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See detailRehabilitation effort for anadromous salmonids in the river Meuse basin. Achievements and new challenges
Ovidio, Michaël ULiege; Kestemont, Patrick; Dierckx, Arnaud ULiege et al

Conference (2019, May)

Until the end of the 19th century, the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was widespread in the river Meuse basin and salmon fisheries were prosperous in France, Belgium and The Netherlands. The number of ... [more ▼]

Until the end of the 19th century, the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was widespread in the river Meuse basin and salmon fisheries were prosperous in France, Belgium and The Netherlands. The number of salmon and sea trout captures reaches 57000 ind/year in the Dutch Rhine-Meuse delta. Between 1840 and 1950, the building of navigation dams in the river Meuse and its tributaries, as well as the increase of industrial water pollution and the overexploitation of the stock, led to the extinction of all anadromous fish species. In 1983, the capture of a sea trout (Salmo trutta) in the lower Belgian Meuse brought the problem of the migratory of fish to the surface. Based on scientific advices and feasibility studies carried out from 1983 to 1986, the program Salmon Meuse was launch in 1987. It aims at the restoration of the complete life cycle of migratory salmonids in the international River Meuse Basin. Important rehabilitation efforts have been progressively done since the beginning of the project to the present 1) Improvement of the general quality of the water 2) Restocking with strains originating from France, Ireland, Scotland 3) Hydromorphological restoration of gravel bed habitats 4) The construction of modern fishways for upstream migration in the Meuse and tributaries 5) Adoption of measures to facilitate downstream migration at hydroelectric sites 6) Development of a salmon hatchery with facilities to realise artificial reproduction using returning adults 7) The establishment of international collaboration network 8) The election of the best strains based on genetics of returning adults and the process of smoltification finally 9) The opening of the Haringvliet sluices in the Estuary of the Meuse in the Netherland in 2018. In the year 2000, the first adult salmon originating from restocking program was captured in the fishway of Lixhe, and this return of a salmon, more than 50 years of his extinction, was a major ecological event. From 2000 to 2018, the number of returning Atlantic salmon and sea trout progressively increased and reaches n=60 in the best year. This underline partial achievement of the objectives of the project, but the number of returning adult is sill too low to have a natural sustainable population. Supplementary efforts must be undertaken in the future, especially in terms of success of smolts downstream migration and escapement success as well as an optimization of the restocking practices (in terms of quantity and choice of the best development stage). During our talk, we will synthesise the major key-points of this challenging project whose success requires a balance between the development and maintenance of numerous human activities and the associate preservation of the aquatic environment. We will use examples of results originating from recent scientific research. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat happens to glass eels after restocking in upland rivers? A long‐term study on their dispersal and behavioural traits
Nzau Matondo, Billy ULiege; Séleck, Emilie; Dierckx, Arnaud ULiege et al

in Aquatic Conservation (2019)

The European eel Anguilla anguilla is a critically endangered fish species as a result of human activities and climate change in river and oceanic ecosystems. Restocking using glass eels in continental ... [more ▼]

The European eel Anguilla anguilla is a critically endangered fish species as a result of human activities and climate change in river and oceanic ecosystems. Restocking using glass eels in continental freshwater areas is a potential conservation measure for enhancing local eel stocks and for conserving the species in aquatic habitats, where it may otherwise disappear. However, little is known about the fate of these restocked individuals and the early ecological behaviour of the young eels translocated in rivers.A portable radio‐frequency identification (RFID) telemetry system and 12‐mm tags were used to track restocked eels for a duration of 4 years. The aim was to understand the early movement, behavioural traits, dispersal, and habitat use of elvers after restocking performed in 2013 with glass eels in a shallow riverine environment.From the 241 tagged eels (total length, Q50 = 152 mm), 85% were detected in 1968 positions during a period of 4 years, beginning in 2014. Clear seasonality in eel activity was observed, with higher mobility in summer when the water temperature was high (above 12°C). Dispersal was slowed by numerous artificial obstacles and the high carrying capacity of habitats. There was a negative relationship between the body size of eels at tagging and their mobility. Five behavioural categories of mobility patterns were identified: ascending, descending, oscillating with an upstream trend, oscillating with a downstream trend, and stationary. The first four categories depleted with time, in favour of stationary individuals that displayed a highly sedentary lifestyle.This study provides new knowledge of the long‐term dispersal behaviour of restocked eels and the influence of seasons, barriers, and habitats on their colonization strategy changing with time. The results contribute to a better understanding of the issue of uncommon restocking practices in upland rivers. [less ▲]

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See detailNitrogen prediction model in smallholder farming system integrating pig and fish farming in the urban and rural areas of Kinshasa
Mafwila Kinkela, Patrick ULiege; Dochain, Denis; Kalala Bolokango, Gaetan ULiege et al

in NSABS 2019 (2019)

The modelling of nitrogen flow within integrated farms in aquaculture allows monitoring of the nitrogen evolution, which is one of the limiting elements in the farm production. This is one of the ... [more ▼]

The modelling of nitrogen flow within integrated farms in aquaculture allows monitoring of the nitrogen evolution, which is one of the limiting elements in the farm production. This is one of the important ways to improve production in small integrated agricultural farms in rural and peri-urban areas of Kinshasa with limited financial resources. The model is built in order to use the nitrogen produced by the pig for fertilizing fish farming ponds. The pig module was calibrated, validated and ready to be used, contrary to the fish module which is not validated due to the lack of appropriate experience data. Result of pig module prediction, gives the cumulative N amount of the fattening period to 861.85 gN/pig for fecal nitrogen and 765.39 for urinary production very close to the measured value of 988.68 gN/pig and 887.55 gN/pig for N fecal and N urinary. The model shows that the variation in feed content leads to the variation in the N fecal and urinary production to the farm. Combined to the N from pig, N water in the fish pond is sensitive to N from pig addition and fish biomass. Change in factors that affect pig consumption and pig growing performance lead a variation in both N production by a pig and N water evolution in the pond water column. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of housefly larvae production on pig wastes and brewers’ grains for integrated fish and pig farms in the tropics
Mafwila Kinkela, Patrick ULiege; BWABWA, Denis; Nyongombe, Nathan et al

in Livestock Research for Rural Development (2019)

Lack of appropriate animal waste management methods in many smallholder farms in the tropics often leads to environmental problems, especially in locations with high population density such as urban and ... [more ▼]

Lack of appropriate animal waste management methods in many smallholder farms in the tropics often leads to environmental problems, especially in locations with high population density such as urban and peri-urban areas. On farms integrating pig production to fish farming, manure can be turned into a valuable feed source of high quality protein for fish through housefly larvae and contribute to intensify fish production and reduce cost of fish feed. Three experiments were carried to optimize operating conditions for maggot production on animal wastes and industrial byproducts found in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The comparisons were: (1) production on pure substrates (manure or brewer’s grains) or mixtures with lysine or blood; (2) exposure time to flies for the insemination of the substrates: and (3) dynamics of larvae production. Mixing brewers’ grains with Lysine or manure and/or blood more than doubled the amount of larvae that were harvested. Brewers’ grains are a good source of energy, but are probably deficient in essential amino acids to support the growth of maggots. It also appears that only the first days of laying eggs are important since no difference was observed between temporary and permanent exposure of the substrates to houseflies. The peak of larvae production was reached 6 days after exposure. The addition of cow blood in increasing doses to a mixture of brewers’ grains and manure linearly increased the production of maggots. [less ▲]

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See detailMovement behaviours of potamodromous fish within a large anthropised river after the reestablishment of the longitudinal connectivity
Benitez, Jean-Philippe ULiege; Dierckx, Arnaud ULiege; Nzau Matondo, Billy ULiege et al

in Fisheries Research (2018), 207

Human activity has caused longitudinal fragmentation of many rivers. Fishways have been installed worldwide, but their successive use by potamodromous species remains poorly documented, particularly in ... [more ▼]

Human activity has caused longitudinal fragmentation of many rivers. Fishways have been installed worldwide, but their successive use by potamodromous species remains poorly documented, particularly in large river ecosystems. Four vertical slot fishways were installed within a 32-km stretch of the lower Belgian Meuse River basin. From 2012 to 2016, n=532 individuals belonging to 11 potamodromous fish species (rheophilic, limnophilic and large carnivorous) were continuously captured in the most downstream fishway (M0), tagged with an RFID transponder and released upstream. These could be further detected in upstream river part within three fishways (M1 and M2 in the Meuse, and O1 in an important tributary, the Ourthe) that were equipped with RFID detection stations. In the first downstream stretch (13 km from M0 to M1) we quantified an ascending rate until M1 (number of individuals detected in M1/ number of individuals tagged in M0) of 32.9% including all individuals tagged, with a maximum value of 67.2% for chub (Squalius cephalus), 40% for pike (Esox Lucius) and 35.5% for nase (Chondrostoma nasus), and a progression time M0 to M1 of 1.1 days per kilometre (d/km), with trout (Salmo trutta) as the fastest species (0.3 d/km). Upstream of the M1 fishway, many individuals of rheophilic species (trout and barbel, Barbus barbus) preferred to enter in the Ourthe tributary (detection at the Ourthe fishway) unlike the upstream Meuse (detection at the most upstream fishway in the Meuse), demonstrating a new accessibility to more adapted spawning sites. Most fish were present within fishways mainly in spring during the circum-spawning migration, and during summer and autumn for dispersal and/or seeking-refuge. The diel activity cycle varied depending on the species, with detection during the entire diel cycle (e.g. chub and barbel), during the day (e.g. trout) and during the night (e.g. catfish, Silurus glanis). The installation of fishways in the degraded river Meuse can be considered adequate for the restoration of the free movement because potamodromous species demonstrated their ability to migrate over long distances (> 20 km) and to reach potential spawning habitats through the reopened access to a tributary. [less ▲]

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See detailProgramme Saumon Meuse : avancées récentes et nouveaux défis.
Rollin, Xavier; Ovidio, Michaël ULiege; Kestemont, Patrick et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

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See detailReport on the eel stock, fishery and other impacts, in: Belgium 2018
Belpaire, Claude; Breine, Jan; Van Wichelen, Jeroen et al

Report (2018)

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See detailBelgium eel country report 2018 for the WG eel
Belpaire, Claude; Breine, Jan; Jeroen, Van Wichelen et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

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See detailLong-term monitoring of European eels in the Belgian Meuse River basin. From the historical drastic decline to recent outcomes of restocking practices.
Nzau Matondo, Billy ULiege; Dierckx, Arnaud ULiege; Benitez, Jean-Philippe ULiege et al

Conference (2017, June)

Long-term monitoring of yellow- and glass eel stages were performed in upland areas (>300km from sea) in order (i) to quantify the decline of wild yellow eels entering in the Belgian Meuse from the ... [more ▼]

Long-term monitoring of yellow- and glass eel stages were performed in upland areas (>300km from sea) in order (i) to quantify the decline of wild yellow eels entering in the Belgian Meuse from the Netherlands; (ii) to follow their upstream individual colonization; and (iii) to analyze the adaptation of young eels stocked as glass eels imported from UK. By monitoring a fish pass from 1992 to 2016, we quantified that the number of ascending eels has declined from n=5613 in 1992 to n=21 in 2016 (3.99%/year) and the mean length of eels has increased (4.1mm/year). During 6-years, upstream individual colonization of eels (2010-2015, n=1371) was followed using fixed RFIDtracking system. Few eels continued to migrate 4 years after tagging (<0.3%) and at >20km upstream (3.7%); and velocity of eels varied between individuals (0.012- 3.1km/day). In a 4-year (2013-2016) monitoring study of restocked glass eels using electrofishing and mobile RFID-tracking campaigns, we observed that eels grew rapidly in upland small brooks and recruitment was better in rivers with high carrying capacity (>15.8%, 2years post-stocking). Restocked eels dispersed in up- and downstream directions with behaviors including sedentary, nomadic and intermediate lifestyles. This suggests stocking as potential management measure to enhance local eel stocks. [less ▲]

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See detailEcological intensification of fish production : Fertilization strategies in Africa fish farms
Mafwila Kinkela, Patrick ULiege; Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULiege; Rollin, Xavier et al

Poster (2017, February)

Ponds fertilization has been found as strategies of intensification fish production for farm in Africa were commercial feeds are not available and ingredients for formulate completed feed are cost ... [more ▼]

Ponds fertilization has been found as strategies of intensification fish production for farm in Africa were commercial feeds are not available and ingredients for formulate completed feed are cost. However, farmers are not safe to any danger because the efficiency of these strategies is not always known owing to the associated risk of eutrophication. An experience was making to assess how various fertilization practices would impact fish growth and physicochemical parameters of water in the pond. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversity of farming systems integrating fish pond aquaculture in the province of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Mafwila Kinkela, Patrick ULiege; Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULiege; Dogot, Thomas ULiege et al

in Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (2017), 118(1), 149-160

Agriculture and aquaculture systems are used by many farmers in various tropical countries of Asia, America and Africa. They have proven their relevancy to increase the productivity of farms by optimising ... [more ▼]

Agriculture and aquaculture systems are used by many farmers in various tropical countries of Asia, America and Africa. They have proven their relevancy to increase the productivity of farms by optimising nutrient fluxes and reducing requirements for external fertilisers. This article analysed the current state of fish farming and the way it is integrated with other farm subsystems in the urban/peri-urban and rural areas of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. More precisely, it examined the allocation of resources at the farm level, the recovery of helophytes plants, and the fate of fish production choices and it explored the possibility of intensifying these existing integrated farming systems. After a census of ponds in the urban and rural areas of Kinshasa, an on-site survey was conducted on 150 fish pond farms to assess the different activities practiced on farms, the impact of integrating crops and livestock to fish pond aquaculture and the constraints of the system. A total of three thousand and twenty (3020) fish ponds were recorded in the urban and rural areas of Kinshasa. Among these farms integrated aquaculture-agriculture systems exist with a wide diversity of practices (about 79% of farms combined fish with livestock and/or vegetable production). No striking differences between fish farms according to the allocation of resources, fish production method such as monoculture or polyculture, the recovery of helophytes plants and the fate of fish production choice were found depending on the location. However, fish farms were differently managed when combined with agriculture and/or livestock. Regarding the integration of the different subsystems through nutrient fluxes, 11 different movements of material between subsystems were found in integrated farms. However, not all fluxes are equally used in all farms and therefore improvements cannot be generalised. Improvements to be explored are such as making better use of manure pond mud and helophyte plants. For this purpose, proper training of farmers might be critical. Finally, bringing farmers together in cooperatives could also contribute to reduce the cost of purchase and transportation of fish fry and feed. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritive value of three tropical forgae legumes and their influence on growth performance, carcass traits and organ weights of pigs
Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULiege; Kalala Bolokango, Gaetan ULiege; Dochain, Denis et al

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2016), 48(6), 1165-1173

The effects of tropical forage legumes on feed intake, growth performance and carcass traits were investigated in 16 groups of two Large White × Duroc pigs. The diets consisted of a commercial ... [more ▼]

The effects of tropical forage legumes on feed intake, growth performance and carcass traits were investigated in 16 groups of two Large White × Duroc pigs. The diets consisted of a commercial corn–soybean meal diet as the basal diet and three forage-supplemented diets. Four groups of control pigs received daily 4 % of body weight of the basal diet, and 12 groups of experimental pigs were fed the basal diet at 3.2 % of body weight completed with fresh leaves of one of the three forage legumes (Psophocarpus scandens, Stylosanthes guianensis and Vigna unguiculata) ad libitum. The study lasted 90 days. The in vitro digestion and fermentation of the forage legumes were also determined. The in vitro digestible energy content of the legumes was between 0.72 and 0.77 that of the basal diet (14.4 MJ/kg dry matter (DM)). V. unguiculata was the most digestible forage legume expected for crude protein digestibility. Feeding forage legumes lowered the dry matter intake by 4.5 to 9.6 % (P< 0.05), final body weight (P= 0.013), slaughter weight, average daily gain and hot carcass weight (P< 0.05) without affecting the feed conversion ratio (FCR), dressing percentage and back fat thickness. In conclusion, using forage to feed pig could be interesting in pig smallholder productionwith limited access to concentrate, as FCR was not significantly affected. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of forage legumes on nutritive value and growth performance in pigs reared in traditional farming systems in tropical Africa
Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULiege; Kalala, Gaetan; Mafwila, Jacques et al

in Book of Abstracts (2015)

Forage legumes (FL) are used in tropical countries to feed pigs, either by reducing allowance of well-balanced diets and supplementing with FL or by incorporating FL in unbalanced fibre-rich diets. The ... [more ▼]

Forage legumes (FL) are used in tropical countries to feed pigs, either by reducing allowance of well-balanced diets and supplementing with FL or by incorporating FL in unbalanced fibre-rich diets. The impact of both strategies on animal and economical performances was studied in 2 growth experiments. In Exp. 1, 4 groups of 8 growing pigs (25.5 +- 4.2 kg) were fed under one of 4 dietary treatment: a well-balanced diet (CONTROL) ad libitum or 80% of the ad libitum level of CONTROL + ad libitum freshly cut foliage of one of 3 FL species (Vigna unguiculata, Stylosanthes guinanensis, or Psophocarpens scandens). Similarly, in Exp. 2, 4 groups of 6 pigs (22.6 +- 3.7 kg) were fed one of 4 experimental diets: the well-balanced diet (CONTROL), an unbalanced traditional diet rich in fibre and made of bran, brewers grain, and corn (TRAD) or 80% TRAD diet supplemented with 20% of one of 2 FL hays (V. unguiculata or S. guinanensis). Animals were regularly weighed and feed intake was monitored. After 90d, animals were slaughtered and carcass composition and economic traits were recorded to calculate production costs and economical value. In addition, nutritive value of the FL and the diets was assessed by means of an in vitro model of the pig digestive tract combining an enzymatic hydrolysis to a fermentation with a fecal inoculum. Results indicate that pigs fed diets with FL (Exp.1) and TRAD with and without FL (Exp.2) had reduced ADG, final live and carcass weights (P<0.05) compared to CONTROL pigs. Surprisingly , dry matter intake (DMI) was also reduced by 10% with those diets compared to CONTROL (P<0.001) in both experiments. In Exp. 1, FCR and carcass dressing were not affected by the 20% reduction in CONTROL diet and supplementation with fresh FL, while in Exp. 2 those parameters were negatively affected in TRAD with and without FL compared to CONTROL pigs. In vitro data showed that differences in nutritive values explained most differences in growth performances and carcass traits, but not the decrease in intake, since passage rate and voluntary intake are not taken into account in the in vitro model. Economical assessment showed that fresh foliage of FL could increase incomes, as long as their production costs remain marginal, but the incorporation of FL hays could not improve economical performances in pigs fed traditional unbalanced fibre-rich diets. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrated farming systems in Kinshasa (DRC) Diversity of agricultural practices
Mafwila Kinkela, Patrick ULiege; Bindelle, Jérôme ULiege; WILLEMS, E, Emilie et al

Poster (2014, February 07)

In Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo, integrated farming of livestock and fish farming is little documented while it is an interesting way of ecological intensification systems. After ... [more ▼]

In Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo, integrated farming of livestock and fish farming is little documented while it is an interesting way of ecological intensification systems. After identifying the density of fish ponds in the territory of the city using satellite images, about 200 farms with at least one pond and located in 2 in peri-urban and rural areas were surveyed to characterize the practical integration of the agricultural system. The preliminary results in one of the valleys indicate that the practice of agriculture in synergy with the pig and fish farming is a common practice although flow of components are still insufficiently integrated and some of them are not optimized . The fish - pig farming associations with or without vegetable production are 44 % of the sample. The identification of flow on farms showed that the manure of pigs is mainly used for crops (51%) or sold (28%), while a small part is used to fertilize the ponds. This may be explained by the predominant share of income (67%) devoted to vegetable production while sludge of ponds is rarely used to fertilize area of vegetable production. Residues of vegetable crops are rarely used to feed pigs and fish because of their limited availability. Feeding pigs and fish is based primarily on agro-industrial by-products such as wheat bran (81%) and the spent brewery grains (62%) and forages (62%). The presentation will analyze the results obtained in the three sites visited and outline opportunities for improvement. [less ▲]

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See detailMaintenance threonine requirement and efficiency of its use for accretion of whole-body threonine and protein in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry.
Rollin, Xavier; Wauters, Jean*-Baptiste; Bodin, Noe Lie et al

in British Journal of Nutrition (2006), 95(2), 234-45

Eighteen groups of seventy Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry (initial mean body weight 0.8 (sd 0.01) g) were fed on semi-purified diets containing graded levels of l-threonine (Thr) in 15 litres ... [more ▼]

Eighteen groups of seventy Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry (initial mean body weight 0.8 (sd 0.01) g) were fed on semi-purified diets containing graded levels of l-threonine (Thr) in 15 litres aquaria at a temperature of 14.5+/-1 degrees C. Doses of Thr represented 1, 31, 41, 51, 62, 72, 83 and 93 % of its ideal level for optimum protein deposition. Indispensable amino acids other than Thr were included in the same proportion (on a g/16 g N basis) as in the Atlantic salmon fry whole-body carcass. Following 36 d of feeding and a 36 h fast, fry were killed for whole-body protein and amino acid analysis. Weight gain (r2 0.98), protein accretion (r2 0.97), and Thr accretion (r2 0.97) were linear (P<0.01) functions of Thr intake. Slope of the Thr accretion regression line showed that the efficiency of Thr utilisation above maintenance was 76 %. At zero Thr intake, fry lost 5.4 mg Thr/kg body weight0.75 per d. The Thr maintenance requirement was 7.2 mg/kg body weight0.75 per d and the Thr requirement for growth was 66 mg for 1 g protein deposition. Increasing doses of Thr resulted in increased (P<0.05) concentrations of histidine and lysine, and decreased concentrations of isoleucine in whole-body protein. The maintenance need for Thr represented 13.4 % of the total need for Thr. The data suggest that efficiency of Thr utilisation above maintenance is constant at all levels of Thr intake between 1 and 93 % of the level required for optimum protein deposition. [less ▲]

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