References of "Polis, Stéphane"
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See detailMethIS V. La valeur de la science. Pourquoi évaluer la recherche
Cormann, Grégory ULiege; Dozo, Björn-Olav ULiege; Polis, Stéphane ULiege

Book published by Presses universitaires de Liège (in press)

Actes du colloque du 10 et 11 décembre 2009 qui s'est tenu à Liège à l'initiative du personnel scientifique

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See detailLa modalité en néo-égyptien
Polis, Stéphane ULiege

Book published by Brill (in press)

Cette monographie est issue de ma thèse de doctorat qui constituait la première étude globale de la modalité en néo-égyptien. Le chapitre introductif [§1] est consacré à la définition du corpus néo ... [more ▼]

Cette monographie est issue de ma thèse de doctorat qui constituait la première étude globale de la modalité en néo-égyptien. Le chapitre introductif [§1] est consacré à la définition du corpus néo-égyptien et intègre une discussion des différentes formes de variation (diachronique, diatopique, diaphasique et diastratique) au sein du corpus néo-égyptien. Cet effort définitoire conforte l’assise empirique de l’étude : la ventilation du corpus en fonction de critères chronologiques et géographiques, de la nature du support et des genres littéraires permet d’objectiver les analyses proposées pour chaque expression de la modalité. Le corps du travail se divise en trois parties consacrées, respectivement, [§2] à une définition générale de la notion de modalité (devant permettre de déterminer les media expressifs qui relèvent de son étude en néo-égyptien) ainsi qu’à l’établissement d’un modèle sémantique de cette notion qui réponde aux impératifs d’économie ainsi que de cohérence et qui rende justice aux données typologiques ; [§3] à l’étude des modalités radicales (i.e. les modalités déontiques et bouliques), en envisageant les relations qu’elles entretiennent avec le domaine axiologique ; [§4] à l’examen des modalités assertives ([§4.a] analyse des formes de complémentation, en ce compris les liens entre intégration syntaxique, variation de l’assertivité et degrés de manipulation ; [§4.b] étude de l’impact des auxiliaires d’énonciation sur le degré d’assertivité d’une proposition ; [§4.c] critique des théories existantes concernant les moyens expressifs du discours indirect en néo-égyptien). Les conclusions [§5] sont accompagnées de propositions prospectives devant permettre [§5.a] de rendre le modèle défendu applicable pour l’étude des complexes conditionnels, [§5.b] d’intégrer la dimension énonciative dans l’analyse des relations interpersonnelles, [§5.c] de décrire adéquatement les expressions de la causalité et de la finalité. [less ▲]

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See detailMethods, tools, and perspectives of hieratic palaeography
Polis, Stéphane ULiege

in Laboury, Dimitri; Davies, Vanessa (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Egyptian Epigraphy and Palaeography (2019)

This chapter introduces the hieratic script, namely the tachygraphy related to the Egyptian hieroglyphic script. It addresses two main questions. First, what are the tools available for studying hieratic ... [more ▼]

This chapter introduces the hieratic script, namely the tachygraphy related to the Egyptian hieroglyphic script. It addresses two main questions. First, what are the tools available for studying hieratic texts and what are the directions for future research regarding this script? Second, what are the fields of application of hieratic palaeography? From editing and publishing hieratic texts to dating compositions or recognizing individual scribes at work, hieratic palaeography is at the crossroads of many areas of research that are outlined in the final part of this chapter. [less ▲]

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See detailSwimming against the typological tide or paddling along with language change? Dispreferred structures and diachronic biases in affix ordering
Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane ULiege

in Journal of Historical Linguistics (2018)

It has repeatedly been observed that there is a worldwide preference for suffixes as opposed to prefixes. In this paper, we argue that universally dispreferred – or rare – structures can and do arise as ... [more ▼]

It has repeatedly been observed that there is a worldwide preference for suffixes as opposed to prefixes. In this paper, we argue that universally dispreferred – or rare – structures can and do arise as the result of regular processes of language change, given the right background structures. Specifically, we show that Ancient Egyptian-Coptic shows a long-term diachronic macro-change from mixed suffixing-prefixing to an overwhelming preference for prefixing. The empirical basis for this study is a comparison of ten typologically significant parameters in which prefixing or affixing is potentially at stake, based on Dryer’s (2013a) 969-language sample. With its extremely high prefixing preference, Coptic belongs to the rare 6% or so of languages that are predominantly prefixing. We argue that each of the micro-changes implicated in this macro-change are better understood in terms of changes at the level of individual constructions, rather than in terms of a broad structural ‘drift.’ Crucially, there is nothing unusual about the actual processes of change themselves. [less ▲]

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See detailThe hymn to Ptah of O. Turin CG 57002. Expanding the corpus of Amennakhte’s literary compositions
Dorn, Andreas; Polis, Stéphane ULiege

Conference (2018, October 09)

In this paper, we discuss the Hymn to Ptah (O. Turin CGT 570002 = Cat. 2162 + 2164) first published by López (1978), and subsequently translated and commented by Bickel & Mathieu (1993: 45-47). Having ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we discuss the Hymn to Ptah (O. Turin CGT 570002 = Cat. 2162 + 2164) first published by López (1978), and subsequently translated and commented by Bickel & Mathieu (1993: 45-47). Having worked on the original and resorting to digital pictures, we propose a revised hieroglyphic transcription (§1) for this literary composition signed by the scribe Amennakhte (v) son of Ipuy (Dorn & Polis 2016), which is dated to year 2, 3rd month of Peret, 27th day of Ramesses IV. Based on a new transliteration and translation (§2), we compare this hymn to similar expressions of religious piety by Amennakhte (v) and discuss the Sitz im Leben of the composition (§3). Finally, based on a palaeographical comparison with other texts ‘signed’ by Amennakhte (§4), we argue that this text is very likely to be an autograph. [less ▲]

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See detailTeaching & Learning Guide for: The semantic map model
Georgakopoulos, Athanasios ULiege; Polis, Stéphane ULiege

in Linguistics and Language Compass (2018)

The semantic map model is relatively new in linguistic research, but it has been used intensively during the past three decades for studying a variety of cross‐linguistic and language‐specific questions ... [more ▼]

The semantic map model is relatively new in linguistic research, but it has been used intensively during the past three decades for studying a variety of cross‐linguistic and language‐specific questions. This method enables the capturing of regular patterns of semantic structure based on similarities of form‐meaning correspondence across languages. It has been fruitfully applied to the study of a variety of topics in linguistic typology, semantics, and historical linguistics and plays a prominent role in modern linguistic theory. This teaching and learning guide aims to provide readers with (a) key relevant works in the field, (b) additional information about online electronic resources and software solutions for graph visualization, and (c) material that can be used in order to introduce the semantic map model and its applications in the context of courses on linguistic typology, historical linguistics, and computational linguistics. Four mod- ules are suggested for each course (two shared introductory modules and two specific modules). Alternatively, the eight modules can be clustered in the framework of a single seminar on semantic maps. [less ▲]

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See detailHjelmslev as a ‘forerunner’ of the semantic map method in linguistic typology
Cigana, Lorenzo ULiege; Georgakopoulos, Athanasios ULiege; Polis, Stéphane ULiege

Conference (2018, July)

In his influential Prolegomena of a Theory of Language ([1943] 1961: 53–54) Hjelmslev used graphic representations to visualize the cross-linguistic differences as regards the designations of lexemes ... [more ▼]

In his influential Prolegomena of a Theory of Language ([1943] 1961: 53–54) Hjelmslev used graphic representations to visualize the cross-linguistic differences as regards the designations of lexemes. These representations appear in a section that discusses how the languages of the world introduce their own discrete boundaries in (1) the phonetic continuum, (2) the morpho-syntactic functions, and (3) various semantic domains. Besides, Hjelmslev argued that, for linguistic comparison to be possible, one needs (a) to rely on forms, namely on the intrinsic articulation of each language, and not on common features (1961: 50); and (b) to use an extensional set of formulae, which should serve as a neutral base in order to grasp the specificities of those forms and to compare them on safer, general ground. Such an approach was fleshed out in Hjelmslev’s essay La Catégorie des Cas (1935; 1937). In this talk, we compare Hjelmslev’s approach to a modern method in linguistic typology, the semantic map model (Haspelmath 1997; 2003; Cysouw et al. 2010; van der Auwera 2013), which crucially also resorts to visual representations. While practitioners of the semantic map model regularly mention Hjelmslev’s examples, they often fail to acknowledge the significance and impact of the theoretical framework summarised above. To put it bluntly, the points on the maps (i.e., the cross-linguistic invariants) are usually defined a priori and loosely (in lexical typology, see for instance the Concepticon [List et al. 2016]), which impedes semantic maps from being an actual tool for analysis, remaining a mere visualisation technique (Malchukov 2010). As a consequence, the universalist (and sometimes cognitive-oriented) claims of the semantic map model are not always solid. We show that Hjelmslev’s legacy, which is directly acknowledged by foremost scholars of the semantic map model (e.g., Haspelmath 2003: 237–238), can continue to benefit linguistic typology by suggesting avenues to overcome current methodological challenges, and by giving further directions for the field. [less ▲]

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See detailLExical DIAchronic SEmantic MAps (Le Diasema): From simple networks to mixed multi-edge graphs
Georgakopoulos, Athanasios ULiege; Polis, Stéphane ULiege

Conference (2018, June 28)

The aim of this talk is threefold. First, it shows that – using synchronic polysemy data from large language samples, such as CLICS (List et al., 2014), the Open Multilingual Wordnet (http://compling.hss ... [more ▼]

The aim of this talk is threefold. First, it shows that – using synchronic polysemy data from large language samples, such as CLICS (List et al., 2014), the Open Multilingual Wordnet (http://compling.hss.ntu.edu.sg/omw/), or BabelNet (https://babelnet.org/ about) – one can infer large-scale weighted lexical semantic maps. These maps, which are constructed with the help of an adapted version of the algorithm introduced by Regier, Khetarpal, and Majid (2013), respect the connectivity hypothesis (Croft, 2001) and the ‘economy principle’ (Georgakopoulos & Polis, 2018). As such, they generate more interesting implicational universals than regular colexification networks. Additionally, the automatically plotted semantic maps can be examined using standard network exploration software tools. These tools reveal much information otherwise ‘hidden’ in the graph — such as the modularity of the network, the centrality of meanings, etc. — and are essential when it comes to interpreting large-scale crosslinguistic datasets. Second, this talk seeks to demonstrate how information on the paths of semantic extensions undergone by content words may be incorporated into synchronic lexical semantic maps. We illustrate the principle with the semantic extension of time-related lexemes (e.g. TIME, HOUR, SEASON, DAY) in Ancient Greek (8th BC– 1st c. AD) and Ancient Egyptian – Coptic (26th c. BC – 10th c. AD). Both languages give access to significant diachronic material, allowing us to trace long term processes of semantic change within the lexicon. From a methodological point of view, we argue for the use of various types of graphs, including mixed multi-edge ones, which can capture bidirectionalities in semantic change and cases when information about pathways of change are not available (see already van der Auwera and Plungian, 1998 for the use of directed graphs). Third, in an effort to address some critiques that are voiced against the classical semantic maps approach, we suggest that this type of map can be used conjointly with (1) statistical techniques for dimensionality reductions (such as MDS, t-SNE, etc., see already Croft & Poole, 2008) and (2) Formal Concept Analysis (FCA, see Ryzhova & Obiedkov 2017). Based on a case-study on verbs of perception and cognition, we illustrate the complementarity between the three approaches for revealing universal areal and language specific patterns within the lexicon. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Thot Sign-List (TSL). A referenced online hieroglyphic sign-list
Grotenhuis, Jorke ULiege; Haffeman, Ingelore; Polis, Stéphane ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, June 14)

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See detailSemantic maps and lexical typology. Resources, tools and methods (with two case-studies targeting diachronic and areal patterns)
Georgakopoulos, Athanasios ULiege; Polis, Stéphane ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, May 18)

The semantic map model is relatively new in linguistic research, but it has been intensively used during the past three decades for studying a variety of cross-linguistic and language-specific questions ... [more ▼]

The semantic map model is relatively new in linguistic research, but it has been intensively used during the past three decades for studying a variety of cross-linguistic and language-specific questions. The number of linguistic domains to which the model has been applied highlights its efficiency in capturing regular patterns of semantic structure and crosslinguistic similarities of form-meaning correspondence (for a complete list of domains, see Georgakopoulos & Polis, 2018). One of the advantages of the model is that any type of meaning can be integrated in semantic maps, such as the functions of grammatical morphemes, the meanings of entire constructions, or the senses of lexical items, resulting in grammatical, constructional, and lexical semantic maps, respectively. However, the different types of maps have not received equal attention in the literature. Rather, there is a strong bias towards studies describing the cross-linguistic polyfunctionality of grammatical morphemes and constructions. Additionally, the bulk of research using the semantic map method has been adopting a synchronic perspective and the limited research that has added the diachronic dimension has focused almost exclusively on the grammatical domain (e.g., van der Auwera & Plungian, 1998; Narrog, 2010). A notable common denominator of most of the studies is that semantic maps have been plotted manually (cf., however, the studies using the Multidimensional Scaling procedure). The aim of this talk is threefold. First, it shows that – using synchronic polysemy data from large language samples, such as CLICS (List et al., 2014) or the Open Multilingual Wordnet (http://compling.hss.ntu.edu.sg/omw/) – one can infer large-scale weighted lexical semantic maps. These maps, which are constructed with the help of an adapted version of the algorithm introduced by Regier, Khetarpal, and Majid (2013), respect the connectivity hypothesis (Croft, 2001) and what we call the ‘economy principle’. As such, they generate more interesting implicational universals than regular colexification networks. Additionally, the automatically plotted semantic maps can be examined using standard network exploration software tools. These tools reveal much information otherwise ‘hidden’ in the graph — such as the modularity of the network, the centrality of meanings, etc. — and are essential when it comes to interpreting large-scale crosslinguistic datasets. Second, this talk seeks to demonstrate how information on the paths of semantic extensions undergone by content words may be incorporated into lexical semantic maps. We illustrate the method with the semantic extension of time-related lexemes (e.g. TIME, HOUR, SEASON, DAY) in Ancient Greek (8th – 1st c. BC) and Ancient Egyptian – Coptic (26th c. BC – 10th c. AD). Both languages give access to significant diachronic material, allowing us to trace long term processes of semantic change. Third, in an effort to address some of the shortcomings of classical semantic maps, we suggest that they can be used conjointly with a new approach, namely Formal Concept Analysis (FCA, see Ryzhova & Obiedkov 2017). This complementarity between the two approaches proves to be efficient in revealing both language universals and areal patterns within the lexicon. A case-study on verbs of perception and cognition based on different datasets allows us to illustrates both the potentialities and the limitations of such an approach. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Thot Sign-List (TSL). Construction d’une liste de signes hiéroglyphiques en ligne
Grotenhuis, Jorke ULiege; Polis, Stéphane ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, May 05)

Presentation of the history, data model and online implementation of the Thot Sign-list (TSL)

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See detailPlotting and exploring lexical semantic maps: Resources, tools, and methodological issues
Polis, Stéphane ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, April 17)

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See detailDiachronic and areal patterns: New applications of the semantic map model in lexical typology
Polis, Stéphane ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, April 16)

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See detailNarração e argumentação. Retorno à análise do discurso em ciências sociais
Lttr13; Badir, Sémir ULiege; Polis, Stéphane ULiege et al

in Estudos Semióticos (2018), 14(1), 55-64

A aparente congruência entre modelos de análise e tipos de discurso, apesar da extensão de aplicabilidade a qual esses modelos podem reivindicar, abre caminho para questões relativas à legitimidade de uma ... [more ▼]

A aparente congruência entre modelos de análise e tipos de discurso, apesar da extensão de aplicabilidade a qual esses modelos podem reivindicar, abre caminho para questões relativas à legitimidade de uma tipologia dos discursos. Poderia ela se colocar acima dos postulados teóricos que embasam as correlações entre modelos de análise e tipos de discurso? Em caso negativo, o que estaria em jogo na questão tipológica? Comparando os postulados do método semiótico com os outros modelos analíticos propostos nesse domínio, nosso objetivo é lançar luz sobre as posições defendidas por uns e outros nesse debate teórico, que, ao longo das três últimas décadas, não deixou de evoluir. [less ▲]

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See detailLexical semantic maps in diachrony and synchrony: theoretical, methodological, and representational issues
Georgakopoulos, Athanasios ULiege; Polis, Stéphane ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, February 27)

The semantic map model is relatively new in linguistic research, but it has been intensively used during the past three decades for studying a variety of cross-linguistic and language-specific questions ... [more ▼]

The semantic map model is relatively new in linguistic research, but it has been intensively used during the past three decades for studying a variety of cross-linguistic and language-specific questions. The plethora of linguistic domains to which the model has been applied highlights its efficiency in capturing regular patterns of semantic structure and crosslinguistic similarities of form-meaning correspondence (for a complete list of domains, see van der Auwera & Temürcü, 2006: 132; Cysouw, Haspelmath, & Malchukov, 2010; Georgakopoulos & Polis, forthcoming). One of the advantages of the model is that any type of meaning can be integrated in semantic maps, such as the meanings or functions of grammatical morphemes, of entire constructions, or of lexical items, resulting in grammatical, constructional, and lexical semantic maps, respectively. However, it is fair to say that the different types of maps have not received equal attention in the literature. Rather, there is a strong bias towards studies describing cross-linguistic polysemies of grammatical morphemes and constructions. Additionally, the bulk of research using the semantic map method has been adopting a synchronic perspective and the limited research that has added the diachronic dimension has focused almost exclusively on the grammatical domain (e.g., van der Auwera & Plungian, 1998; Narrog, 2010). A notable common denominator of most of the studies is that the classical semantic maps have been plotted manually. The aim of this talk is threefold. First, it will show that existing synchronic polysemy data in large language samples, such as CLICS (List et al., 2014) or the Open Multilingual Wordnet (http://compling.hss.ntu.edu.sg/omw/), can be converted into homogeneous lexical matrices using Python scripts. From these lexical matrices, one can infer large-scale weighted classical lexical semantic maps, using an adapted version of the algorithm introduced by Regier, Khetarpal, and Majid (2013). With this approach, we are able to automatically plot lexical semantic maps from a significant amount of cross- linguistic data. These maps are structured respecting the connectivity hypothesis (Croft, 2001) and what we call the ‘economy principle’. As such, they generate more interesting implicational universals than regular colexification networks and can be falsified based on additional empirical evidence. Second, this talk seeks to demonstrate how information on the paths of semantic extensions undergone by content words may be incorporated into a semantic map. In order to illustrate the method, we take the example of the semantic extension of time-related lexemes (e.g. TIME , HOUR , SEASON , DAY ) in Ancient Greek (8th – 1st c. BC) and Ancient Egyptian – Coptic (26th c. BC – 10th c. AD). Both languages give access to significant diachronic material, allowing us to trace long term processes of semantic change. This diachronic take on the polysemic networks of content words has a methodological bearing on the model, since it serves as a compass on how to plot automatically diachronic semantic map. Third, the talk will illustrate how the automatically plotted semantic maps can be examined using standard network exploration systems. These tools, with many built-in statistical methods, reveal much information otherwise ‘hidden’ in the graph — such as the modularity of the network, the centrality of the meanings, etc. — and are essential when it comes to interpreting large- scale crosslinguistic datasets. The potentialities in this area will be illustrated throughout the talk. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Thot Sign-list. Introducing the online hieroglyphic sign-list (aka TSL)
Polis, Stéphane ULiege

Conference (2018, January 18)

Presentation of a beta version of the Thot Sign-list (TSL), the first online repository of hieroglyphic signs. The TSL crucially allows (1) for the encoding of all the functions associated with a ... [more ▼]

Presentation of a beta version of the Thot Sign-list (TSL), the first online repository of hieroglyphic signs. The TSL crucially allows (1) for the encoding of all the functions associated with a hieroglyphic character, (2) for recording as many sources as needed for each sign and function, and (3) for structuring the various shapes into classes that may have additional semographic functions. [less ▲]

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See detailOn scripturology
Klinkenberg, Jean-Marie ULiege; Polis, Stéphane ULiege

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques (2018), 9

In this contribution we present the principles and parameters of a discipline that we christen "scripturology". This discipline concerns the study of different facets of writing, perceived in its ... [more ▼]

In this contribution we present the principles and parameters of a discipline that we christen "scripturology". This discipline concerns the study of different facets of writing, perceived in its generality, as the semiotic apparatus articulating language and spatial facts. Scripturology is understood as a general theory targeting the establishment of a semiotic typology of writing systems. It distinguishes the visual facts, independent of their semiotisation, and the graphic signifiers they actualise: a visual stimulus can be the support for several scriptural signifiers, and these latter are themselves susceptible to multiple forms of signification. Scripturology enables thus the extension and the systematisation of theoretical options explored by pioneers like Christin or Harris. [less ▲]

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See detailThe functions and toposyntax of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. Exploring the iconicity and spatiality of pictorial graphemes
Polis, Stéphane ULiege

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques (2018), 9

The goal of this paper is to provide a semiotically-informed description of the functions and syntax of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. Section 1 provides background information about the hieroglyphic ... [more ▼]

The goal of this paper is to provide a semiotically-informed description of the functions and syntax of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. Section 1 provides background information about the hieroglyphic writing system. The variety of functions fulfilled by its graphemes is discussed in Section 2, with a special attention to the relationships between graphemic and visual signs. In the next sections, the principles that underlie the syntagmatic organization of the hieroglyphs in monumental inscriptions are investigated, which includes both the spatial arrangements of the signs within a line (Section 3), and the orientations of the texts (Section 4). Based on this semiotic account, practical suggestions regarding the encoding of hieroglyphs in Unicode are made (Section 5). [less ▲]

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See detailSignatures. (Essais en) sémiotique de l'écriture
Klinkenberg, Jean-Marie ULiege; Polis, Stéphane ULiege

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques (2018), 9

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See detailDe la scripturologie
Klinkenberg, Jean-Marie; Polis, Stéphane ULiege

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques (2018), 9

Nous présentons dans cette contribution les cadres et objectifs d’une discipline que nous nommons "scripturologie". Cette discipline vise l’étude des différentes facettes de l’écriture, perçue dans sa ... [more ▼]

Nous présentons dans cette contribution les cadres et objectifs d’une discipline que nous nommons "scripturologie". Cette discipline vise l’étude des différentes facettes de l’écriture, perçue dans sa généralité, comme dispositif sémiotique articulant les faits langagiers et les faits spatiaux. La scripturologie se comprend donc comme une théorie générale devant permettre l’établissement d’une typologie sémiotique des écritures. Elle repose sur la reconnaissance du fait qu’un stimulus visuel unique peut être le support de plusieurs signifiants scripturaux, et que ces derniers sont eux-mêmes susceptibles de multiples formes de signification. La scripturologie se veut ainsi le prolongement et la systématisation d’options théoriques explorées par des pionniers comme Christin ou Harris. [less ▲]

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