References of "Reiter, Sigrid"
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See detailEstimation, Analysis and Mapping of Electricity Consumption of a Regional Building Stock in a Temperate Climate in Europe
Nishimwe, Antoinette ULiege; Reiter, Sigrid ULiege

in Energy and Buildings (2021)

This study financed by ERDF and the Wallonia Region estimates the annual electricity consumption (EC) of building stock, including the 3 building sectors namely residential, tertiary and industrial ... [more ▼]

This study financed by ERDF and the Wallonia Region estimates the annual electricity consumption (EC) of building stock, including the 3 building sectors namely residential, tertiary and industrial building. The estimation takes into account appliances, electrical heating, cooling, lighting, cooking and EC by m2 on a building level. The results are spatialized on different territorial scales. Using cadastral data of more than 1,700,000 Walloon buildings and annual EC data from a sample collected in 2012 from the energy reports, the paper assesses the EC of the whole building stock and tests to what extent different types of variables (building factors and socio-demographics) explain annual EC. It then shows which individual variables have the highest explanatory power. In contrast to many other studies, the research recognizes the problem of multicollinearity between predictors in regression analysis and uses Lasso regression to address this issue. Three separate regression models were used to study the predictors of annual EC of residential, tertiary and industrial buildings. EC building factors (appliances, auxiliary and main heating, domestic hot water and cooking) explained the largest share which is 66.46% of the variability in EC for residential buildings whereas the EC usages share for tertiary buildings (lighting, heating and domestic hot water, air conditioning, cooling, etc.) is about 50.53% and 38.55% for industrial buildings. Socio-demographic variables on their own explained about 61.59%, 26.34% and 3.41% of the annual EC, respectively for residential, tertiary and industrial buildings. Hence, the building variables present the highest explanatory power for EC, presumably because heating and cooling EC are included in this study. The study highlights that when attempting to explain EC related to Walloon households, including heating and cooling EC, appliances usage has the strongest predictive power in residential buildings. On the other hand, the projected decrease in EC use for heating in existing residential buildings is 8.82% and 10% for existing tertiary buildings while the projected increase in EC use for cooling in existing tertiary buildings is + 11.94% from 2012 to 2050 on a regional scale. These trends follow the predicted regional heating degree-days (HDD) of 11.76% and cooling degree-days (CDD) of 14.04% for the same period based on the gated recurrent unit (GRU) an implemented deep learning (DL) model. In addition, the produced EC maps on different erritorial scales show that the highest EC is seen in large and main cities in general. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental analysis of health damages coming from a residential neighborhood built in 150 countries
Kameni Nematchoua, Modeste ULiege; Asadi, Somayeh; Obonyo, Esther et al

in Journal of Housing and the Built Environment (2021)

Decisions made in the design of urban developments at the neighbourhood scale influence damages on human health, which depend on location. So far, no standard has proposed the range of health damage ... [more ▼]

Decisions made in the design of urban developments at the neighbourhood scale influence damages on human health, which depend on location. So far, no standard has proposed the range of health damage coming from neighborhoods located in any region, due to the different morphologies of neighborhoods, and limited study numbers. Aware of this fact, this study was conducted with the aim to evaluate and to compare the effect of health damage produced by a sustainable neighborhood in which the same morphology was designed in several regions. To perform this comparison, the same neighborhood design is applied to 150 countries, but four parameters are adapted to each country: energy mix, local climate, building materials, and occupants ‘mobility. In addition, this study analysis the induced health impact of the neighborhood over a life cycle of 100 years and examines the impact of mobility and renewable energy on the health, which was evaluated by Pleiades ACV software. Among the four local parameters (energy mix, local materials, climate, and transport), the energy mix has the most significant effect on the health damage. The results show that the countries having a lower concentration of renewable energy sources have higher health damage than others. Africa is the continent that is the most affected by health damage. The building materials and electricity use are the main sources of health damage in a neighborhood. The implementation of photovoltaic panels on the roofs of an eco-neighborhood has a significant impact on the potential health damages. Among the different stages of the neighborhood life cycle, the operation stage is the most significant which is responsible over 50% of total health damage. It is important to multiply ecological neighborhoods around the world, because health damage is estimated to be 20% lower in sustainable neighborhoods than more conventional neighborhoods. [less ▲]

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See detailModernising All the Cities of the World Towards Zero-Energy and Zero-Carbon Emissions by 2050
Kameni Nematchoua, Modeste ULiege; Reiter, Sigrid ULiege

Book published by Lambert Academic publishing (2021)

Imagine entire cities that, for their heating, cooling, hot water, electricity, industrial production and transportation, only need the energy they produce themselves! Imagine that the carbon emissions of ... [more ▼]

Imagine entire cities that, for their heating, cooling, hot water, electricity, industrial production and transportation, only need the energy they produce themselves! Imagine that the carbon emissions of these cities are almost zero. This is nothing utopian; this ambition is achievable. The time of great decisions is at hand. This book offers solutions to achieve these goals, which are applicable everywhere on the planet, and they are illustrated with examples from all continents. [less ▲]

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See detailStrategies and scenarios to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emission in the urban, rural and sustainable neighbourhoods
Kameni Nematchoua, Modeste ULiege; Mahsan, Sadeghi; Reiter, Sigrid ULiege

in Sustainable Cities and Society (2021), 72

The building sector has become a major source of worldwide carbon emissions and energy consumption because of rapid population growth and a continuous environmental strain caused by humanity. A lack of ... [more ▼]

The building sector has become a major source of worldwide carbon emissions and energy consumption because of rapid population growth and a continuous environmental strain caused by humanity. A lack of consistent data on life-cycle carbon emissions and energy demand at the neighbourhood level has made it difficult to understand the origins of climate change at this scale. A sensitivity analysis brought clarity concerning the extent of environmental impacts on future climate evolution. From this perspective, the authors aimed to evaluate, analyse, compare, and provide recommendations to reduce carbon emissions, as well as the energy required by three types of neighbourhoods (urban, rural, and sustainable) located in and adapted to all countries worldwide. The most important parameters affecting carbon emission and energy consumption were analysed, including the energy mix of countries, local building materials and climate, technological solutions utilised, daily mobility, and occupied spaces. The results indicated that the highest levels of carbon dioxide emissions were produced by countries with prosperous economies, such as China, the United States, India, Germany, and Poland, because of high concentrations of coal in their energy mixes. Modernising cities through the construction of new ecodistricts and increasing the use of new techniques for substantial renovations of outdated buildings worldwide could mitigate the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by neighbourhoods 53–97 % by 2050. Moreover, by combining substantial building renovations with the installation of photovoltaic panels on roofs, the objective of ‘zero carbon’ at the neighbourhood level could be achievable by 2050 in rural neighbourhoods. Radical changes in the judicious choice of construction materials and use of green energy production represent targeted opportunities to resolve the future climate dilemma. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation du modèle d'intelligence artificielle pour estimer l'impact du changement climatique sur la consommation énergétique du stock de bâtiments en Wallonie (Belgique) en 2050
Nishimwe, Antoinette ULiege; Reiter, Sigrid ULiege

Scientific conference (2021, May 27)

La consommation énergétique des bâtiments à différentes échelles est très important pour une bonne gestion au niveau local et régional. La présentation orale concerne les explications détaillées de la ... [more ▼]

La consommation énergétique des bâtiments à différentes échelles est très important pour une bonne gestion au niveau local et régional. La présentation orale concerne les explications détaillées de la spatialisation de consommation de chaleur et d’électricité de tout le stock de bâtiments en Wallonie, l'utilisation des modèles complexes d'intelligence artificielle pour prédire ces consommations jusqu’en 2050 et l'établissement des profils dynamiques horaires des consommations énergétiques pour une année complète en Wallonie. A l'échelle régionale, les consommations de chaleurs vont diminuer de 8.82%, 10% et 11.26% pour les secteurs résidentiel, tertiaire et industriel respectivement, tandis que les consommations d’électricité pour le froid vont augmenter de 19.76% pour le secteur tertiaire. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of bioclimatic potential, energy consumption, CO2-emission, and life cycle cost of a residential building located in Sub-Saharan Africa; a case study of eight countries
Kameni Nematchoua, Modeste ULiege; Reiter, Sigrid ULiege

in Solar Energy (2021), 218

Nowadays, one of the current concerns of the United Nations and the European Union is to offer more reliable mechanisms aimed at reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions on a building scale. The ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, one of the current concerns of the United Nations and the European Union is to offer more reliable mechanisms aimed at reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions on a building scale. The new required recommendations can be applied to all countries of the world. The main objective of this study is to evaluate, analyse and compare the indoor air condition (comfort rate and CO2 concentration), and energy consumption, prevailing in a family building built in eight cities (Douala, Kinshasa, Abidjan, Lagos, Pretoria, Dakar, Antananarivo and Addis Ababa), located in eight countries (Cameroon, DRC, Cote d’Ivoire, Nigeria, South Africa, Senegal, Madagascar and Ethiopia) in Sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, this study assesses the total cost of the life cycle of a new building over a period of 50 years in each country. Parameter simulations and optimizations are carried out over three periods (current, 2030 and 2050) with Design Builder software renowned in this area. The results showed that the comfort potential is around 10–21% higher in the residential buildings located at altitude compare to those ones in coastal regions. The thermal comfort range is found between 20 ◦C and 29 ◦C in these different cities. The preferred thermal environment in altitude regions, where it makes cold, should be “slightly warm”, corresponding to around 1 ◦C above the neutral temperature, in order to satisfy the majority of the building occupant. In addition, the preferred thermal environment in coastal regions, where it makes warm, should be “slightly cold”, corresponding to around 1 ◦C below the neutral temperature, in order to satisfy the majority of the occupants of the building. Finally, the building’s Life cycle cost (LCC) ranges between 25% and 35% for construction cost; from 30%to 40%, for operation cost; between 2% and 3% for maintenance cost; between 9% and 15% for energy cost on the whole LCC in Sub-Saharan-Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailBuilding heat consumption and heat demand assessment, characterization, and mapping on a regional scale: A case study of the Walloon building stock in Belgium
Nishimwe, Antoinette ULiege; Reiter, Sigrid ULiege

in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (2021), 135

Energy consumption in buildings results in CO2 emissions and it is necessary to reduce energy consumption thus its related emissions. This research is included in the Wal-e-cities project, which is funded ... [more ▼]

Energy consumption in buildings results in CO2 emissions and it is necessary to reduce energy consumption thus its related emissions. This research is included in the Wal-e-cities project, which is funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and aims to create tools that facilitate the transition toward smart territory. The annual heat consumption (HC) and heat demand (HD) of Wallonia building stock of more than 1,700,000 buildings are assessed. Subsequently, the developed energy models are coupled with a geographic information system (GIS) to calculate and map the HC and HD. The HC and HD are calculated for each building and are represented by different levels of territorial aggregation, namely neighbourhood, municipality, and urban region scales. The highest HC values were observed in large cities and main industrial areas, whereas the lowest values were observed in rural areas. For residential sector, HC is mainly related to the number of dwellings, which differs from that of tertiary and industrial sectors where HC also depends on the nature and function of buildings. Based on mean values at the neighbourhood scale, the HD is 16.44% lower than the HC for the residential sector, 15.78% lower than the HC for the tertiary sector, and 9.26% lower than the HC for the industrial sector. The proposed energy models are validated. The relative differences between annual HC calculated in this study and that provided in the regional energy reports are −5.82% for the residential sector, −14.29% for the tertiary sector, and −2.02% for the industrial sector. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd [less ▲]

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See detailThermal perception in outdoor urban spaces under the Mediterranean climate of Annaba, Algeria
Labdaoui, Kahima; Mazouz, Said; Reiter, Sigrid ULiege et al

in Urban Climate (2021), 39

Many studies were investigated to grade outdoor thermal comfort and related thermal sensation during the past years. This study aims to explore thermal comfort conditions and thermal sensation in the hot ... [more ▼]

Many studies were investigated to grade outdoor thermal comfort and related thermal sensation during the past years. This study aims to explore thermal comfort conditions and thermal sensation in the hot Mediterranean climate (Csa), which annually includes 1100-1700 cooling degree days and 1200-1800 heating degree days (CDD=1100-1700, HDD=1200-1800). This research tested the human thermal sensation by applying the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) index. A field survey of 1230 interviewees was conducted in Annaba, Algeria, in four outdoor environments having the same morphology and different green cover. The scientific method involved combining two software. Envi-met was used to calibrate microclimatic data (air temperature, wind velocity, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature); in comparison, RayMan used to calculate PET. The results showed the neutral sensation range for this Mediterranean climate varies between 20 °C and 26°C. The highest scores of neutral thermal sensation were recorded in spaces with vegetation cover, which involves the trees cooling effect in enhancing thermal comfort, especially during the hot hours of the day. The air temperature divergence reached 4°C and 3°C for Tmrt at noon, considered the day's hottest hour. The findings also highlight the existence of a thermal adaptation in outdoor spaces having a green cover. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards nearly zero-energy residential neighbourhoods in the European Union: A case study
Kameni Nematchoua, Modeste ULiege; Nishimwe, Antoinette ULiege; Reiter, Sigrid ULiege

in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (2021), 135

The European Union (EU) aims to establish a guideline that requires all new buildings to comply with nearly zero-energy buildings (NZEB) by 2030. This decision involves new technologies based on concepts ... [more ▼]

The European Union (EU) aims to establish a guideline that requires all new buildings to comply with nearly zero-energy buildings (NZEB) by 2030. This decision involves new technologies based on concepts that meet international standards. This research aims to review the literature on ‘net zero-energy building’ and analyses the possibility of applying this research on nine statistically representative neighbourhoods of the Walloon building stock in Belgium, depending on the built density. All the areas, grouped into four categories (urban, peri-urban, suburban, and rural neighbourhoods), were used for current energy consumption analysis and to evaluate prospective scenarios based on four major challenges, namely climate change, building renovations, photovoltaic panels, and sustainable mobility. In addition, a new approach combining several scenarios to further improve energy needs at the neighbourhood scale is also highlighted. The nine different types of neighbourhoods studied are commonly found in different countries across the EU. The average reduction in energy consumption of neighbourhoods (buildings + daily mobility) in 2040 (compared to reference year 2012) will likely reach 5.69% attributable to a 20% reduction in distances travelled, 6.48% to climate change, 12.95% to the current annual buildings renovation rate, 18.76%–100% electric cars, 22.26% for doubling the current buildings renovation rate, 31.62% and 63.25% to a light or heavy renovation of the entire building stock, respectively. Moreover, installing 20 m² of solar panels on the rooftops of each residential building would produce renewable energy equivalent to 6.53% of the current global energy consumption. Finally, the results show that more than 90% of current energy consumption can be reduced at the neighbourhood scale (buildings + daily mobility) by combining a heavy renovation of all the buildings, electric vehicles, and photovoltaic panels. This scenario allows reaching the ‘nearly zero-energy’ target at the neighbourhood scale. [less ▲]

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See detailAir Changes for Healthy Indoor Ambiences under Pandemic Conditions and Its Energetic Implications: A Galician Case Study
Orosa, José A.; Kameni Nematchoua, Modeste ULiege; Reiter, Sigrid ULiege

in Applied Sciences (2020), 10(20), 1-13

The present paper aims to show a mathematical understanding of the effect of ventilation rate over building energy consumption. Moreover, as a case study to show this methodology, a proposal was analyzed ... [more ▼]

The present paper aims to show a mathematical understanding of the effect of ventilation rate over building energy consumption. Moreover, as a case study to show this methodology, a proposal was analyzed of modifying the teaching period to reach a maximum increase of air changes in school buildings, to allow adherence to the COVID-19 pandemic requirements in the Galicia region,with lower energy consumption. In this sense, to analyze the energetic implication of this proposal, the building construction was defined, modeled in accordance with the ISO Standard 13790 and implemented in accordance with the Monte Carlo method. Results showed the probability of energy consumption as a Weibull model. Furthermore, a map of different Weibull models in accordance with different ventilation rates was developed. The constants of the Weibull models allow to identify normal distributions of the probability density functions of energy consumption, especially the ones with lower energy consumption. As a consequence, these constants are a better parameter to identify the optimal ventilation rate for each season in search of a healthy indoor ambience, which is of interest for a future design guide. Finally, the main results showed a reduction of energy consumption at a higher ventilation rate in the summer season. As a consequence, the necessity of modifying teachings periods, as an adequate procedure to prevent more COVID infections, is concluded. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of energy mix on the life cycle of an eco-neighborhood, a case study of 150 countries
Kameni Nematchoua, Modeste ULiege; Asadi, Somayeh; Reiter, Sigrid ULiege

in Renewable Energy (2020), 162

In recent years, the destruction of the ecosystem, due to strong emissions of greenhouse gas into the atmosphere by humans has led to significant damage to wildlife, human health, and flora. This has ... [more ▼]

In recent years, the destruction of the ecosystem, due to strong emissions of greenhouse gas into the atmosphere by humans has led to significant damage to wildlife, human health, and flora. This has significantly changed the human life cycle. Nowadays, the environmental damage costs are applied for the countries strongly impacting pollutant emission. To this end, developing countries receive annual compensation from the countries considered to be the most polluting. So far, decision-makers seem to be unaware that, at the scale of an eco-neighborhood, some emerging countries produce also a significant amount of CO2. The main purpose of this research is to quantify and to compare the effect of the energy mix of 150 countries on three environmental impacts generated by an eco-neighborhood: greenhouse effect, energy demand, and biodiversity damage. To perform this comparison, the same neighborhood design is applied to 150 countries, but four parameters are adapted to each country: energy mix, local climate, building materials, and occupants’ mobility. In addition, this research evaluates the induced environmental costs of the neighborhood over a life cycle of 100 years and examines the impact of mobility and photovoltaic panel on these environmental costs. The different environmental impacts were evaluated by the Pleiades ACV simulation software under four phases (construction, use, renovation, and demolition), before being translated into environmental costs. Among the four local parameters (energy mix, local materials, climate, and transport), the energy mix has the most significant effect on the three studied environmental impacts. The results show that the countries having a higher concentration of renewable energy sources produce lower CO2 than others. Domestic and material waste are also one of the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity damage in a sustainable neighborhood. The biodiversity damage is high in Sub-Sahara Africa, and MiddleEast, but low in the USA, Brazil, European Union, Russia, and Australia. The implementation of photovoltaic panels in a sustainable neighborhood mitigates, on average, 15.9% of carbon dioxide emissions and 21.2% of primary energy demand; but, unfortunately, this solution increases up to 25.0% the biodiversity damage. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of phase change materials, thermal insulation, and external shading for thermal comfort improvement and cooling energy demand reduction in an office building under different coastal tropical climates
Kameni Nematchoua, Modeste ULiege; Noelson, M.K.; Saadi, I. et al

in Solar Energy (2020), 207

Architectural techniques have evolved over the century. Presently, climatic conditions require architecture that is more adaptable to the environment. Coastal regions have been recognised to be the most ... [more ▼]

Architectural techniques have evolved over the century. Presently, climatic conditions require architecture that is more adaptable to the environment. Coastal regions have been recognised to be the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Limited research has offered some strategies to mitigate the solar effect on thermal comfort and energy demand in coastal tropical regions. To address this problem, this study was conducted with the aim of evaluating, analysing, comparing, and discussing the impacts of passive strategies on thermal comfort and energy consumption (as well as the introduction of photovoltaic panels) in coastal tropical climate regions. All simulations were conducted for a period of one year using the Design Builder software. The results demonstrate that phase change materials (PCMs) have a significant effect on thermal comfort and energy consumption in an office under different coastal tropical climates. The combination of PCMs with thermal insulation has the ability to increase the comfort rate by up to 3% while decreasing the cooling energy consumption by approximately 12% in three studied climate zones. In a naturally ventilated building, the most significant increase in the comfort rate is observed with the introduction of PCMs in combination with thermal insulation, whereas thermal insulation, along with external shading, results in the most significant reduction in the cooling energy consumption of an air-conditioned office building (approximately 19%) in three studied climates. Furthermore, the introduction of photovoltaic panels enables us to generate 43–79% of the total energy consumption of the studied office building [less ▲]

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See detailTowards sustainable neighborhoods in Europe: Mitigating 12 environmental impacts by successively applying 8 scenarios
Kameni Nematchoua, Modeste ULiege; Sevin, Matthieu; Reiter, Sigrid ULiege

in Atmosphere (2020), 11(6), 603-634

The purpose of this research is to determine the most impactful and important source of environmental change at the neighborhood level. The study of multiple scenarios allows us to determine the influence ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this research is to determine the most impactful and important source of environmental change at the neighborhood level. The study of multiple scenarios allows us to determine the influence of several parameters on the results of the life cycle analysis of the neighborhood. We are looking at quantifying the impact of orientation, storm water management, density, mobility and the use of renewable energies on the environmental balance sheet of a neighborhood, based on eleven environmental indicators. An eco‐neighborhood, located in Belgium, has been selected as the modeling site. The results show that the management of mobility is the parameter that can reduce the impact the most, in terms of greenhouse effect, odor, damage to biodiversity and health. With the adaptation of photovoltaic panels on the site, the production exceeds the consumption all through the year, except for the months of December and January, when the installation covers 45% and 75% of the consumption, respectively. Increasing the built density of the neighborhood by roof stacking allows the different environmental impacts, calculated per inhabitant, to be homogeneously minimized. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial Energy Modelling of a Residential Building Stock Based on GIS: A Case Study of the Walloon Region in Belgium
Nishimwe, Antoinette ULiege; Reiter, Sigrid ULiege

in Proceedings of 6th Annual International Conference on Geography (2020, June)

Nowadays, we are all concerned by the world global warming. Cities are looking forward for creating tools that will help to reduce their energy consumption. This research is funded by ERDF (European ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, we are all concerned by the world global warming. Cities are looking forward for creating tools that will help to reduce their energy consumption. This research is funded by ERDF (European Regional Development Fund) and it addresses the energy challenge of developing a strategic decision support tool dedicated to multi-scale and dynamic energy mapping, as well as the analysis of energy data for integrated energy management, on the Walloon region territory in Belgium. The study uses a GIS combined with energy models to map the energy consumption of the whole residential building stock of Wallonia. This involves heating consumption, heat demand, electricity consumption and cooling consumption of all residential buildings in Wallonia, including 1,520,650 dwellings. Each building is characterized by its energy consumption. Heating, cooling and electrical consumption are spatialized on the whole territory of Wallonia at various representation scales, namely the neighborhood, municipality and urban region scales. This article presents used methods, produced multi-scale maps and statistical analysis of the results in terms of energy consumption in the Walloon residential built environment. These results will help the strategic decision makers to see where to focus in order to reduce the energy consumption in cities and take strategic decisions. Our methodology can also be applied to other cities and regional territories. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative analysis of bioclimatic zones, energy consumption, CO2 emission and life cycle cost of residential and commercial buildings located in a tropical region: A case study of the big island of Madagascar
Kameni Nematchoua, Modeste ULiege; Jose, Orosa; Cinzia, B. et al

in Energy (2020), 202(1), 117754

Indoor comfort, energy demand, carbon emissions and the cost of maintaining a building vary according to the structure of the building and the behaviour of its occupants. The main goal of this research is ... [more ▼]

Indoor comfort, energy demand, carbon emissions and the cost of maintaining a building vary according to the structure of the building and the behaviour of its occupants. The main goal of this research is to analyse the bioclimatic potential of different Malagasy climatic zones. In addition, this study analyses and compares energy consumption and carbon emissions in six building categories commonly found in Sub Sahara African cities designed to be placed in thirteen cities unequally distributed in the six climatic regions in Madagascar. To reach this objective, hourly weather data for the last thirty years were analysed for two seasons. At the same time, the adaptive comfort model defined by the ASHRAE 55 served as a reference for the evaluation of different passive design potentials. The results showed that in the sub-Saharan or hot zone, the range of comfort varies according to with the geographical position and that the number of hours of thermal comfort and acceptability is in the majority of the cases outside the range recommended in the international standards (CIBSE, ASHRAE and ISO). Finally, it was concluded that Madagascar Island, such as other countries, should build their own standard due to the average demand for cooling energy increases every year up to 3.4% in the coastal towns and more than 80% of carbon emissions can be reduced in hospitals in Madagascar, as well as in Sub-Saharan Africa, by increasing the maintenance cost between 7% and 10% of the total life cycle cost of a building. In Madagascar Island, the building Life cycle cost ranges from 12% to 14% for the construction cost, 0–1% for the renovation cost, 36%–73% for the energy cost, 2%–3% for the maintenance cost on the whole LCC. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity Analysis of Passive Design Strategies for Residential Buildings in Cold Semi-Arid Climates
Mahar, Waqas Ahmed ULiege; Verbeeck, Griet ULiege; Reiter, Sigrid ULiege et al

in Sustainability (2020), 12(3), 1091

Buildings are significant drivers of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption. Improving the thermal comfort of occupants in free-running buildings and avoiding active and fossil fuel-based systems ... [more ▼]

Buildings are significant drivers of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption. Improving the thermal comfort of occupants in free-running buildings and avoiding active and fossil fuel-based systems is the main challenge in many cities worldwide. However, the impacts of passive design measures on thermal comfort in cold semi-arid regions are seldom studied. With the rapid urbanization and the widespread use of personalised heating and cooling systems, there is a need to inform building designers and city authorities about passive design measures that can achieve nearly optimal conditions. Therefore, in this study, a global sensitivity analysis of the impact of passive design parameters on adaptive comfort in cold semi-arid climates was conducted. A representative residential building was simulated and calibrated in Quetta, Pakistan, to identify key design parameters for optimal thermal comfort. The results list and rank a set of passive design recommendations that can be used widely in similar climates. The results show that among the investigated 21 design variables, the insulation type of roof is the most influential design variable. Overall, the sensitivity analysis yielded new quantitative and qualitative knowledge about the passive design of buildings with personalised heating systems, but the used sensitivity analysis has some limitations. Finally, this study provides evidence-based and informed design recommendations that can serve architects and homeowners to integrate passive design measures at the earliest conceptual design phases in cold semi-arid climates. [less ▲]

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See detailA Study of Life Cycle Assessment in two Old Neighbourhoods in Belgium
Kameni Nematchoua, Modeste ULiege; Somayeh, Asadi; Reiter, Sigrid ULiege

in Sustainable Cities and Society (2020), 52

The aim of this research is to determine the most important source of environmental impacts caused by two old neighbourhoods. The study of multiple scenarios allows us to determine their Life Cycle ... [more ▼]

The aim of this research is to determine the most important source of environmental impacts caused by two old neighbourhoods. The study of multiple scenarios allows us to determine their Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) impacts and identify the key variables. The impact of storm water management, density, mobility, management of unoccupied space, and the use of renewable energies on the environmental balance sheet of two old neighbourhoods located in urban and suburban zones was quantified. The environmental data come from several interviews with occupants, ECOINVENT database, developed by different research institutes based in Switzerland, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, which provides weather data for more than 2,100 locations throughout the world. Three different software programs were used for studying the different environmental impacts. The results showed that the length of daily trips made by the residents, the presence of public transportation and bike path has no significant influence on the environment in the two old neighbourhoods. The variation of photochemical ozone is important in both neighbourhoods. However, the presence of water retention and distribution systems reduces up to 10% the environmental impacts and in particular eutrophication, waste production, acidification and damage to health. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the potential of classic and electric bicycle commuting as an impetus for the transition towards environmentally sustainable cities: A case study of the university campuses in Liege, Belgium
Kameni Nematchoua, Modeste ULiege; Deuse, Caroline; Cools, Mario ULiege et al

in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (2020), 119

To address the negative effects of car use, conventional and electric bicycles are often proposed as environment-friendly alternatives. The aim of this research is to identify the prospects of a modal ... [more ▼]

To address the negative effects of car use, conventional and electric bicycles are often proposed as environment-friendly alternatives. The aim of this research is to identify the prospects of a modal shift towards conventional and electric bicycles based on a case study analysing the mobility generated by the three main campuses of the University of Liège in Belgium. In the theoretical part of this paper, the known factors and strategies that affect most of the bicycle use in Europe are summarised and the need for a deeper understanding of the elements that promote a modal shift from bus and car users to the use of electric bicycles is highlighted. Consequently, the results of a survey conducted among the university population of the University of Liège (students, PhD students, and staff members; including 1496 questionnaire responses)are presented and analysed in detail. The Net Promoter Score (NPS), as an indicator of the user satisfaction, confirms that the bicycle has the best NPS compared with the main modes of transport (car and bus) and that the electric bicycle has a greater NPS than the conventional bicycle. The importance of many factors affecting the use of cycling is lower if we consider the electric bicycle instead of the conventional bicycle. Considering the current travel patterns in terms of the distances travelled, the potential for the use of conventional bicycles only reaches 23% of the university users, whereas that of electric bicycles reaches 70%. In the pursuit of a modal report, the most imminent factor is the development of safe bike paths, where a potential increase in the bicycle use is acknowledged by 74% of the students, 62% of the staff members, 62% of the car users, and 82% of the bus users. Finally, because the lack of safe cycle lanes remains the major obstacle with respect to the use of both bicycle types, the development and/or improvement of a comfortable and secure infrastructure for cyclists within a radius of 12 km from the main school and work places, especially in the main residential and commercial areas, should be prioritised to promote the use of both types of bicycles. [less ▲]

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