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See detailFunctional diversity in biters: the evolutionary morphology of the oral jaw system in pacus, piranhas and relatives (Teleostei: Serrasalmidae)
Huby, Alessia ULiege; Lowie, Aurélien; Herrel, Anthony et al

in Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (2019)

Serrasalmid fishes form a highly specialized group of biters that show a large trophic diversity, ranging from pacus able to crush seeds to piranhas capable of cutting flesh. Their oral jaw system has ... [more ▼]

Serrasalmid fishes form a highly specialized group of biters that show a large trophic diversity, ranging from pacus able to crush seeds to piranhas capable of cutting flesh. Their oral jaw system has been hypothesized to be forceful, but variation in bite performance and morphology with respect to diet has not previously been investigated. We tested whether herbivorous species have higher bite forces, larger jaw muscles and more robust jaws than carnivorous species. We measured in vivo and theoretical bite forces in 27 serrasalmid species. We compared the size of the adductor mandibulae muscle, the jaw mechanical advantages, the type of jaw occlusion, and the size and shape of the lower jaw. We also examined the association between bite performance and functional morphological traits of the oral jaw system. Contrary to our predictions, carnivorous piranhas deliver stronger bites than their herbivorous counterparts. The size of the adductor mandibulae muscle varies with bite force and muscles are larger in carnivorous species. Our study highlights an underestimated level of functional morphological diversity in a fish group of exclusive biters. We provide evidence that the trophic specialization towards carnivory in piranhas results from changes in the configuration of the adductor mandibulae muscle and the lower jaw shape, which have major effects on bite performance and bite strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailBirth and Evolution of Acoustic Communication in Piranhas (Serrasalmidae)
Parmentier, Eric ULiege; Raick, Xavier ULiege; Vigouroux, Régis et al

Conference (2019, January)

Within piranhas, sound production is known in carnivorous species whereas herbivorous species were thought to be mute. As these carnivorous sonic species have a complex sonic apparatus, we hypothesise ... [more ▼]

Within piranhas, sound production is known in carnivorous species whereas herbivorous species were thought to be mute. As these carnivorous sonic species have a complex sonic apparatus, we hypothesise that transitional forms could be found in some serrasalmid species. We investigate sound production in different species covering all the Serrasalmidae phylogenetic tree to understand the evolution of the sonic mechanism in this family. The results highlight the evolutionary transition from a simple sound-producing mechanism without specialised sonic structures in the herbivorous species (Piaractus and Myloplus) to a sonic mechanism involving large, fast-contracting sonic muscles vibrating the swimbladder in the genera Pygocentrus and Serrasalmus. Hypaxial muscles in herbivores primarily serve locomotion, but some bundles caused sound production during swimming accelerations, meaning these muscles have gained a dual function. Sound production therefore seems to have been acquired through an exaptation event, i.e. the development of a new function (sound production) in existing structures initially shaped for a different purpose (locomotion). In further evolutionary stages (Catoprion and Pygopristis), some bundles are distinguishable from other hypaxial muscles and insert directly on the swimbladder. At this stage, the primary function (locomotion) is lost in favour of the secondary function (sound production). In the last stage (Pygocentrus and Serrasalmus), the muscles and insertion sites are larger and the innervation involves more spinal nerves, improving calling abilities. The comparison of sounds and sonic mechanisms shows the evolution of acoustic communication corresponds to a trajectory where the initial exaptation event is then subject to adaptations. [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneous production of two kinds of sounds in relation with sonic mechanism in the boxfsh Ostracion meleagris and O. cubicus
Parmentier, Eric ULiege; Solagna, Laura; Bertucci, Frédéric et al

in Scientific Reports (2019), 9

In fshes, sonic abilities for communication purpose usually involve a single mechanism. We describe here the sonic mechanism and sounds in two species of boxfsh, the spotted trunkfsh Ostracion meleagris ... [more ▼]

In fshes, sonic abilities for communication purpose usually involve a single mechanism. We describe here the sonic mechanism and sounds in two species of boxfsh, the spotted trunkfsh Ostracion meleagris and the yellow boxfsh Ostracion cubicus. The sonic mechanism utilizes a T-shaped swimbladder with a swimbladder fenestra and two separate sonic muscle pairs. Extrinsic vertical muscles attach to the vertebral column and the swimbladder. Perpendicularly and below these muscles, longitudinal intrinsic muscles cover the swimbladder fenestra. Sounds are exceptional since they are made of two distinct types produced in a sequence. In both species, humming sounds consist of long series (up to 45s) of hundreds of regular low-amplitude pulses. Hums are often interspersed with irregular click sounds with an amplitude that is ten times greater in O. meleagris and forty times greater in O. cubicus. There is no relationship between fsh size and many acoustic characteristics because muscle contraction rate dictates the fundamental frequency. We suggest that hums and clicks are produced by either separate muscles or by a combination of the two. The mechanism complexity supports an investment of boxfsh in this communication channel and underline sounds as having important functions in their way of life. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat do the Brazilian piranhas have to tell us?
Raick, Xavier ULiege; Huby, Alessia ULiege; Kurchevski, Gregório et al

Conference (2018, December 15)

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See detailSea, sound and sun: bioacoustics of triggerfishes (Balistidae)
Raick, Xavier ULiege; Lecchini, David; Kever, Loïc ULiege et al

Conference (2018, October 11)

Triggerfishes (Balistidae) are common fishes of shallow tropical waters that are known to produce sounds. We described these sounds in Rhinecanthus aculeatus as a series of pulses that result from ... [more ▼]

Triggerfishes (Balistidae) are common fishes of shallow tropical waters that are known to produce sounds. We described these sounds in Rhinecanthus aculeatus as a series of pulses that result from alternate sweeping movements of the right and left pectoral fins, which push modified scales that are forced against the swim bladder wall. Pulses from each fin occur in consecutive pairs. Highspeed videos indicate that each pulse consists of two cycles: the first part of each one corresponds to the inward buckling of the scutes, whereas the second part of the cycle correspond to an apparent passive recoil of the scutes and swim bladder wall. More recently, we show that the sound production mechanism is similar in others Balistidae species. According to recent phylogenetic data and shared morphological features, this mechanism could be common to the majority of Balistidae family members. In the sister family (Monacanthidae), similar morphological features have not been described and sounds resulting from pectoral fin movements have not been reported. Therefore, we can reasonably argue that the detailed sonic mechanism using pectoral fins, scutes and the swim bladder could be a strong Balistidae feature. It could have evolved from locomotory movement and be a new example of exaptation. [less ▲]

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See detailPiranhas vocalizations: morphology, bioacoustics & ecoacoustics of Serrasalmidae
Raick, Xavier ULiege; Parmentier, Eric ULiege

Conference (2018, April 26)

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See detailSound production mechanism in triggerfish (Balistidae): a synapomorphy
Raick, Xavier ULiege; Lecchini, David; Kever, Loïc ULiege et al

in Journal of Experimental Biology (2018), 221

The ability to produce sounds for acoustic communication is known in different Balistidae species but the eventual synapomorphic aspect of the mechanism remains to be shown. In Rhinecanthus aculeatus ... [more ▼]

The ability to produce sounds for acoustic communication is known in different Balistidae species but the eventual synapomorphic aspect of the mechanism remains to be shown. In Rhinecanthus aculeatus, sounds result from alternate sweeping movements of the right and left pectoral fins, which push a system of three scutes against the swim bladder wall. In this study, we made a comparison between the sounds produced by this species and two additional ones (Balistapus undulatus and Rhinecanthus rectangulus) using hand held specimens to provide a description of the sound mechanism in B. undulatus. Results highlighted that the sound production mechanism is similar in the three species. According to recent phylogenetic data and shared morphological features, it means this mechanism could be common to the majority of the family members and that all Balistidae species could be all able of sound production using pectoral fins. [less ▲]

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See detail‘Posidonia meadows calling’: a ubiquitous fish sound with monitoring potential
Di Iorio, Lucia; Raick, Xavier ULiege; Parmentier, Eric ULiege et al

in Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation (2018)

In the Mediterranean Sea, the seagrass Posidonia oceanica plays a key ecological role, and is protected by a range of legislation. Standard Posidonia monitoring programmes generally focus on the plant at ... [more ▼]

In the Mediterranean Sea, the seagrass Posidonia oceanica plays a key ecological role, and is protected by a range of legislation. Standard Posidonia monitoring programmes generally focus on the plant at different spatial and short temporal scales, without considering the organisms dependent on the ecosystem. Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) has a high potential to non-intrusively monitor biological activities and biodiversity at high temporal resolution, and to assess ecosystem health. This is particularly relevant considering that Posidonia meadows host numerous sound-producing fish species. In this study, bottommoored hydrophones were deployed in nine Western Mediterranean meadows covering a distance of more than 200 km to identify acoustic features potentially relevant to monitor this critical habitat. Among eight identified fish sound categories, we found a single type of sound (that we will refer to as /kwa/) dominating the soundscape of Posidonia meadows over a time span of 7 months. Compared to other low-frequency sounds, the /kwa/ presented unique characteristics that suggest it is produced by a fish via fast contracting muscles. The /kwa/ was the only sound detectable under anthropogenic noise conditions, and little affected by it. Cluster analyses performed on 13 acoustic features revealed a high degree of call diversity. /Kwa/ diversity, combined with its large-scale (all meadows), long-term (7 months) occurrence and low noise interference, make the /kwa/ a promising candidate for PAM of Posidonia meadows. Furthermore, variability in acoustic features suggests a central role of the /kwa/ in communication. Overall, this work sets the basis for establishing the relevance of the /kwa/ in monitoring P. oceanica meadows and developing PAM techniques for this critical habitat. [less ▲]

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See detailSerrasalmidae 2018 : rapport de mission
Raick, Xavier ULiege; Huby, Alessia ULiege

Report (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (6 ULiège)
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See detailComparative analysis of /kwa/ fish sounds recorded during an early ecoacoustics experiment in a Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadow (Ustica Island, 1999)
Raick, Xavier ULiege; Gervaise, Cédric; Hermand, Jean-Pierre

in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (2017, June), 141(5),

Passive acoustics enables studying marine habitats thanks to the sound production of their inhabitants. A key question is: “Can fish sounds be used as environmental proxies?” Posidonia oceanica (L ... [more ▼]

Passive acoustics enables studying marine habitats thanks to the sound production of their inhabitants. A key question is: “Can fish sounds be used as environmental proxies?” Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile 1813 seagrass meadows constitute an important ecosystem of the Mediterranean Sea which protects many species of invertebrates and fishes, some of which producing sounds with distinctive features. An arched frequency modulation centred at 747 Hz which aurally sounds like /kwa/ is being investigated as an environmental proxy (Raick et al. 2017). Remarkably, these sounds were already noted as a distinctive feature of the soundscape recorded during an early acoustic ecology experiment, USTICA 99, which measured simultaneously photosynthetic gaseous exchange and fish migration at the scale of a Posidonia meadow (Hermand 2003). We revisit that dataset to describe the specific characteristics and variability of the early recorded /kwa/ sounds and make a comparison with our recent study carried out in France about 500 km north of the Sicilian Island and 15 years later. The sounds have been analysed both individually and all together, i.e., considering the entire choruses. Our comparative analysis based on a dictionary confirms a high homogeneity of the /kwa/’s but with little variations which are examined in detail. [less ▲]

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See detailUnusual sound production mechanism in the triggerfish Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Balistidae)
Parmentier, Eric ULiege; Raick, Xavier ULiege; Lecchini, D. et al

in Journal of Experimental Biology (2017), 220(2), 186-193

The ability to produce sound has been known for decades in Balistidae. Sounds of many species have been recorded and a variety of sound-producing mechanisms have been proposed, including teeth ... [more ▼]

The ability to produce sound has been known for decades in Balistidae. Sounds of many species have been recorded and a variety of sound-producing mechanisms have been proposed, including teeth stridulation, collision of the buccal teeth and movements of the fins. The best-supported hypothesis involves movements of the pectoral fin against the lateral part of the swimbladder, called a drumming membrane. In this study, we describe for the first time the sounds made by the blackbar triggerfish Rhinecanthus aculeatus, which are like short drum rolls with an average duration of 85 ms, 193 Hz dominant frequency and 136 dB SPL level at 3 cm distance. The sounds are a series of pulses that result from alternate sweeping movements of the right and left pectoral fins, which push a system of three scutes that are forced against the swimbladder wall. Pulses from each fin occur in consecutive pairs. High-speed videos indicate that each pulse consists of two cycles. The first part of each cycle corresponds to the inward buckling of the scutes, whereas the second part of the cycle corresponds to an apparent passive recoil of the scutes and swimbladder wall. This novel sound production mechanism is probably found in many members of Balistidae because these peculiar scutes occur in other species in the family. Comparison of sound characteristics from fishes of different sizes shows that dominant frequency decreases with size in juveniles but not in adults. © 2017 Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (4 ULiège)
See detailHow to use bioacoustics to study submarine canyons biodiversity?
Raick, Xavier ULiege; Gervaise, Cédric; Di Iorio, Lucia et al

Poster (2016, December)

The principle of passive acoustics is to position hydrophones in the water to extract information about biotic and abiotic sounds from the ecosystem. This inexpensive technique (in equipment and human ... [more ▼]

The principle of passive acoustics is to position hydrophones in the water to extract information about biotic and abiotic sounds from the ecosystem. This inexpensive technique (in equipment and human resources) allows to investigate places where man does not have access, like seabeds, and over long periods, allowing to refine observations. In this presentation, we present the methodology and the first preliminary results of the study of the submarine canyon macrofauna in the Mediterranean Sea. [less ▲]

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See detailConstruire et utiliser les paysages acoustiques sousmarins ; de l’échelle métrique à l’échelle d’une façade marine
Gervaise, Cédric; Di Iorio, Lucia; Lossent, Julie et al

Conference (2016, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (2 ULiège)
See detailFrom biophony to biodiversity & from biodiversity to biophony
Raick, Xavier ULiege

Scientific conference (2016, September)

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See detailSound production of the Picasso Triggerfish Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Linnaeus, 1758): first case of buckling mechanism.
Raick, Xavier ULiege; Parmentier, Eric ULiege; Lecchini, David et al

Poster (2015, October)

Sound production of Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Linnaeus, 1758) is known since 1889 but its sound producing mechanism remains poorly studied. Consequently, the goal of this study was to use a ... [more ▼]

Sound production of Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Linnaeus, 1758) is known since 1889 but its sound producing mechanism remains poorly studied. Consequently, the goal of this study was to use a multidisciplinary approach to understand how the sounds are produced. Hand-held fish were first recorded with a hydrophone HTI-96-MIN and a recorder TASCAM DR-07. Sounds were 83 ± 22 ms (nfish = 9, nsounds = 90) long with a dominant frequency of 191 ± 42 Hz (nfish = 9, nsounds = 90). Morphological studies (dissections and µCT scans), sound analysis, different experimental manipulations (immobilisation of the pectoral fins and swim bladder filling) and the use of a high speed video camera allowed to propose a mechanism. Sounds are produced during alternate movements of the left and right pectoral fins. As soon as the pectoral fin spine touches the scales covering the lateral expansions of the swim bladder, these bony plates buckle suddenly creating a first peak. Back movements of the scales to the resting position provokes the second peak. [less ▲]

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