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See detailExperimental investigation of decision-making processes in daily physically active behaviors using a virtual reality set-up
Ruffault, Alexis ULiege; Cloes, Marc ULiege; Schyns, Michael ULiege et al

Poster (2018, August)

Background: Energy expenditure provided by physical activity (PA) can be significantly increased by daily behaviors (stair use, walking). However, factors from the environment, and motivational and ... [more ▼]

Background: Energy expenditure provided by physical activity (PA) can be significantly increased by daily behaviors (stair use, walking). However, factors from the environment, and motivational and volitional processes, tend to impact the decisions when an active solution (stairs) is available at the same time as an inactive solution (elevator). The aim of this study is to identify the decision-making processes implicated in daily PA when time and effort to reach an objective (e.g., a meeting) vary. Methods: 150 healthy adults will be randomized to one of three experiments after filling out questionnaires measuring habits regarding PA, motivational, and volitional factors of PA adoption. Experiment 1 is a first-person 3D interactive movie where 3 actors are waiting at the point-of-decision, where peers’ behaviors and availability of the inactive solution vary. Experiment 2 is a virtual replication of a business school, where previous knowledge of the building and disposition of the stairs (hidden/visible) vary. Experiment 3 is a virtual modified version of the business school where a stairwell and an escalator provide access to the first floor, using implicit (steps on the floor) and explicit (motivational messages) as point-of-decision prompts. Expected results: Results will be analyzed in line with the integrated behavior change model (Hagger & Chatzisarantis, 2014) and the naturalistic decision-making theory (Klein, 2015). Current stage of work: Participants will be contacted for experimentations from February to June 2018. Discussion: Real time decision-making processes will be linked to processes of change regarding PA, allowing for recommendations for future interventional designs. [less ▲]

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See detailÊtes-vous une personne active ou passive ? La réalité virtuelle pour identifier les facteurs en jeu dans cette prise de décision comportementale
Bolat, Filiz ULiege; Wagener, Aurélie ULiege; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege et al

Poster (2018, April)

L’activité physique est bénéfique pour la santé. Néanmoins, peu de personnes en pratique. A travers des immersions en réalité virtuelle, des processus cognitifs liés à la prise de décision face à des ... [more ▼]

L’activité physique est bénéfique pour la santé. Néanmoins, peu de personnes en pratique. A travers des immersions en réalité virtuelle, des processus cognitifs liés à la prise de décision face à des choix comportementaux sont étudiés. Plus précisément, cette étude vise à déterminer les facteurs individuels (par exemple, les croyances, intentions, motivation, …) et interpersonnels (par exemple, les normes sociales, …) favorisant l’adoption d’un comportement actif (i.e., prendre les escaliers) plutôt qu’un comportement sédentaire (i.e., prendre l’ascenseur). Des sujets tout-venants, âgés d’au moins 18 ans, ont été recrutés via une enquête en ligne (N = 23). Il leur est demandé de compléter des questionnaires évaluant les variables individuelles et interpersonnelles. Ensuite, les participants sont immergés à huit reprises dans un environnement virtuel. Lors de ces immersions, les participants ont pour objectif d’atteindre une salle de réunion. L’environnement immersif varie en fonction de différentes conditions (nombre de personnes qui prennent l’ascenseur/l’escalier, l’urgence, l’effort - 1er étage/3ème étage). Après l’immersion en réalité virtuelle, un entretien d’auto-confrontation est mené par l’expérimentatrice. Lors de cet entretien, basé sur un enregistrement vidéo de l’immersion, il est demandé au participant ce qui a guidé ses choix dans l’environnement. L’ensemble de ces résultats seront mis en relation avec les données individuelles recueillies lors de l’enquête en ligne. Ces résultats seront présentés et discutés lors du colloque. [less ▲]

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See detailQuels sont nos choix par rapport à nos activités physiques quotidiennes ?
Hinderlich, Maria ULiege; Wagener, Aurélie ULiege; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege et al

Poster (2018, April)

Les croyances par rapport aux activités physiques de la vie quotidienne varient d'une personne à une autre. Cette étude mesure les relations entre différentes variables (i.e., urgence, accessibilité de ... [more ▼]

Les croyances par rapport aux activités physiques de la vie quotidienne varient d'une personne à une autre. Cette étude mesure les relations entre différentes variables (i.e., urgence, accessibilité de l’ascenseur, nombre d’étages pour atteindre l’objectif) et des choix comportementaux (i.e., prendre l’ascenseur ou les escaliers). L’influence de certaines variables intrapersonnelles (i.e., capacités physiques, niveau sportif, emploi) sur ces choix comportementaux est également mesurée. Une vingtaine de participants âgés de plus de 18 ans participeront à cette étude. Ils compléteront tous différents questionnaires auto-rapportés via une enquête en ligne. Ces échelles évaluent respectivement les capacités physiques des individus, leur niveau sportif ainsi que leur emploi. Ils seront ensuite immergés en réalité virtuelle. Lors de ces immersions, il sera demandé aux participants de réaliser différents choix comportementaux dans différents contextes variant en fonction de l’urgence de la situation, de l’accessibilité de l’ascenseur ou encore du nombre d’étages pour atteindre l’objectif (c-à-d, une salle de réunion au 1er ou au 3ème étage). Après ces immersions, les participants visionneront une vidéo de leurs immersions : il leur sera alors demander de commenter leurs choix et d’exprimer leurs ressentis. L’ensemble des résultats seront présentés et discutés lors du colloque. [less ▲]

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See detailNotre décision d’adopter un comportement actif peut-elle être influencée par des incitateurs ?
Menghi, Samantha ULiege; Wagener, Aurélie ULiege; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege et al

Poster (2018, April)

L’inactivité physique est un comportement de plus en plus répandu. Elle est un facteur de risque important pour de nombreuses maladies chroniques. Pourtant, notre environnement ne facilite pas, voire rend ... [more ▼]

L’inactivité physique est un comportement de plus en plus répandu. Elle est un facteur de risque important pour de nombreuses maladies chroniques. Pourtant, notre environnement ne facilite pas, voire rend difficile, l’adoption de comportement actif au quotidien. Cette étude vise à évaluer l’influence de différents incitateurs sur la décision à adopter un comportement actif. Ces incitateurs consistent en 1) des pas dessinés sur le sol qui mènent jusqu’à un escalier et 2) des messages positifs ou négatifs évoquant les bienfaits ou non de monter les escaliers. Des sujets tout-venants âgés de plus de 18 ans seront, à travers des immersions en réalité virtuelle, mis en présence d’invitations à adopter un comportement actif, c’est-à-dire monter les escaliers plutôt que de prendre l’ascenseur. Afin d’évaluer l’impact de ces incitateurs, en plus des immersions en réalité virtuelle, les participants ont complété différents questionnaires en ligne permettant de mesurer leur intention initiale à opter pour un comportement actif. Le premier questionnaire, basé sur la théorie de comportement planifié, explore les croyances liées à l’activité physique, aux attitudes et intentions de changement quant au fait de monter les escaliers ou non. Le deuxième questionnaire interroge l’activité physique quotidienne des participants. Les résultats de cette étude seront présentés et discutés lors du colloque. [less ▲]

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See detailEscaliers ou ascenseur ? Utilisation de la réalité virtuelle pour identifier les déterminants qui influencent notre décision
Miesse, Florence ULiege; Wagener, Aurélie ULiege; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege et al

Poster (2018, April)

Pratiquer de l’activité physique (par exemple, prendre systématiquement les escaliers plutôt que l’ascenseur) peut avoir de grands bénéfices sur la santé. Cette étude vise à identifier les variables qui ... [more ▼]

Pratiquer de l’activité physique (par exemple, prendre systématiquement les escaliers plutôt que l’ascenseur) peut avoir de grands bénéfices sur la santé. Cette étude vise à identifier les variables qui incitent des individus tout-venants à choisir une solution active (i.e., prendre les escaliers) ou passive (i.e., prendre l’ascenseur). Pour ce faire, deux sources de données seront utilisées : des questionnaires complétés en ligne et des immersions en réalité virtuelle. Les questionnaires permettront de récolter les informations sociodémographiques, le niveau d’activité physique (IPAQ) et les motivations à pratiquer de l’activité physique (ÉMAPS) des participants. Après avoir complété les questionnaires, les sujets seront répartis en deux groupes en fonction de leur familiarité avec le bâtiment ayant inspiré l’environnement virtuel : connaissance du bâtiment versus absence de connaissance. Ils seront ensuite immergés dans un environnement virtuel représentant ce bâtiment avec pour objectif d’atteindre une salle de réunion. Chaque participant sera immergé dans huit contextes aléatoires différents (escaliers visibles ou non, urgence de temps ou non, objectif au 1er ou au 3ème étage). Ces immersions seront enregistrées et revisionnées par le participant afin qu’il effectue pour chacune d’elles un exercice de « think aloud » et un exercice d’auto-confrontation qui nous permettront de connaitre ce qui a guidé son choix dans l’environnement (buts, pensées, ressentis, attentes). L’ensemble des résultats de cette étude seront présentés et discutés lors du colloque. [less ▲]

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See detailLe self-control prédit-il la marche au quotidien ?
Vangramberen, Audrey ULiege; Wagener, Aurélie ULiege; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege et al

Poster (2018, April)

La marche est la cible de nombreuses initiatives de promotion de la santé visant à augmenter l’activité physique. Toutefois, la compréhension des déterminants de ce comportement reste partielle. Le trait ... [more ▼]

La marche est la cible de nombreuses initiatives de promotion de la santé visant à augmenter l’activité physique. Toutefois, la compréhension des déterminants de ce comportement reste partielle. Le trait de self-control est lié à des réponses adaptatives dans des domaines variés dont des comportements de santé. Néanmoins, ce trait est encore peu étudié en relation avec la marche. Cette étude vise à investiguer l’impact du self-control sur la marche au quotidien, notamment sur le choix d’emprunter l’escalier plutôt que l’ascenseur. Les participants sont des adultes (18+) de la région liégeoise ne connaissant pas le bâtiment universitaire ayant servi de modèle pour créer l’environnement virtuel utilisé dans l’étude. La première partie de l’étude est composée de questionnaires en ligne concernant (i) le self-control et (ii) les activités physiques liées à la marche. La seconde partie de l’étude consiste en 8 immersions en réalité virtuelle. Un script vidéo assigne au sujet la tâche de se rendre à une réunion de travail dans un environnement décliné en deux possibilités : « escalier caché » versus « travaux dans l’escalier + escalier de chantier au milieu du hall ». Pour chaque configuration, quatre scénarios correspondant au croisement de deux variables sont présentés : 1) urgence versus pas d’urgence ; 2) réunion au 1er étage versus au 3ième étage. Dans chaque immersion, le sujet peut choisir d’emprunter soit l’ascenseur (= choix sédentaire), soit l’escalier (= choix actif). Les résultats de cette étude seront présentés et discutés lors du colloque. [less ▲]

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See detailComparaison des déterminants psychologiques dans le processus de changement de comportement par l’activité physique chez les personnes en excès de poids et les personnes de poids normal
Wynants, Julie; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege; Ruffault, Alexis ULiege

Poster (2018, April)

L’OMS estime que 60% de la population mondiale ne pratiquerait pas suffisamment d'activité physique. Ainsi, la promotion de l'activité physique représente un réel enjeu de santé publique, et plus ... [more ▼]

L’OMS estime que 60% de la population mondiale ne pratiquerait pas suffisamment d'activité physique. Ainsi, la promotion de l'activité physique représente un réel enjeu de santé publique, et plus précisément pour la prévention de l'excès de poids. L’objectif de notre étude est d’identifier les déterminants sociocognitifs de l’activité physique spécifiques aux individus en excès de poids comparativement aux individus de poids normal. 364 adultes tout-venants ont répondu à une enquête en ligne mesurant l’indice de masse corporelle, les stades du changement, la motivation, les croyances, les intentions et le niveau d’activité physique. Nous avons comparé les scores des participants en excès de poids (n=129) et de poids normal (n=232). Les résultats montrent que les individus de poids normal ont des scores plus élevés que les individus en excès de poids au niveau de l’intention de changement, des croyances (contrôle perçu et attitudes) et de l’autonomie relative ; et des scores moins élevés de l’amotivation et de la régulation externe. La proportion des individus à poids normal est plus grande au stade du maintien et en reprise que chez les personnes en excès de poids. Les deux groupes d’individus ne présentent pas de différence significative sur leur niveau d’activité physique et le temps passé à des activités sédentaires. Même s’ils ne présentent pas de différences significatives de leur niveau d’activité physique auto-rapportée, les individus en excès de poids semblent présenter des difficultés dans les processus sociocognitifs de l’adoption de comportements actifs comparativement aux individus à poids normal. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations of lifetime traumatic experience with dysfunctional eating patterns and post-surgery weight-loss in adults with obesity: a retrospective study
Ruffault, Alexis ULiege; Vaugeois, Fanny; Barsamian, Charles et al

in Stress and Health (2018)

This study aimed to examine the associations of lifetime traumatic experience with pre- and post-surgery eating pathology and postoperative weight-loss in a sample of bariatric surgery patients using ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to examine the associations of lifetime traumatic experience with pre- and post-surgery eating pathology and postoperative weight-loss in a sample of bariatric surgery patients using electronic medical record (EMR) data. Pre-surgery lifetime exposure to traumatic event, pre- and post-surgery dysfunctional eating patterns, and post-operative total and excess weight losses were extracted from EMR of 200 bariatric surgery patients in 2013 and 2014. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. 60.5% of the patients (81.5% women; age=44.4±11.5 years; BMIpre=44.9±5.5 kg/m2) reported that they were exposed to a traumatic event during their lifetime. Before surgery, trauma exposure was associated with impulsive, compulsive or restrictive eating patterns (OR=2.40), overeating or disturbed eating (OR=1.55), and grazing or night eating behaviors (OR=1.72). After surgery, trauma exposure was associated with lower total weight loss at 6 months (OR=2.06) and 24 months (OR=2.06), and to overeating or disturbed eating (OR=1.53) 12 months after surgery. Bariatric surgery candidates with a history of trauma exposure could benefit from closer medical, dietetic, and/or psychological follow-up care to avoid insufficient postoperative weight loss as well as reappearance of dysfunctional eating patterns after surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rôle de la pleine conscience dans l’accompagnement de patients obèses : Quand, pourquoi et comment intervenir ?
Ruffault, Alexis ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Exposure to adverse life events has been associated with adult obesity, and could translate into the appearance of eating disorders. Moreover, exposure to adverse life events has been associated with ... [more ▼]

Exposure to adverse life events has been associated with adult obesity, and could translate into the appearance of eating disorders. Moreover, exposure to adverse life events has been associated with emotional dysregulation, which would be in turn linked to higher prevalence of eating disorders. Furthermore, mindfulness skills (i.e., non-judgmental awareness of thoughts, emotions, and bodily sensations in the present-moment) have been the object of increased attention in the scientific literature as a means to increase emotion regulation and treat eating disorders in obese patients. The first part of this thesis studies the associations of exposure to adverse life events with eating patterns in obese patients. Two studies have been conducted in this part : the first aiming at assessing the association of exposure to adverse life events with postoperative weight-loss, as well as pre- and postoperative eating patterns ; and the second aiming at exploring the role of emotion regulation strategies and mindfulness skills in the association of exposure to adverse life events and eating patterns. The second part studies the effects of mindfulness training on eating patterns and physical activity in obese patients. Three studies have been conducted in this part : a clinical case study, a systematic review and meta-analysis, and a randomized controlled trial (MindOb study). The results of the first part showed that bariatric surgery patients exposed to adverse life events are at risk of losing less weight after surgery, as well as having more dysfunctional eating patterns pre- and postoperative. Moreover, with non-operated obese patients, the results showed that the psychological impact of adverse life events and nonadaptive emotion regulation have been associated with psychological distress, impulsive eating, and binge eating. The results of the second part showed that mindfulness training decreased impulsive and binge eating in non-operated patients. Moreover, results showed that mindfulness training could also increase physical activity in these patients. This thesis highlights the need for providing obese patients with psychotherapeutic techniques increasing emotion regulation. The results suggest that pre-surgery interventions could avoid maintenance or the appearance of dysfunctional eating patterns. Moreover, psychotherapeutic interventions would be more effective in the case of patients either exposed to adverse life events or being diagnosed with binge eating disorder. However, while mindfulness training seemed effective, the optimal intervention design has yet to be identified. In fact, the questions of whether such training should be self-help or guided, daily and long-term or short-term, complementary tomedical care and adapted to eating disorders or broader, must still be tested. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of mindfulness training on weight-loss and health-related behaviours in adults with overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Ruffault, Alexis ULiege; Czernichow, Sebastien; Hagger, Martin S. et al

in Obesity Research and Clinical Practice (2017), 11(5S1), 90-111

The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive quantitative synthesis of the effects of mindfulness training interventions on weight-loss and health behaviours in adults with overweight and obesity ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive quantitative synthesis of the effects of mindfulness training interventions on weight-loss and health behaviours in adults with overweight and obesity using meta-analytic techniques. Studies included in the analysis (k=12) were randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of any form of mindfulness training on weight loss, impulsive eating, binge eating, or physical activity participation in adults with overweight and obesity. Random effects meta-analysis revealed that mindfulness training had no significant effect on weight loss, but an overall negative effect on impulsive eating (d=-1.13) and binge eating (d=-.90), and a positive effect on physical activity levels (d=.42). Meta-regression analysis showed that methodological features of included studies accounted for 100% of statistical heterogeneity of the effects of mindfulness training on weight loss (R2=1,00). Among methodological features, the only significant predictor of weight loss was follow-up distance from post-intervention (beta=1.18; p<.05), suggesting that the longer follow-up distances were associated with greater weight loss. Results suggest that mindfulness training has short-term benefits on health-related behaviours. Future studies should explore the effectiveness of mindfulness training on long-term post-intervention weight loss in adults with overweight and obesity. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the links between mindfulness skills, physical activity, signs of anxiety, and signs of depression among non-clinical participants [Exploration des liens entre les capacités de pleine conscience, l'activité physique, les signes d'anxiété et les signes de dépression auprès d'individus sains]
Ruffault, Alexis ULiege; Bernier, M.; Thiénot, E. et al

in Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive (2017), 27(1), 16-24

Introduction Physical activity has been shown to reduce anxiety and/or depression levels in patients with chronic physical diseases as well as healthy individuals. Similarly, mindfulness- and acceptance ... [more ▼]

Introduction Physical activity has been shown to reduce anxiety and/or depression levels in patients with chronic physical diseases as well as healthy individuals. Similarly, mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions have also been shown to reduce levels of anxiety and depression. Furthermore, recent research suggests that mindfulness is also associated with the level of physical activity. The aim of this correlational study was to predict signs of anxiety and depression with acceptance, dispositional mindfulness, and levels of physical activity in non-clinical individuals. Methods One hundred randomly chosen participants were interviewed with regard to their general anxiety (BAI), depression (BDI-II), physical activity (IPAQ), acceptance (AAQ-II), and dispositional mindfulness (MAAS). Results On average, participants scored underneath the pathological threshold for anxiety and depression inventories. As expected, dispositional mindfulness and acceptance variables were negatively correlated to the psychopathological variables. Hierarchical model analyses showed that acceptance, dispositional mindfulness, and physical activity level explain 21% of the data for depression level among non-clinical participants. Conclusion This exploratory study may lead other researchers to develop and test the validity of mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions associated to physical activity programs in order to reduce depression level among healthy individuals. © 2016 Association Française de Therapie Comportementale et Cognitive [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential Associations Between Excess Body Weight and Psychiatric Disorders in Men and Women.
Husky, Mathilde M.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Ruffault, Alexis ULiege et al

in Journal of women's health (2002) (2017)

BACKGROUND: The current investigation is the first large-scale population-based study from France that documents the association between excess body weight and common psychiatric disorders, and examines ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The current investigation is the first large-scale population-based study from France that documents the association between excess body weight and common psychiatric disorders, and examines the influence of gender on the association between excess body weight and these disorders. A recent plan has been implemented in France to treat the rising rate of those who are overweight or obese, and we seek to demonstrate whether integrated treatment of excess weight and psychiatric conditions appears as indicated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional general population survey of 17,237 adults. Past-year psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form. Body mass index was used to determine excess weight status. RESULTS: Overall, 3.7% of the sample were underweight, 57% were normal weight, 28% were overweight (35% of men, 22% of women), and 11% were obese (11% of men, 11% of women). Being overweight was more common in men than women, although obesity did not differ by gender. Sociodemographic variables significantly associated with weight status included, age, marital status, education, employment status, income level, and population density. Adjusting for these variables, being overweight was associated with major depression and other disorders among women and inversely associated with drug abuse and dependence among men. Obesity was associated with major depression, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, specific phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder among women. Only generalized anxiety was associated with obesity among men. CONCLUSION: Past year, mental disorders were more likely associated with being overweight or obese among women as compared with men. The prevalence of these co-occurring psychiatric disorders in the context of the rising rate of obesity in France indicates a clear need for psychiatric assessment and treatment in caring for those with excess weight, especially women. Preliminary reports suggest this need is unmet within the otherwise progressive move in France to assist those struggling with excess weight. [less ▲]

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See detailMindfulness May Moderate the Relationship Between Intrinsic Motivation and Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Study
Ruffault, Alexis ULiege; Bernier, M.; Juge, N. et al

in Mindfulness (2016), 7(2), 445-452

This study aims to characterize the relationships between intrinsic motivation toward physical activity, mindfulness, and physical activity level. We measured self-reported mindfulness, motivational ... [more ▼]

This study aims to characterize the relationships between intrinsic motivation toward physical activity, mindfulness, and physical activity level. We measured self-reported mindfulness, motivational regulation toward exercise, and physical activity level in 280 French students. Analyses conducted on 244 participants revealed that self-reported mindfulness moderates the relationship between intrinsic motivation toward exercise and physical activity levels. These findings may have implications for interventionists seeking to promote increased physical activity with mindfulness-based techniques. In fact, it seems that increasing mindfulness skills of individuals could improve their intrinsic motivation to exercise and, thus, physical activity. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive Behavioral Therapy with Daily Mindfulness Training: a Case Report of Comorbid Binge Eating and Bipolar Disorders
Ruffault, Alexis ULiege; Grégoire, S.; Hendrickson, K. et al

in Mindfulness (2016), 7(2), 573-576

[No abstract available]

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See detailDo karate fighters use situational probability information to improve decision-making performance during on-mat tasks?
Milazzo, Nicolas; Farrow, Damian; Ruffault, Alexis ULiege et al

in Journal of Sports Sciences (2016), 34(16), 1547-56

This study examined the contribution of situational probability information to the perceptual and cognitive processes underlying decision-making behaviour during in situ Karate performance. Experts and ... [more ▼]

This study examined the contribution of situational probability information to the perceptual and cognitive processes underlying decision-making behaviour during in situ Karate performance. Experts and novices were required to make decisions about various attacks in different fight scenarios. The order in which the fight situations were presented was modified in order to provide advanced probability information and identify whether fighters were able to use the latter information to make better decisions. Specifically, one of the attacks was repeated every four actions. Results revealed that experts were more accurate and faster than their less skilled counterparts to block and counterattack the opponent. The experts picked up the occurrence of the attack pattern after the fifth repetition whereas novices did not. This enabled experts to improve decision time and decision accuracy. Findings suggest that such superiority could stem from the perceptual and cognitive skills possessed by the experts, thus giving them the opportunity to recognise a situation more easily. This was reinforced by gaze behaviour which demonstrated that experts used a more efficient search strategy involving fewer fixations of longer duration on a lesser number of areas relative to the novices. Moreover, experts generated more refined karate-specific knowledge structures compared with the novices. [less ▲]

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See detailRandomized controlled trial of a 12-month computerized mindfulness-based intervention for obese patients with binge eating disorder: The MindOb study protocol.
Ruffault, Alexis ULiege; Carette, Claire; Lurbe I Puerto, Katia et al

in Contemporary Clinical Trials (2016), 49

BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based interventions for healthy behaviors such as exercise and dietary modifications have aroused growing interest. This study aims to test the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based interventions for healthy behaviors such as exercise and dietary modifications have aroused growing interest. This study aims to test the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention for the reduction of impulsive eating and the improvement of motivation to exercise among obese individuals. METHODS: One-hundred and twenty obese outpatients, aged 18 to 65years, diagnosed with a binge eating disorder, will be randomly assigned to one of the three following groups: mindfulness practice, sham meditation, or treatment as usual control. The tested intervention consists of a 1-year computerized mindfulness-based program. Mindfulness sessions are audio recordings that the patients are asked to listen to, 10min every day. Self-reported questionnaires measuring impulsive eating, motivation to exercise, physical activity level, mood, and mindfulness skills are filled in at baseline, 1, 6, and 12months. Physical activity, calories consumption, and biomarkers are measured with more objective measurement tools at baseline, 6months and 12months. CONCLUSION: Mindfulness, as both a de-automation element and as a moderator of motivation to exercise, can lead to the reduction of impulsive eating and also to an increase in levels of physical activity. These effects could cause weight loss in obese patients suffering from binge eating disorder. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02571387. [less ▲]

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See detailA Cognitive and Virtual Reality Treatment Program for the Fear of Flying.
Ferrand, Margot; Ruffault, Alexis ULiege; Tytelman, Xavier et al

in Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance (2015), 86(8), 723-7

BACKGROUND: Passenger air transport has considerably increased in the past 50 yr. It is estimated that between 7 and 40% of the population of industrialized countries is currently afraid of flying ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Passenger air transport has considerably increased in the past 50 yr. It is estimated that between 7 and 40% of the population of industrialized countries is currently afraid of flying. Programs treating the fear of flying have been developed to meet this problem. This study measures the effectiveness of one of these programs by focusing on flight-related anxiety before the program and after the first flight following the intervention. METHODS: There were 157 individuals recruited to participate in a 1-d intervention aiming at treating the fear of flying, and using both cognitive behavioral techniques and virtual reality. Anxiety was measured with the Flight Anxiety Situations (FAS) and the Flight Anxiety Modality (FAM) questionnaires. RESULTS: Statistical analyses were conducted on 145 subjects (69.7% female; ages from 14 to 64) after the exclusion of individuals with missing data. The results showed a decrease in flight-related anxiety for each subscale of the two questionnaires: the somatic (d=2.44) and cognitive anxiety (d=1.47) subscales of the FAM, and the general flight anxiety (d=3.20), the anticipatory flight anxiety (d=1.74), and the in-flight anxiety (d=1.04) subscales of the FAS. CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of the treatment program using both cognitive behavioral techniques and virtual reality strategies for fear of flying reduced flight-related anxiety in the subjects in our study. Our results show that subjects demonstrated lower anxiety levels after the first flight following the program than before the intervention. [less ▲]

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