References of "Rondeux, Jacques"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNatura 2000 payments for private forest owners in Rural Development Programmes 2007–2013 - a comparative view
Sarvasova, Zuzana; Ali, Tamas; Dordevic, Ilija et al

in Forest Policy and Economics (2019), 99

The role of Natura 2000 network is to ensure the long-term survival of Europe's most valuable and threatened species and habitats. Ecologically valuable forest ecosystems are often owned or managed by ... [more ▼]

The role of Natura 2000 network is to ensure the long-term survival of Europe's most valuable and threatened species and habitats. Ecologically valuable forest ecosystems are often owned or managed by private forest owners. Natura 2000 benefits communities by enhancing tourism, regional brands and marketing. In private forests, however, its restrictions imposed on land owners cause financial losses in comparison to the usual forest management. The paper compares the level at which the compensation mechanism within the European Rural Development Programmes (RDP) for the period 2007–2013 was implemented in seven European Union countries - Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Lithuania and Slovakia. The research focuses on compensation and restrictions within Measure 224 - Natura 2000 Payments - imposed on forest owners in Natura 2000 sites. To obtain the data, a non-reactive research method was applied using a content analysis of the existing documentation. The data sources include European and national statistics and expert knowledge based on common terms of reference. The results show that due to substantial gaps in the implementation of Measure 224 across the EU, there are significant differences in compensation and restrictions for private forest owners in individual countries of the European Union (EU). As opposed to the initial expectations of the measure, the financial support reached less than a third of the forest holdings and less than half of the forest land. The member states (MSs) which implemented the measure spent 92% of their original budget on average. Moreover, rural development funds for private forest owners are very limited and the implementation of Measure 224 says nothing about the success of Natura 2000 with regard to biodiversity targets in private forests. One approach to financing Natura 2000 network is a comprehensive use of all existing EU funds, another would be to propose own Natura 2000 fund. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHow private are Europe’s private forests? A comparative property rights analysis
Nichiforel, L.; Keary, K.; Deuffic, P. et al

in Land Use Policy (2018), 76

Private forests are widespread in Europe providing a range of ecosystem services of significant value to society, and there are calls for novel policies to enhance their provision and to face the ... [more ▼]

Private forests are widespread in Europe providing a range of ecosystem services of significant value to society, and there are calls for novel policies to enhance their provision and to face the challenges of environmental changes. Such policies need to acknowledge the importance of private forests, and importantly they need to be based on a deep understanding of how property rights held by private forest owners vary across Europe. We collected and analysed data on the content of property rights based on formal legal requirements existing in 31 European jurisdictions. To allow a comparison across jurisdictions, we constructed an original Property Rights Index for Forestry encompassing five rights domains (access, withdrawal, management, exclusion and alienation). We documented substantial variation of the private forest owners’ rights, and notably to i) make decisions in operational management and the formulation of management goals, ii) withdraw timber resources from their forest, and iii) exclude others from the use of forest resources. We identified broad relations between the scope for decision making of private forest owners and jurisdictions’ former socio-political background and geographical distribution. The variation in the content of property rights has implications for the implementation of international environmental policies, and stresses the need for tailored policy instruments, when addressing European society’s rural development, the bioeconomy, climate change mitigation measures and nature protection strategies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (19 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailForest Land Ownership Change in Belgium
Rondeux, Jacques ULiege; Colson, Vincent; Farcy, Christine et al

in European Forest Institute Central-East and South-East European Regional Office (Ed.) COST Action FP1201 - Forest Land Ownership Change in Europe: Significance for Management and Policy (FACESMAP Country Reports) (2015)

The European COST Action FP1201 FOREST LAND OWNERSHIP CHANGES IN EUROPE: SIGNIFICANCE FOR MANAGEMENT AND POLICY (FACESMAP) aims to bring together the state-of-knowledge in this field across Europe and can ... [more ▼]

The European COST Action FP1201 FOREST LAND OWNERSHIP CHANGES IN EUROPE: SIGNIFICANCE FOR MANAGEMENT AND POLICY (FACESMAP) aims to bring together the state-of-knowledge in this field across Europe and can build on expertise from 30 participating countries. Drawing on an evidence review across these countries, the objectives of the Action are as follows: (1) To analyse attitudes and constraints of different forest owner types in Europe and the on-going changes (outputs: literature survey, meta-analyses and maps). (2) To explore innovative management approaches for new forest owner types (outputs: case studies, critical assessment). (3) To study effective policy instruments with a comparative analysis approach (outputs: lit-erature survey, case studies, policy analyses). (4) To draw conclusions and recommendations for forest-related policies, forest management practice, further education and future research. Part of the work of the COST Action is the collection of data into country reports. These are writ-ten following prepared guidelines and to a common structure in order to allow comparisons across the countries. They also stand by themselves, giving a comprehensive account on the state of knowledge on forest ownership changes in each country. The common work in all countries comprises of a collection of quantitative data as well as quali-tative description of relevant issues. The COUNTRY REPORTS of the COST Action serve the following purposes: • Give an overview of forest ownership structures and respective changes in each country and insight on specific issues in the countries; • Provide data for some of the central outputs that are planned in the Action, including the literature reviews; • Provide information for further work in the Action, including sub-groups on specific topics. A specific focus of the COST Action is on new forest owner types. It is not so much about “new forest owners” in the sense of owners who have only recently acquired their forest, but the in-terest is rather on new types of ownership – owners with non-traditional goals of ownership and methods of management. For the purpose of the Action, a broad definition of “new forest owner types” was chosen. In a broad understanding of new or non-traditional forest ownership we in-clude several characteristics as possible determinants of new forest owners. The following groups may all be determined to be new forest owners: (1) individuals or organizations that previously have not owned forest land, (2) traditional forest owner categories who have changed motives, or introduced new goals and/or management practices for their forests, (3) transformed public ownership categories (e.g., through privatisation, contracting out forest management, transfer to municipalities, etc.), and (4) new legal forms of ownership in the countries (e.g. new common property regimes, com-munity ownership), both for private and state land. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (2 ULiège)
See detailLa forêt luxembourgeoise en chiffres - Résultats de l'Inventaire Forestier National au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg 2009 - 2011
Rondeux, Jacques ULiege; Alderweireld, Matthieu ULiege; Saidi, Mohammed ULiege et al

Book published by Administration de la nature et des forêts du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg - Service des forêts (2014)

Results from the second Luxembourg's national forest inventory (2009-2011) and comparison with the first inventory (1998-2000).

Detailed reference viewed: 113 (22 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRecreational value of regional forests: the case of Belgium's Walloon region
Colson, Vincent; Lejeune, Philippe ULiege; Rondeux, Jacques ULiege et al

in International Journal of Sustainable Society (2014), 6(4), 319-335

The Walloon forest, which is geographically close to densely populated areas of Atlantic Europe, fulfils an important recreational function. Two surveys were set up, among which a large-scale statistical ... [more ▼]

The Walloon forest, which is geographically close to densely populated areas of Atlantic Europe, fulfils an important recreational function. Two surveys were set up, among which a large-scale statistical survey in 40 woodlands, distributed throughout the Walloon forest and resulting in over 4,000 questionnaires collected. These give information about the recreational activities carried out in the forest, which helps determine the unit value of visits. The regional value is based on the estimated number of visits annually for the total woodlands. Contingent valuation is used to estimate recreational values for this data set comprising the whole regional level with heterogeneous visits and comparisons with other methods and other hypotheses are undertaken. Although the valuation varies depending on the method and the application modalities selected, it is very large and confirms the importance of this non-benefit service and the weight it could carry in terms of regional forest policy. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (6 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailCubage des arbres et des peuplements forestiers - Tables et équations
Dagnelie, Pierre; Rondeux, Jacques ULiege; Palm, Rodolphe ULiege

Book published by Presses agronomiques de Gembloux (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 339 (45 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailG-Cube 2.0 : Un logiciel de cubage et de constitution de lots de bois
Handerek, Daphné ULiege; Quevauvillers, Samuel ULiege; Hebert, Jacques ULiege et al

in Forêt.Nature (2013), (124), 20-27

G-Cube, le logiciel de cubage et de constitution de lots de bois développé par Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, fait peau neuve. Cette version 2.0 voit arriver des nouveautés parmi lesquelles : la géolocalisation ... [more ▼]

G-Cube, le logiciel de cubage et de constitution de lots de bois développé par Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, fait peau neuve. Cette version 2.0 voit arriver des nouveautés parmi lesquelles : la géolocalisation des arbres cubés, le croisement des données avec des listes de prix personnelles ou standardisées, ou encore l’abandon de l’environnement Excel au profit d’une interface autonome. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 533 (42 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRéviser les tarifs de cubage pour mieux gérer les forêts du Cameroun
Fayolle, Adeline ULiege; Rondeux, Jacques ULiege; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULiege et al

in Bois et Forêts des Tropiques (2013), 317(3), 35-49

Volume tables are routinely used by forest planners and managers, but generally with no regard for the conditions in which they are applied (geographical zone, diameter range), which can cause errors in ... [more ▼]

Volume tables are routinely used by forest planners and managers, but generally with no regard for the conditions in which they are applied (geographical zone, diameter range), which can cause errors in estimations of timber volumes. The aim of this study is to test the validity of currently available volume tables, including those used by the government, for three commercial tree species in the forests of south-eastern Cameroon, and if required to propose tables suited to the study zone. The three species concerned are sapelli, Entandrophragma cylindricum, tali, Erythrophleum suaveolens, and assamela Pericopsis elata. Dendrometric data were collected by destructive sampling of 43 trees that were evenly distributed across the diameter range. Stemwood volume was calculated through successive butt-log measurements and linear and non-linear volume tables were adjusted by means of the weighted least-squares method. The results show that the best volume tables for all three species are non-linear. The equations used by the forests authority until now significantly under-estimate standing timber volumes and the estimation errors increase with the size of the trees. The proposed volume tables, once validated, should in future produce more accurate estimations of standing timber in the study zone. Given the international challenges involving Cameroon (FLEGT and REDD+), it is essential that it should have effective tools for estimating standing timber volumes. It is therefore important for Cameroon’s forests authority to conduct a large-scale programme to revise its volume tables. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 204 (35 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailDomaine boisé du Sart Tilman (ULg) : Valorisation énergétique de la biomasse ligneuse en adéquation avec une gestion multifonctionnelle
Rondeux, Jacques ULiege; Schillings, Thomas ULiege

Scientific conference (2012, November 06)

During winter 2010-2011, a forest inventory was performed within a part of the forest belonging to the University of Liège (ULg, Belgium) located near Sart Tilman. The aim of this inventory was to ... [more ▼]

During winter 2010-2011, a forest inventory was performed within a part of the forest belonging to the University of Liège (ULg, Belgium) located near Sart Tilman. The aim of this inventory was to quantify the fire-wood which is available for producing wood-chips. The results of the inventory and the production process of wood-chips are detailed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 76 (25 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAssessing and Harmonizing Lying Deadwood Volume with Regional Forest Inventory Data in Wallonia (Southern Region of Belgium)
Ligot, Gauthier ULiege; Lejeune, Philippe ULiege; Rondeux, Jacques ULiege et al

in Open Forest Science Journal (2012), 5

Using lying deadwood or coarse woody debris (CWD) is on the rise among national and local forest inventories. We compared two generally recommended methods for lying deadwood: line intersect sampling and ... [more ▼]

Using lying deadwood or coarse woody debris (CWD) is on the rise among national and local forest inventories. We compared two generally recommended methods for lying deadwood: line intersect sampling and fixed area sampling. We assessed both methods in plots of the regional forest inventory of Wallonia (southern region of Belgium) and we developed bridging functions that converts CWD volume estimates to estimates that would have been obtained with different thresholds. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 120 (25 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAssessing deadwood using harmonized National Forest Inventory data
Rondeux, Jacques ULiege; Bertini, Roberta; Bastrup-Birk, Annemarie et al

in Forest Science (2012), 58(3), 269-283

Deadwood plays an important role in forest ecological processes and is fundamental for the maintenance of biological diversity. Further, it is a forest carbon pool whose assessment must be reported for ... [more ▼]

Deadwood plays an important role in forest ecological processes and is fundamental for the maintenance of biological diversity. Further, it is a forest carbon pool whose assessment must be reported for international agreements dealing with protection and forest management sustainability. Despite wide agreement on deadwood monitoring by national forest inventories (NFIs), much work is still necessary to clarify definitions so that estimates can be directly compared or aggregated for international reporting. There is an urgent need for an international consensus on definitions and agreement on harmonization methods. The study addresses two main objectives : to analyze the feasibility of harmonization procedures for deadwood estimates and to evaluate the impact of the harmonization process based on different definitions on final deadwood estimates. Results are reported for an experimental harmonization test using NFI deadwood data from 9,208 sample plots measured in nine European countries and the United States. Harmonization methods were investigated for volume by spatial position (lying or standing), decay classes, and woody species accompanied by accuracy assessments. Estimates of mean plot volume based on harmonized definitions with minimum length/height of 1 m and minimum diameter thresholds of 10, 12, and 20 cm were on average 3, 8, and 30% smaller, respectively, than estimates based on national definitions. Volumedifferences were less when estimated for various deadwood categories. An accuracy assessment demonstrated that, on average, the harmonization procedures did not substantially alter deadwood observations (root mean square error 23.17%). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 196 (9 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNational Forest Inventory contributions to forest biodiversity monitoring
Chirici, Gherardo; McRoberts, Ronald E.; Winter, Susanne et al

in Forest Science (2012), 58(3), 257-268

Forests are the most biodiverse terrestrial ecosystems. National forest inventories (NFIs) are the main source of information on the status and trends of forests, but they have traditionally been designed ... [more ▼]

Forests are the most biodiverse terrestrial ecosystems. National forest inventories (NFIs) are the main source of information on the status and trends of forests, but they have traditionally been designed to assess land coverage and the production value of forests rather than forest biodiversity. The primary international processes dealing with biodiversity and sustainable forest management, the convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Forest Europe, Streamlining European Biodiversity Indicators 2010 of the European Environmental Agency, and the Montréal Process, all include indicators related to forest biodiversity. The scope of this article is to review and present possibilities offered by NFIs to harmonize estimation of indicators useful for international forest and present possibilities offered by NFIs to harmonize estimation of indicators useful for international forest biodiversity monitoring and reporting. We summarize key findings from Working Group 3 of Action E43 (« Harmonization of National Forest Inventories in Europe : Techniques for Common Reporting ») of the European program Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST). We discuss definitions and techniques for harmonizing estimates of possible biodiversity indicators based on data from NFIs in Europe and the United States. We compare these possible indicators with indicators selected by international processes. The results demonstrate that NFIs can report comparable or harmonized estimates of indicators for multiple biodiversity features (forest categories, deadwood, forest age, forest structure, and forest naturalness), but for others (ground vegetation and regeneration) NFIs should invest more in harmonization efforts. On the basis of these key findings, we recommend that NFIs should represent a main component of a future global biodiversity monitoring network as urgently requested by the CBD. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 112 (9 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEstablishing bridging functions for harmonizing growing stock estimates: examples from European National Forest Inventories
Tomter, Stein M.; Gasparini, Patrizia; Gschwantner, Thomas et al

in Forest Science (2012), 58(3), 224-235

Estimates of growing stock in European countries vary mainly by using different thresholds for dbh of sample trees, as well as by the inclusion or exclusion of stump and stem top volume. European national ... [more ▼]

Estimates of growing stock in European countries vary mainly by using different thresholds for dbh of sample trees, as well as by the inclusion or exclusion of stump and stem top volume. European national forest inventories use dbh thresholds ranging from 0 to 12 cm in estimating the volume of growing stock. COST Action E43 has agreed to a reference definition for growing stock with a dbh threshold of 0 cm. With use of national volume distributions by dbh classes, models for estimating the proportions of growing stock between the national threshold and the 0-cm threshold were constructed. Models for characterizing growing stock distributions were tested, and their predictive abilities were investigated. Similar comparisons were made with respect to the volume of stumps and stem tops. Examples of estimation methods and the resulting percentages of these tree elements of total growing stock are presented. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (7 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBridging national and reference definitions for harmonizing forest statistics
Stahl, Göran; Cienciala, Emil; Chirici, Gherardo et al

in Forest Science (2012), 58(3), 214-223

Harmonization is the process of making information and estimates comparable across administrative borders. The degree to which harmonization succeeds depends on many factors, including the conciseness of ... [more ▼]

Harmonization is the process of making information and estimates comparable across administrative borders. The degree to which harmonization succeeds depends on many factors, including the conciseness of the definitions, the availability and quality of data, and the methods used toconvert an estimate according to a local definition to an estimate according to the reference definition. Harmonization requires the availability and use of common reference definitions and methods for converting from estimates based on national definitions to estimates based on reference definitions. This article focuses on conversion methods, which are characterized as « bridges » because they can be seen as a means of crossing from islands of local definitions to the mainland of a reference definition. A structured approach is proposed for constructing bridges of three kinds : reductive, neutral, and expansive bridges. A hierarchical decision tree is presented to guide users and to summarize the propositions and case examples with different types of bridges to illustrate the concepts. Although the article addresses harmonization of forest information, the results are relevant for harmonizing a broad variety of area statistics. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (8 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailAutécologie du merisier
Claessens, Hugues ULiege; Thibaut, André; Rondeux, Jacques ULiege

in Fiche technique n°20 - Département de la Nature et des Forêts (2011), (20), 37

Detailed reference viewed: 107 (27 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailL'inventaire des dégâts frais d'écorcement dans les peuplements résineux en Wallonie : bilan et perspectives
Lejeune, Philippe ULiege; Gheysen, Thibaut ULiege; Arnal, Delphine et al

in Forêt.Nature (2011), (114), 3-16

Depuis 2003, un inventaire des dégâts d'écorcement est en place dans les jeunes peuplements d'épicéa et de douglas des forêts wallonnes. L'originalité de cet inventaire tient dans la très large superficie ... [more ▼]

Depuis 2003, un inventaire des dégâts d'écorcement est en place dans les jeunes peuplements d'épicéa et de douglas des forêts wallonnes. L'originalité de cet inventaire tient dans la très large superficie qu'il couvre ainsi que dans sa durée. Ce premier article présente succintement la méthode et quelques résultats disponibles. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 117 (31 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA Regional Inventory and Monitoring Setup to Evaluate Bark Peeling Damage by Red Deer (Cervus Elaphus) in Coniferous Plantations in Southern Belgium
Gheysen, Thibaut; Brostaux, Yves ULiege; Hebert, Jacques ULiege et al

in Environmental Monitoring and Assessment (2011), 181(1-4), 335-45

Bark peeling by red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) has become a serious issue for productive forests in western Europe. The damage is particularly severe on species such as spruce, as these become vulnerable to ... [more ▼]

Bark peeling by red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) has become a serious issue for productive forests in western Europe. The damage is particularly severe on species such as spruce, as these become vulnerable to fungus attacks that result in considerably depreciated timber. This article presents a monitoring setup for recent bark peeling damage in spruce plantings in Wallonia (southern part of Belgium). This setup implies to collect data annually from a survey involving cluster sampling. It has been employed since 2004 in coniferous stands amounting to 165,000 ha of land, where Norway spruce is the predominant species. The study area was divided into blocks delineated along features preventing deer migrations. A set of indicators was computed either at the whole study area level or at block level. The resulting set of indicators enabled forest managers to follow up debarking intensity in productive forests. Additional analyses were carried out in order to assess the relationship between the social position of trees in the stand and the debarking probability on the one hand, and the relationship between the variation in damage magnitude and seasonality, namely summer versus winter, on the other hand. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 127 (58 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailEvaluer les ressources forestières et leur disponibilité : un préalable à l'amélioration de leur mobilisation. Etude menée à l'échelle du territoire communal de Gouvy.
Debaty, Joëlle; Colson, Vincent; Braun, Matthieu et al

in Silva Belgica (2011), 118(6), 30-37

Dans le cadre du projet Interreg Grande Région "REGIOWOOD" et plus particulièrement de l'action s'intéressant à la mobilisation des ressources ligneuses en petite forêt privée, une étude a été menée sur ... [more ▼]

Dans le cadre du projet Interreg Grande Région "REGIOWOOD" et plus particulièrement de l'action s'intéressant à la mobilisation des ressources ligneuses en petite forêt privée, une étude a été menée sur le territoire de la commune de Gouvy avec l'objectif de caractériser les ressources forestières, leur disponibilité et les freins à leur mobilisation. Cette étude trouve sa justification dans la nécessité de disposer d'informations objectives utiles pour mener à bien toute démarche d'amélioration de la mobilisation des ressources en bois. L'estimation de la ressource en bois a été réalisée au niveau communal (paragraphe 1) via l'analyse des données cadastrales (paragraphe 2) et la réalisation d'un inventaire spécifique des ressources (paragraphe 3). Les multiples données qui ont pu être rassemblées grâce à un inventaire par échantillonnage ont été complétées par des chiffres résultant d'une évaluation par simulation de l'évolution probable, et sous certaines conditions, du capital ligneux (épicéa commun) au cours des 5 et 10 prochaines années (paragraphe 4). L'exploitation de ces informations doit s'accompagner d'un dialogue et d'une concertation avec les propriétaires de la ressource (paragraphe 5) avant de proposer les démarches les plus adéquates à mener en matière de mobilisation et de valorisation de leurs biens (paragraphe 6). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 89 (16 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailHarmonization tests
Chirici, Gherardo; McRoberts, Ronald E.; Winter, Susanne et al

in Chirici, Gherardo; Winter, Susanne; McRoberts, Ronald E. (Eds.) National Forest Inventories - contributions to Forest Biodiversity Assessments (2011)

Chapter 5 reports the results of testing the proposed prodedures for harmonizing estimates of indicators for six of the seven essential features of forest biodiversity. Twenty indicators were tested using ... [more ▼]

Chapter 5 reports the results of testing the proposed prodedures for harmonizing estimates of indicators for six of the seven essential features of forest biodiversity. Twenty indicators were tested using data from the common database. In general, positive results were obtained for forest categories, forest structure, forest age, deadwood, and naturalness; the results were less positive for ground vegetation because of the considerable differences in definitions and data acquisition methods. Of importance is, that the test focused on assessing harmonization procedures rather than on producing comprehensive estimates for particular countries or forest categories. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (11 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailProspects for harmonized biodiversity assessments using national forest inventory data
McRoberts, Ronald E.; Chirici, Gherardo; Winter, Susanne et al

in Chirici, Gherardo; Winter, Susanne; McRoberts, Ronald E. (Eds.) National Forest Inventories - contributions to Forest Biodiversity Assessments (2011)

After selection of the 13 biodiversity variables (Sect. 2.3) based on their importance and feasibility for assessment by NFIs, responses were solicited from participating countries regarding the degree to ... [more ▼]

After selection of the 13 biodiversity variables (Sect. 2.3) based on their importance and feasibility for assessment by NFIs, responses were solicited from participating countries regarding the degree to which the variables are now assessed. Two conclusions were evident: (1) most countries currently assess most of the variables, but (2) consensus is lacking on assessment methods and necessary field crew expertise, suggesting that harmonization would require emphasis on field operations. For each of the seven essential features into which the 13 variables were grouped, more detailed assessments were conducted. For forest categories, the conclusion was that the only major difference in classification systems used by European NFIs was whether potential or actual vegetation was used to define classes. Thus, the prospects for harmonization of forest categories are considered excellent. For forest structure, the prospects depend on the variable. For tree species, the prospects are excellent because the variable is assessed in the same manner by all NFIs. For dbh and height, considerable variability in measurementthresholds were found, but otherwise the harmonization prospects are good. For social position, definitions of classes varied, but harmonized estimates of proportions for dominant, intermediate, and suppressed classes are considered possible. Prospects for harmonized estimates of layers are consideraly poorer because of different definitions, thresholds and the uncertainty associated with visual assessment methods. Harmonized estimation of forest age is impeded by the increasing proportion of uneven-aged stands for which age is often not assessed, different definitions, and different assessment methods. However, agreement on dominant age as a reference definition would greatly increase the prospects. Deadwood is becoming an increasingly popular indicator of sustainable forest management. Unfortunately, considerable variability was found in deadwood definitions, components (e.g., stumps, limbs), sampling methods, and measurement thresholds. Thus, harmonized deadwood estimation will require development of bridges. Harmonization of regeneration estimates faces challenges due to differences in assessment approaches such as presence/absence versus coverage and all species versus dominant species. Harmonized estimation may be restricte to change in regeneration success. Harmonized estimation for ground vegetation also faces serious challenges due to differences in the components assessed (e.g., small trees, shrubs, herbs, bryophytes, lichens), difference in height thresholds, and differences in categories for which ground vegetation is reported. Forest naturalness integrates many of the other essential feature. However, many countries do not assess naturalness, and among those that do, assessment variables, methods, and reporting classes vary considerably. For harmonized assessment using NFI variables, the hemeroby approach, which emphasizes indications of human influence, is extremely sensitive to plot size. Harmonization using the ecosystem processes approach requires a common dbh threshold and similar plot sizes. The overall conclusion is that harmonization will be considerably easier for some essential features than for others. The factors leading to difficulties often are related to different definitions, different reporting classes, different measurement thresholds, and different features of sampling protocols such as plot sizes and configurations. Nevertheless, construction of reference definitions and bridges greatly facilitate harmonization for all essential features as is illustrated in Chap. 5. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 124 (11 ULiège)