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See detailquantification and characterization of mineral oil in fish feed BY LC-GC-FID and LC-GC×GC-TOFMS/FID.
Bauwens, Grégory ULiege; Conchione, Chiara; Moret, Sabrina et al

Conference (2021, October 21)

Mineral oil is a ubiquitous food contaminant potentially toxic. It is generally divided into 2 classes: the aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) and the saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH). These compounds are ... [more ▼]

Mineral oil is a ubiquitous food contaminant potentially toxic. It is generally divided into 2 classes: the aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) and the saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH). These compounds are currently under investigation by the European Union to determine their occurrence and their toxicity before legislating on the matter. Although the discussion is mainly focus on food, feed can contribute indirectly to human exposition to such a contaminant. In this study 22 different fish feed products were analysed (7 commercial feed, 5 feedstuff and 10 from experimental diets). The analyses were performed by LC-GC-FID and compared by two Universities involved in this project (Udine and Liege). Further investigation was performed by LC-GC×GC-TOFMS/FID to validate the novel proposed quantification with such a platform and for a more detailed characterization of the contamination [1]. Simultaneous saponification and extraction of the mineral oil fraction was performed by microwave-assisted saponification. The extract was divided into two aliquots to perform MOSH and MOAH analysis separately, The fraction for the MOAH analysis underwent offline epoxidation to remove the interferents, while the MOSH fraction was further purified by aluminum oxide when overloading alkanes were observed. The MOSH contamination observed ranged from 7 to 30 mg/kg while the MOAH contamination was ranging from 0.5 to 5 mg/kg. The data provided by the two laboratories were in good agreement, as well as the quantification performed with the LC- GC×GC-TOFMS/FID platform, along with extra characterization. [less ▲]

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See detailFOOD CONTAMINATION WITH MINERAL OILS DETERMINED BY GC×GC-TOFMS/FID
Selecky, T; Losa, S; Panto, Sebastiano et al

Poster (2021, October 21)

Mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs) derives from crude petroleum through distillation processes and various refining steps. It contains saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH). MOHs as ... [more ▼]

Mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs) derives from crude petroleum through distillation processes and various refining steps. It contains saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH). MOHs as food contaminant has received attention due to its possible negative effects on human health [1], as stressed in the Opinion published in 2012 by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), pinpointing particularly towards MOAH with three or more, non- or simple alkylated aromatic rings as the main potential concern” [2]. The routine analytical method to determine the amount of MOHs in food uses hyphenated high-performance liquid chromatography - gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (HPLC-GC/FID) [3]. A disadvantage of this method is that it gives no conclusive information about the type of substances present in the contamination and does not enable the separation of either different MOAH sub-classes or MOSH from MOSH- Analogs. Comprehensive two-dimensional GC combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) allows a separation of the different sub-classes, nevertheless the MS cannot provide any quantitative information. Therefore, parallel detection in combination with an FID detector, has been developed for the characterization and quantification of MOHs in food. However, to be able to translate the information acquired by the TOFMS detector to the quantification process in FID, a fine tune of the chromatographic conditions is needed in order to obtain comparable 2D plots to compensate the different outlet pressure (vacuum for MS and atmospheric pressure for FID). At the same time, a suitable software for quantification of selected regions in the FID contour plot is being developed, showing promising preliminary results [4]. References: [1] Hochegger A. & Moret S., Geurts L., Gude T., Leitner E., Mertens B., O’Hagan S.,Poças F., Simat J. T. and Purcaro G., Mineral Oil Risk Assessment: Knowledge Gaps and Roadmap. Outcome of a multi-stakeholders workshop, Trends Food Sci & Technol, 113, 2021, 151-166 [2] European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 2012, Scientific Opinion on Mineral Oil Hydrocarbons in Food, EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM), EFSA Journal 10(6), 2704 [3] Biedermann M, Grob K, 2012, On-line coupled high performance liquid chromatography–gas chromatography for the analysis of contamination by mineral oil. Part 1: Method of analysis, Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1255, 2012, Pages 56-75. [4] Bauwens G. Pantò S., Purcaro G., MOSH and MOAH quantification: mono- and two-dimensional approaches Journal of Chromatography A, 2021, 1643, 462044 [less ▲]

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See detailMICROWAVE ASSISTED SAPONIFICATION FOLLOW BY LC-GC-FID AND LC-GC × GC TOFMS/FID FOR MOSH AND MOAH DETERMINATION IN DIFFERENT DRY SAMPLES
Bauwens, Grégory ULiege; Purcaro, Giorgia ULiege

Poster (2021, October 21)

Mineral oil hydrocarbons in food is a hot topic under intense investigation in the last decade. A high throughput, high-sensitivity procedure, involving simultaneous microwave assisted saponification and ... [more ▼]

Mineral oil hydrocarbons in food is a hot topic under intense investigation in the last decade. A high throughput, high-sensitivity procedure, involving simultaneous microwave assisted saponification and extraction (MAS), followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)–comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) with parallel detection, time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometry (MS) and flame ionization detector (FID) is proposed. MAS has the advantage of assuring rapid and efficient simultaneous enrichment and extraction step of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in dry foods. The use of a fully integrated LC- GC×GC-ToFMS/FID platform allows to improve the sample throughput, minimizing sample manipulation. Moreover, the use of a novel 2D software allows to perform simultaneously quantification by FID and confirmation thanks to the increased separation and the highly informative two-dimensional plot obtaining using GC×GC coupled to ToFMS [1]. Acknowledgement This work is supported by Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique Belgique (FNRS) (CDR projects MOHPlatform, J.0170.20). The authors thank Milestone, LECO and Restek for their support. References: [1] Bauwens et al., J. Chromatography A, Volume 1643, 2021, 462044 [less ▲]

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See detailMineral Oil Contamination in Food: A Comprehensive Journey beyond the Hump
Purcaro, Giorgia ULiege

Conference (2021, October 21)

The presence of mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) in foods and their potential risk to human health is an open and challenging issue in the food field. Although its occurrence in food is known since the 90s ... [more ▼]

The presence of mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) in foods and their potential risk to human health is an open and challenging issue in the food field. Although its occurrence in food is known since the 90s, it is only in the last 10-15 years that it has become the object of more intense studies to understand its toxicological relevance, to optimize more reliable methods, and to legislate upon its presence in food. Nevertheless, many gaps remain, linked both to analytical aspects and risk assessment. The goal of this lecture is to give an overview of the state of the arts regarding toxicology, risk assessment, mitigation and analytical determination, highlighting the existing gaps and future perspectives. Particular emphasis is given to the evolution of the analytical methods over the years and the challenges related to sample preparation and analytical determination. [less ▲]

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See detailHyphenated chromatographic techniques and miniaturized sample preparation: powerful tools for food quality, authenticity, and safety
Purcaro, Giorgia ULiege

Scientific conference (2021, October 14)

Hyphenated chromatographic techniques, such as comprehensive 2D GC (GC×GC) and LC-GC(×GC), are powerful tool to assess quality, authenticity and safety of foods. The advantages mostly rely on the ... [more ▼]

Hyphenated chromatographic techniques, such as comprehensive 2D GC (GC×GC) and LC-GC(×GC), are powerful tool to assess quality, authenticity and safety of foods. The advantages mostly rely on the possibility to contemporarily perform detailed and sensitive targeted and untargeted sample profiling. GC×GC has been proven to be very useful in quality, authenticity, and safety assessment of food. In such a context, recent researches carried out in the laboratory of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech will be presented. Major topics are: Safety: MOSH&MOAH analysis by LC- GC×GC-ToFMS/FID, which allows to define a more detailed profile of the compound distribution in cases of mineral oil contamination (in 1D GC present as unresolved humps of compounds). Food quality and authenticity: the focus is mainly on lipid foods and lipid components, exploiting the advantages provided by GC×GC along with the use of optimized miniaturized techniques, such as SPME and microwave-assisted extraction. [less ▲]

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See detailHYPHENATION AND MULTIDIMENSIONALITY AS SAMPLE PREPARATION ALLEYS IN MOSH AND MOAH ANALYSIS
Bauwens, Grégory ULiege; Purcaro, Giorgia ULiege

Poster (2021, July 02)

Multidimensional separation techniques are a powerful class of analytical techniques that allow to increase the separation power of complex samples, most frequently in an automated and hyphenated way. The ... [more ▼]

Multidimensional separation techniques are a powerful class of analytical techniques that allow to increase the separation power of complex samples, most frequently in an automated and hyphenated way. The most important parameter two optimize is the orthogonality of the separation techniques in order to maximize the overall separation. Most usually two chromatographic dimensions are coupled for this purposes (e.g., GC-GC or GC×GC, LC-GC or LC×GC, LC-LC or LC×LC), with often the addition of mass spectrometry as an extra dimension. Few samples really benefit for additional dimensions, and mineral oil, more specifically mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOSH and MOAH) are one of this. The reference method for this analysis is the LC-GC-FID method developed by Grob and Biedermann in 2009 [1]. In this method, the LC step is used as a preliminary sample preparation step to separate MOSH and MOAH and the rest of the sample (mainly lipid components). Beside LC-GC, comprehensive gas chromatography (GC×GC) has been proposed to better investigate the identity of the MOSH and MOAH fraction. In this work, we proposed a fully integrated platform, namely LC-GC×GC-ToFMS/FID, coupled with a novel integration algorithm, to improve results reliability. Every dimension involved was an important alley for sample preparation allowing an additional “chromatographic purification” of the MOSH and MOAH hump from the interferences still remaining after the previous LC step [2]. [less ▲]

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See detailQUANTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MINERAL OIL IN FISH FEED BY LC-GC-FID AND LC-GC×GC-TOFMS/FID.
Bauwens, Grégory ULiege; Conchione, Chiara; Moret, Sabrina et al

Poster (2021, July 02)

Mineral oil, mainly composed by mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOSH and MOAH), is an ubiquitous food contaminants of high concern in the European Union for it potential toxicity ... [more ▼]

Mineral oil, mainly composed by mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOSH and MOAH), is an ubiquitous food contaminants of high concern in the European Union for it potential toxicity. Moreover, the analytical procedure for their determination is highly sample dependent and not robustly validated. High attention is devoted to human food, while oftenreduced attention is paid to animal feed, turning out in higher contamination occurrence. In this study 22 different fish feed products were selected (7 commercial feed, 5 feedstuff and 10 from sperimental diets). The analysis were performed by both LC-GC-FID as the reference method and LC-GC×GC-TOFMS/FID for confirmation of the quantity found and a more detailed characterization of the contamination [1]. The samples were first extracted by performing a microwave-assisted saponification and simultaneous extraction step, followed by an offline auxiliary technique, such as epoxidation to remove most of the interferents of the MOAH fraction and an aluminum oxide purification step when necessary on the MOSH fraction to remove overloading alkanes. The results indicate a constant contamination of MOSH ranging between 7 and 30 mg/kg and a contamination of MOAH ranging from 0.5 to 5 mg/kg. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and validation of methods using solid-phase extraction, offline derivatization and UHPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS for the quantification of estrogenic compounds at ultra-trace levels in different types of water
Glineur, Alex ULiege; Nott, Katherine; Purcaro, Giorgia ULiege

Poster (2021, June 30)

Natural estrogens (estrone: E1, 17-β-estradiol: E2, estriol: E3) and synthetic estrogen (17-α-ethinylestradiol: EE2) belong to the group of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), leading to deleterious ... [more ▼]

Natural estrogens (estrone: E1, 17-β-estradiol: E2, estriol: E3) and synthetic estrogen (17-α-ethinylestradiol: EE2) belong to the group of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), leading to deleterious effects on aquatic biota, even at sub-ng/L level of concentration. The European Union (EU) published a Watch-List of substances including these estrogenic compounds and specified maximum acceptable method detection limits (LODs) of 0.035 ng/L for EE2 and 0.4 ng/L for E1 and E2. Besides, E2 will have to be monitored as an indicator of the occurrence of EDCs in water intended for human consumption, with a parametric value of 1 ng/L (EU 2020/2184). Attaining these limits represents a challenge even with the most up-to-date analytical tools, particularly in surface water. Initially, an automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) method using a single cartridge with hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced copolymer was developed and validated. This method is suitable for clean aqueous matrices (drinking water) and allows for high sample throughput. However, for more complex matrices such as surface water/effluent of wastewater treatment plant, an additional purification step was necessary. After a careful optimization of the sample preparation parameters to maximize the recoveries, the extraction of a whole water sample on a SPE disk, followed by purification on a Florisil SPE cartridge, allowed to reach the sensitivity required by the EU Watch-List. The final optimized method was validated (precision and trueness) in seven surface water from different Belgium locations. [less ▲]

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See detailClassification of olive oil and geographical origin by using a multi-cumulative trapping HS-SPME-GC-MS follow by a novel data handling software
Spadafora, Natasha; Mascrez, Steven ULiege; McGregor, Laura et al

Poster (2021, June)

The sensory attributes of extra virgin olive oil, and in particular specific aroma defects, are officially responsible for oil classification (or declassification) into extra virgin, virgin or lampante ... [more ▼]

The sensory attributes of extra virgin olive oil, and in particular specific aroma defects, are officially responsible for oil classification (or declassification) into extra virgin, virgin or lampante olive oil. Undoubtedly, volatile compounds play a crucial role in defining olive oil sensory quality and research efforts have been dedicated to unravel the composition of this informative fraction, to better understand correlations with quality attributes. The relative distribution of volatiles depends on several parameters (i.e., cultivar, geographical origin, fruit ripeness, processing practices, and storage) meaning the identification of an unequivocal fingerprint correlated to quality and authenticity is a difficult task. Most of these variables contribute towards the intensity and quality of the green and fruity perception, while the presence of defects is mainly due to inappropriate manufacturing practices. Multiple-cumulative trapping headspace-solid-phase microextraction (named MC-SPME) is a powerful technique proven to enhance the level of information on the volatile profile. Shorter cumulative extraction times, using a low volume of sample to avoid headspace saturation proved effective for discriminating between different qualities of olive oil (i.e. extra-virgin, virgin and lampante oil) as well as the different geographical origins among the extra virgin oils. The use of a novel data mining and chemometrics software enabled automatic alignment of chromatograms and extraction of useful information in a simple and straightforward way, supporting the routine application of this approach to corroborate sensory panel analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the capability of the HiSorb probe for characterization of volatile and semi-volatile compounds in brewed coffee by GCxGC-qMS
Mascrez, Steven ULiege; Eggermont, Damien; Purcaro, Giorgia ULiege

Poster (2021, June)

Volatile and semi-volatile components are highly relevant to characterize different samples, among which food. These compounds contribute to the peculiar aroma profile of foods and are widely used to ... [more ▼]

Volatile and semi-volatile components are highly relevant to characterize different samples, among which food. These compounds contribute to the peculiar aroma profile of foods and are widely used to assess quality and authenticity. The analysis of volatile and semi-volatile compounds requires the sampling of the headspace (HS) above the sample, which, now a day is mainly performed using high-concentration-capacity HS (HCC-HS) approaches, such as solid-phase microextraction (SPME), stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). More recently, HiSorb has been introduced to fill the gap between SPME and SBSE. In fact, it can be easily automated (as for SPME) but present a significantly higher sorbent volume which allows a much higher trapping capacity. The aim of this work was to exploit the potentiality of HiSorb for the analysis of volatile and semi-volatile from brew coffee and compared to the traditional triphasic SPME fiber more widely applied. Time and temperature conditions were carefully optimized, and the possibility of performing multiple cumulative trapping was investigated as well. The analyses were performed on a multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatographic system coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (GC×GC-qMS) and equipped with a Flow modulator. The fingerprinting obtained from a series of different coffee was investigated for quality and authentication purposes. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing the volatile profile at sub-ambient temperature by using vacuum-assisted HS-SPME. Case study on fish spoilage
Mascrez, Steven ULiege; Psillakis, Elefteria; Purcaro, Giorgia ULiege

Poster (2021, June)

Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) is an easy, effective and selective technique for the analysis of volatiles and semi-volatiles compounds. However, long equilibration time is requested to ... [more ▼]

Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) is an easy, effective and selective technique for the analysis of volatiles and semi-volatiles compounds. However, long equilibration time is requested to reach optimized extraction conditions. Equilibrium is reached faster in agitating or heating the sample. Heating sample increases the extraction kinetics. However, artefact production can be a limitation, especially for matrices sensible to temperature. Beside other strategies to improve extraction kinetics, the use of vacuum has been recently and successfully proposed to speed up the extraction without increasing the temperature. The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the use of Vac-HS-SPME to regular HS-SPME sampling from complex solid food like fish. The performances of Vac-HS-SPME were investigated at different sampling temperatures and times. In the present work, the effects of extraction temperature, sampling time and SPME phase were investigated using traditional one variable at a time approach. A series of compounds, markers of fish spoilage and covering the entire chromatogram, were selected for the comparison. Gas chromatography coupled to a single quadrupole mass spectrometry was used for the final determination. Comparable results were obtained between sampling at 5 °C under vacuum condition and at 40 °C at atmospheric pressure. This work showed that the use of vacuum can be a powerful approach for volatiles sampling in refrigerated foods. [less ▲]

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See detailA fully integrated LC-GCxGC-ToFMS/FID platform for MOSH&MOAH determination in food. Qualitative and quantitative considerations
Bauwens, Grégory ULiege; Collard, Maurine; Panto, Sebastiano et al

Conference (2021, May 11)

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See detailA rapid and efficient method for dialkyl ketones and sterols determination in fat
Mascrez, Steven ULiege; Danthine, Sabine ULiege; Purcaro, Giorgia ULiege

Poster (2021, May)

The present work deals with the optimization of a fast method for the determination of dialkyl ketones (DAKs) in interesterified fats. Microwave-assisted saponification was optimized, followed by ... [more ▼]

The present work deals with the optimization of a fast method for the determination of dialkyl ketones (DAKs) in interesterified fats. Microwave-assisted saponification was optimized, followed by purification on a lab-packed silica solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The method proposed may be used for the determination of DAKs or both DAKs and sterols by simply eluting an additional fraction from the SPE cartridge. The final determination was performed by gas chromatography- flame ionization detector (GC-FID) for quantification and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for confirmation purposes. The proposed method showed good recoveries (>80%) and limit of quantification (0.04-0.07 μg/g for the 4 standard DAKs and of 0.07 μg/g for α-cholestanol). Repeatabilities (n=3) were below 15% for DAKs and generally lower than 6% for sterols. Accuracy on the entire sterol profile was confirmed in comparison to the International Olive Council reference method. The method was finally applied to real-world samples before and after chemical interesterification. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-Cumulative Trapping HS-SPME to enhance the volatile profile of extra-virgin olive oil
Mascrez, Steven ULiege; Purcaro, Giorgia ULiege

Poster (2021, May)

This work explores the capability of multiple-cumulative trapping (MC) SPME on the characterization of the aroma profiling of olive oils, exploiting the automation capability of a novel headspace ... [more ▼]

This work explores the capability of multiple-cumulative trapping (MC) SPME on the characterization of the aroma profiling of olive oils, exploiting the automation capability of a novel headspace autosampler. The theory that underlays this extraction technique is based on the equilibrium among a three-phase system, i.e., sample-headspace-fiber. A compromise between sensitivity and extraction time is usually needed to optimize the sample throughput, mainly when a large number of samples are analyzed, as usually the case in cross-samples studies. Moreover, contrary to what is usually applied, the selection of the sample volume which does not saturate the headspace (i.e. even 10 times lower than the commonly used quantity), is of high relevance in order to maximize the information extractable. In this work, the fingerprinting of olive oil is explored to discriminate among extra virgin, virgin, and lampante oil, a challenging task of interest for quality and authenticity assessment. The different conditions were compared, considering the general information as pattern analysis, rather than intensity-wise. [less ▲]

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See detailMineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons quantification: Mono- and two-dimensional approaches
Bauwens, Grégory ULiege; Panto, Sebastiano; Purcaro, Giorgia ULiege

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2021), 1643

The determination of the level of mineral oil contamination in foods is a well-known problem. This class of contaminants is generally divided into mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons with ... [more ▼]

The determination of the level of mineral oil contamination in foods is a well-known problem. This class of contaminants is generally divided into mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons with different toxicological relevance and analytical challenges. Among the many challenges, data interpretation and integration represent an important source of uncertainty in the results provided by different laboratories leading to a variation evaluated on the order of 20%. The use of multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography (GC × GC) has been proposed to support the data interpretation but the integration and the reliability of the results using this methodology has never been systematically evaluated. The aim of this work was to assess the integration and quantification performance of a two-dimensional (2D) software. The data were generated using a novel, completely automated platform, namely LC-GC × GC coupled to dual detectors, i.e., time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MS) and flame ionization detector (FID). From a systematic study of the failures of the two-dimensional quantification approach a novel solution was proposed for simplifying and automating the entire process. The novel algorithm was tested on ad hoc created samples (i.e. a paraffin mixture added of n-alkanes) and real-world samples proving the agreement of the results obtained by LC-GC × GC and the traditional mono-dimensional approach. Moreover, the benefits of using an entirely integrated platform were emphasized, particularly regarding the identity confirmation capability of the MS data, which can be easily translated into the 2D FID quantification feature. [less ▲]

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See detailMineral oil risk assessment: Knowledge gaps and roadmap. Outcome of a multi-stakeholders workshop
Hochegger, Andrea; Moret, Sabrina; Geurts, Lucie et al

in Trends in Food Science and Technology (2021), 113

Background: In recent years there have been significant advancements in the understanding of mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) in foods and their potential risk to health. However, important gaps in ... [more ▼]

Background: In recent years there have been significant advancements in the understanding of mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) in foods and their potential risk to health. However, important gaps in knowledge remain, such as the lack of validated and standardized analytical methods for relevant food matrices and gaps in assessing the risk for consumers’ health. Scope & approach: A workshop was organized by the European Branch of the International Life Science Institute to identify knowledge gaps in analytical methods, assessment of exposure, hazard characterisation, and risk assessment of MOH. This work captures the outcome of the workshop and builds upon it by combining the perspectives of the participants with an updated review of the literature to provide a roadmap for future management of the topic. Key findings and conclusions: Most participants to the workshop agreed that the key issue underlying many of the knowledge gaps in the field of MOH risk analysis and management is the lack of standardized, validated analytical methods able to assure good inter-laboratory reproducibility and to enable understanding of MOH occurrence in foods. It has been demonstrated that method EN 16995 used for MOH determination in vegetable oils and fats is not reliable below 10 mg/kg of food. There is also a need for confirmatory methods that provide a detailed characterization of the unresolved complex mixture observed from one-dimensional chromatographic methods. This is required to enable adequate substance identification and quantification for input into risk assessment. A major gap in the exposure estimation is the limited number of surveys covering a wide range of foods and enough samples to detect major sources of contamination other than packaging in paperboard. Data on concentration of MOH fractions in human body needed to determine internal exposure estimates is scarce. Data relating concentration in tissues with personal data, lifestyle, food intake and the use of cosmetics are needed to clarify the complex system of distribution of MOSH in the body and to possibly establish relationship between external and internal exposure. Additional toxicological studies to better characterize the hazards of relevant MOH are required for a better human health risk assessment. [less ▲]

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