resolve a robust clade comprising 31 endemic species of Sticta that arose from the diversification following a single recent (c. 11 Mya) colonization event. All but three species have a very restricted range, endemic to either the Mascarene archipelago or a single massif in Madagascar. The first genus of lichens to be studied with molecular data in this region underwent a recent radiation, exhibits micro-endemism, and thus exemplifies the biodiversity characteristics found in other taxa in Madagascar and the Mascarenes. [less ▲]

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See detailA new Micarea species from western Europe, belonging in the Micarea denigrata group
van den Boom, Pieter P. G.; Brand, Maarten; Coppins, Brian J. et al

in Herzogia (2018), 31(1), 385-389

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See detailConserved genomic collinearity as a source of broadly applicable, fast evolving, markers to resolve species complexes: A case study using the lichen-forming genus Peltigera section Polydactylon
Magain, Nicolas ULiege; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Mueller, Olaf et al

in Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (2017), 117(12), 10-29

Synteny can be maintained for certain genomic regions across broad phylogenetic groups. In these homologous genomic regions, sites that are under relaxed purifying selection, such as intergenic regions ... [more ▼]

Synteny can be maintained for certain genomic regions across broad phylogenetic groups. In these homologous genomic regions, sites that are under relaxed purifying selection, such as intergenic regions, could be used broadly as markers for population genetic and phylogenetic studies on species complexes. To explore the potential of this approach, we found 125 Collinear Orthologous Regions (COR) ranging from 1 to >10 kb across nine genomes representing the Lecanoromycetes and Eurotiomycetes (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota). Twenty-six of these COR were found in all 24 eurotiomycete genomes surveyed for this study. Given the high abundance and availability of fungal genomes we believe this approach could be adopted for other large groups of fungi outside the Pezizomycotina. As a proof of concept, we selected three Collinear Orthologous Regions (COR1b, COR3, and COR16), based on synteny analyses of several genomes representing three classes of Ascomycota: Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, and Lichinomycetes. COR16, for example, was found across these three classes of fungi. Here we compare the resolving power of these three new markers with five loci commonly used in phylogenetic studies of fungi, using section Polydactylon of the cyanolichen-forming genus Peltigera (Lecanoromycetes) – a clade with several challenging species complexes. Sequence data were subjected to three species discovery and two validating methods. COR markers substantially increased phylogenetic resolution and confidence, and highly contributed to species delimitation. The level of phylogenetic signal provided by each of the COR markers was higher than the commonly used fungal barcode ITS. High cryptic diversity was revealed by all methods. As redefined here, most species represent lineages that have relatively narrower, and more homogeneous biogeographical ranges than previously understood. The scabrosoid clade consists of ten species, seven of which are new. For the dolichorhizoid clade, twenty-two new species were discovered for a total of twenty-nine species in this clade. [less ▲]

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See detailComplete mitogenome sequence of Ricasolia amplissima (Lobariaceae) reveals extensive mitochondrial DNA rearrangement within the Peltigerales (lichenized ascomycetes)
Simon, Antoine ULiege; Liu, Yang; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULiege et al

in Bryologist (2017), 120(3), 335-339

The structure of mitochondrial genomes varies among non-lichenized fungi in terms of their genic and intronic content and genic order. Whether lichenized fungal mitogenomes are equally labile is unknown ... [more ▼]

The structure of mitochondrial genomes varies among non-lichenized fungi in terms of their genic and intronic content and genic order. Whether lichenized fungal mitogenomes are equally labile is unknown due to the paucity of available mitogenomes. We assembled the mitogenome of Ricasolia amplissima (Peltigerales, Lobariaceae), using massive parallel sequencing, and compared its structure to that of two species of Peltigera (Peltigeraceae). The mitochondrial genome of R. amplissima comprised 82,333 bp, with a 29.8% G+C content, and holds 15 unique protein-coding genes, 29 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and one non-coding RNA gene. Although the protein-coding gene content in the mitogenome of Peltigera and Ricasolia was identical, the relative gene order differed substantially, revealing that significant gene rearrangements also characterize the evolution of mitogenomes of lichenized ascomycetes at a relatively shallow phylogenetic depth, such as within the order Peltigerales. [less ▲]

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See detailWorldwide spatio-temporal patterns of symbiotic specificity between Peltigera and its Nostoc partners
Magain, Nicolas ULiege; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Lu, Jade et al

Scientific conference (2017, May)

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See detailAgriculture et nature : voyage au coeur de la Roumanie
Geboes, Anne-Laure ULiege; Sottiaux, Ludovic ULiege; Spronck, Christelle et al

Article for general public (2017)

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See detailTwo new species in the Micarea prasina group from Western Europe
van den Boom, Pieter P. G.; Brand, A. Maarten; Coppins, Brian J. et al

in Lichenologist (2017), 49(1), 13-25

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See detailMacroevolution of Specificity in Cyanolichens of the Genus Peltigera Section Polydactylon (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota)
Magain, Nicolas ULiege; Miadlikoswka, Jolanta; Goffinet, Bernard et al

in Systematic Biology (2017), 66(1), 74-99

Patterns of specificity among symbiotic partners are key to a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of symbiotic systems. Specificity of mutualistic partners, within a widespread monophyletic group ... [more ▼]

Patterns of specificity among symbiotic partners are key to a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of symbiotic systems. Specificity of mutualistic partners, within a widespread monophyletic group for which all species are sampled has rarely been explored. Here, we assess the level of specificity between the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungus (mycobiont) from the genus Peltigera, section Polydactylon, and its cyanobacterial partner Nostoc (cyanobiont). The mycobiont and cyanobiont phylogenies are inferred from five nuclear loci and the rbcLX region, respectively. These sequences were obtained from 206 lichen thalli, representing ca. 40 closely related Peltigera species sampled worldwide, doubling the number of known species in this group. We found a broad spectrum of specificity for both partners ranging from strict specialists to generalists. Overall, mycobionts are more specialized than cyanobionts by associating mostly with one or a few Nostoc phylogroups, whereas most cyanobionts associate frequently with several Peltigera species. Specialist mycobionts are older than generalists, supporting the hypothesis that specialization of mycobionts to one or few cyanobionts, is favored through time in geographic areas where species have been established for long periods of time. The relatively recent colonization of a new geographic area (Central and South America) by members of section Polydactylon is associated with a switch to a generalist pattern of association and an increased diversification rate by the fungal partner, suggesting that switches to generalism are rare events that are advantageous in new environments. We detected higher genetic diversity in generalist mycobionts. We also found that Peltigera species specialized on a single Nostoc phylogroup have narrower geographical distributions compared with generalist species. [less ▲]

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See detailThe importance of spatio-temporal photobiont patterns of association for comprehensive phylogenetic revisions and macroevolutionary studies of lichens: a worldwide case study of the genus Peltigera.
Magain, Nicolas ULiege; Lutzoni, Francois; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULiege et al

Conference (2016, August)

Within the framework of a worldwide revision of Peltigera, several thousand specimens were gath ered to attempt to sequence all main partners (i.e., Peltigera, nrITS, nrLSU, RPB1, EFT2.1, ß-tubulin, COR1b ... [more ▼]

Within the framework of a worldwide revision of Peltigera, several thousand specimens were gath ered to attempt to sequence all main partners (i.e., Peltigera, nrITS, nrLSU, RPB1, EFT2.1, ß-tubulin, COR1b, COR3, COR16; Nostoc, rbcLX; and Coccomyxa, nrITS and rbcL). We succeeded to sequence the fungal and cyanobacterial partners for 1900 and 650 specimens, respectively. The difficulty to identify Peltigera species and to understand the observed phenotypic variation was due to a high number of cryptic species within phenotypically defined species. This study identified 900 unique fungal ITS haplotypes and increased the number of Peltigera species from 90 known species to > 170 species when using various species discovery and validation methods. Sixty Nostoc phylogroups were found in association with Peltigera. Patterns of Peltigera species and Nostoc phylogroup diversity, iogeographical distributions, and specificity towards their respective partners, greatly differ among Peltigera sections. The overarching trend is that nearly 85% of Peltigera species are specialized on one or two Nostoc phylogroups, whereas > 55% of Nostoc phylogroups associates with at least three Peltigera species. The number of species in sections Peltigera (~95 species) and Polydactylon (~55 species) was much higher than expected and Nostoc phylogroups can help delimit and identify Peltigera species [less ▲]

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See detailRecent and rapid radiation of the lichen genus Sticta in the Western Indian Ocean islands
Simon, Antoine ULiege; Magain, Nicolas ULiege; Goffinet, Bernard et al

Poster (2016, February 05)

In the framework of a global project on the phylogeny of the lichen genus Sticta (Lobariaceae), extensive sampling was performed on the islands of Reunion and Mauritius as well as in several parts of ... [more ▼]

In the framework of a global project on the phylogeny of the lichen genus Sticta (Lobariaceae), extensive sampling was performed on the islands of Reunion and Mauritius as well as in several parts of Madagascar (mainly in two National Parks : Marojejy and Amber Mountain). The aim of this study is to provide the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the genus in the Western Indian Ocean islands (and more specifically of a presumably local endemic lineage), and to date its local radiation. DNA sequences were obtained from 69 specimens for four loci and phylogenetic relationships were inferred using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences methods. We estimated divergence times using BEAST. Thirty putative species can be recognized, only 5 have a validly published epithet. All these species form a well-supported monophyletic group within the genus Sticta, and display interesting patterns of endemism: a single species is present in all islands, while the others are restricted either to Madagascar, to Reunion and Mauritius, or to Reunion only. The estimated divergence time of the radiation of this clade occurred in the upper Miocene, apparently concurrent with the emergence of Mauritius. The tree topology obtained supports an original diversification of the clade in the Mascarenes archipelago rather than in Madagascar. [less ▲]

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