References of "Peeters, Alexandre"
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See detailCan coarse bedload pass through weirs?
Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Hallot, Eric ULiege et al

in Geomorphology (2020), 359

Restoring active bedload transfer in human-impacted rivers has received increasing attention in recent years, notably in response to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), which requires that the ... [more ▼]

Restoring active bedload transfer in human-impacted rivers has received increasing attention in recent years, notably in response to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), which requires that the continuity of rivers not be disturbed by anthropogenic features such as dams or weirs. The Bocq River (233 km2), a moderate-gradient stream in Wallonia, Belgium, has a hydraulic resource that was formerly largely exploited with 74 weirs (up to 2.3 m high) along 43 km. We examined the effects of seven old abandoned weirs on bedload transport for three different types of weirs (defined by the presence and position of the sluice gate system). First, the volume estimates of bedload stored in reservoirs indicated that, despite their old age, the reservoirs were not completely filled (between 25 and 50% filled compared to the reservoir volume capacity) and did not evolve very much since 1990. Second, the grain size analysis of bed material upstream, downstream and within the reservoirs, and the direct measurements of sediment transport (slag particles and PIT-tagged pebbles) demonstrated that bedload continues to be transported out of the reservoir, even though the selective trapping of coarser elements was observed within the reservoir. Particles in the range of the median can pass over the crest of weirs, but the coarser elements tend to remain in the reservoirs. This trapping effect is mitigated when the weir has open or collapsed flushing gates that facilitate bedload transfer. This indicates that weirs act as leaky barriers that allow bedload to pass through, although the individual geomorphic setting plays a primary role in determining the local sediment continuity. These findings suggest that river connectivity is less impacted than initially thought and is likely to increase over time as old weirs gradually fall into disrepair. This needs to be acknowledged when planning barrier removal projects. [less ▲]

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See detailProtections de berges en génie végétal : Conception, application, suivi et recommandations
Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; Verniers, Gisèle ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege et al

Book published by Direction des Cours d'Eau non navigables (SPW - DGO3 - DDRCB - DCENN) (2020)

Grâce à une étroite collaboration avec les gestionnaires de cours d'eau de la DCENN, le LHGF de l'ULiège a mis à jour le guide technique des protections de berges en génie végétal. En plus d'une ... [more ▼]

Grâce à une étroite collaboration avec les gestionnaires de cours d'eau de la DCENN, le LHGF de l'ULiège a mis à jour le guide technique des protections de berges en génie végétal. En plus d'une évaluation sur le long terme d'une trentaine d'ouvrages de stabilisation de berges (mis en place à partir de 1996), cette actualisation comprend une partie introductive qui s'est enrichie, entre autres, d'un outil d'aide à la décision destiné à guider le gestionnaire sur le choix de la technique de stabilisation la plus appropriée au contexte environnemental. [less ▲]

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See detailReturn Period of Characteristic Discharges From the Comparison Between Partial Duration and Annual Series, Application to the Walloon Rivers (Belgium)
Van Campenhout, Jean ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Peeters, Alexandre ULiege et al

in Water (Switzerland) (2020), 12(3), 792

The determination of the return period of frequent discharges requires the definition of flood peak thresholds. Unlike daily data, the volume of data to be processed with the generalization of hourly data ... [more ▼]

The determination of the return period of frequent discharges requires the definition of flood peak thresholds. Unlike daily data, the volume of data to be processed with the generalization of hourly data loggers or even with an even finer temporal resolution quickly becomes too large to be managed by hand. We therefore propose an algorithm that automatically extracts flood characteristics to compute partial series return periods based on hourly series of flow rates. Thresholds are defined through robust analysis of field observation-independent data to obtain five independent flood peaks per year in order to bypass the 1-year limit of annual series. Peak over thresholds were analyzed using both Gumbel’s graphical method and his ordinary moments method. Hydrological analyses exhibit the value in the convergence point revealed by this dual method for floods with a recurrence interval around 5 years. Pebble-bedded rivers on impervious substratum (Ardenne rivers) presented an average bankfull discharge return period of around 0.6 years. In the absence of field observation, the authors have defined the bankfull discharge as the Q0.625 computed with partial series. Annual series computations allow Q100 discharge determination and extreme floods recurrence interval estimation. A comparison of data from the literature allowed for the confirmation of the value of Myer’s rating at 18, and this value was used to predict extreme floods based on the area of the watershed. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is a suitable microhabitat for Unio crassus?
Vaessen, Quintia ULiege; Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; Mayon, Nicolas et al

Poster (2019, March)

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See detailMécanismes du transport sédimentaire des cours d’eau et effets sur l'hydro-morphologie
Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; Van Campenhout, Jean ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2019)

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See detailPlio-Quaternary incision rates in the Meuse catchment vs long-term uplift rates of the Ardennes (E Belgium): new insights from 26Al/10Be burial dating of in cave-deposited alluvium
Rixhon, Gilles; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Régis et al

Conference (2018, April 09)

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See detailEfficacité et résistance de techniques de protection de berges en génie végétal
Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Hallot, Eric ULiege et al

in Géomorphologie: Relief, Processus, Environnement (2018), 24(2 (2018)), 121-138

Nineteen streambank stabilisation projects using bioengineering techniques were monitored in the short and the long term on several rivers in Wallonia. Most of the bank protections, installed between 3 ... [more ▼]

Nineteen streambank stabilisation projects using bioengineering techniques were monitored in the short and the long term on several rivers in Wallonia. Most of the bank protections, installed between 3 and 20 years ago, were effective, although many of them are now partially destroyed. In some cases, damage to the protective structure has led to a renewed erosion of the bank. The main factor of degradation is the magnitude of stream discharge, which is quantified by the critical stream power (the maximum power value at which the bank protection can resist). Permissible stream power thresholds were determined empirically, and are in order of 130 W/m² for fascine, 65 W/m² for tree revetment, 200 W/m² for cribwall and 150 W/m² for groynes system. Nevertheless, several factors might undermine the bank protection before its flood destruction, which lead to a lower threshold of critical power. The deterioration factors highlighted are (i) a poor vegetation recovery due to lack of sunlight, unmanaged cutting, and damage caused by animals (livestock and rodents), (ii) an inadequate design or filling, and (iii) a lack of consideration of fluvial processes, such as unit stream power and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) as most of these structures require filling with fine sediments. As a result, this study underlined the importance of characterising the geomorphological context in addition to the regular hydrological technical factors prior to the bank stabilisation project. [less ▲]

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See detailKarstic Systems in Eastern Belgium: Remouchamps and Noû Bleû
Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; Ek, Camille ULiege

in Demoulin, Alain (Ed.) Landscapes and Landforms of Belgium and Luxembourg (2018)

Belgium is characterised by a wide variety of rocks, including carbonate formations, which are significantly represented in eastern Belgium. Among those formations, Devonian and Carboniferous carbonates ... [more ▼]

Belgium is characterised by a wide variety of rocks, including carbonate formations, which are significantly represented in eastern Belgium. Among those formations, Devonian and Carboniferous carbonates display the most developed karstic features, as illustrated by the two cave systems presented in this chapter. Although both systems are water caves, they differ in many ways. The Remouchamps Cave, developed in the Upper Devonian limestones, is a touristic cave, while the Noû Bleû Cave, developed in the Carboniferous carbonates, is a brand new discovery still under exploration. The two systems are of scientific interest and contain many deposits (speleothems and detrital sediments) providing records of past environmental changes and paleoclimates. Beside the Quaternary dynamics, the present-day dynamics can be highlighted within the karstic basins that encompass the two cave systems. The generation or reactivation of sinkholes and swallow holes is often favoured or triggered by human activity. Furthermore, the two basins offer several good examples of human interaction with karst environments, not only in terms of karstic constraints for humans but also as a resource that must be preserved. [less ▲]

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See detailWeir impacts on sediment transport and geomorphic response to their removal in the Bocq River (Belgium)
Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; Petit, François ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, November 17)

Bedload transport is an important component of the ecological equilibrium of rivers. Artificial features such as dams or weirs interrupt the continuity of sediment transport, causing river habitat ... [more ▼]

Bedload transport is an important component of the ecological equilibrium of rivers. Artificial features such as dams or weirs interrupt the continuity of sediment transport, causing river habitat degradation. These barriers are numerous in the Bocq catchment (233 km²), with an average of one barrier every 1.8 km. They consist of old weirs (1-3 m high) related to ancient uses (watermill, iron factory, irrigation system). Since 2009, the Bocq catchment has been subjected to a large-scale restoration project (EU LIFE+ project Walphy) including weir removal, resulting in the re-establishment of bedload continuity, and thus in an improvement in river ecological quality. Before undertaking sustainable rehabilitation work, an assessment of hydromorphological and sedimentological conditions was conducted on several weirs, based on the identification of impacted areas (upstream influence on water level and bedload transport) and on the evaluation of the trapping efficiency of bedload material. The latter rests on the characterisation of the weir structure and the sediment storage quantification. Particle size measurements and the use of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags have demonstrated different scenarios of bedload trapping, from absence to partial trapping. The Spontin weir removal was combined with an appropriate assessment of the hydromorphological and geomorphological impacts. The surveys carried out pre- and post-removal have shown an improvement of hydromorphological conditions on the upstream reach, with shallow, fast-flowing habitats, more suitable for salmonid species. Geomorphic responses to the weir removal were quick in relation to the 11-year flood that followed. The release of the trapped sediment was studied using topographic surveys and PIT-tagged pebbles. We thus highlighted the development of a new point bar and a moderate stream bed aggradation downstream. [less ▲]

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See detailTransport de la charge sableuse dans les rivières caillouteuses de Belgique et du nord de la France grâce aux scories de la sidérurgie ancienne
Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Gob, Frédéric; Tamisier, Vincent et al

Conference (2017, November 09)

Le transport de la charge sableuse dans les rivières caillouteuse reste à l'heure actuelle relativement mal connu. Avec les techniques habituellement déployées en dynamique fluviale, le principal problème ... [more ▼]

Le transport de la charge sableuse dans les rivières caillouteuse reste à l'heure actuelle relativement mal connu. Avec les techniques habituellement déployées en dynamique fluviale, le principal problème consiste à retrouver après une crue mobilisatrice des éléments sableux marqués et dispersés longitudinalement et verticalement dans le lit des rivières. De plus, les résultats obtenus portent sur des échelles de temps relativement limitées. Nous proposons une approche nouvelle pour quantifier le transport du sable grâce à l’utilisation d’un traceur anthropique, les scories de la sidérurgie ancienne. De grandes quantités de scories sont en effet présentes dans les alluvions sableuses et caillouteuses de nombreux cours d'eau d'Europe. Ces scories sont des déchets produits dans des usines sidérurgiques installées le long des cours d'eau entre le 14e et le 19e siècle. Ces déchets étaient généralement rejetés sur les plaines alluviales, à proximité des rivières, ou directement dans les cours d'eau. Lors des crues, ces éléments ont été emportés en aval et se sont mélangés avec la charge naturelle des rivières (Houbrechts et al., 2011). Grâce aux sources historiques, il est possible de dater de manière relativement précise les périodes d'activité de ces sites sidérurgiques. En conséquence, sur la base de la distance de dispersion des scories et de l'époque de rejets, nous avons déterminé la vitesse d'avancée de la charge en saltation pour plusieurs rivières du massif ardennais, de Normandie et de Haute Marne. Cette analyse a été plus spécifiquement réalisée sur deux fractions granulométriques : entre 0,5 et 1 mm et entre 1,6 et 2,5 mm. Ces données permettent ainsi d’étudier le transport de la charge en saltation dans des rivières naturelles en tenant compte des caractéristiques granulométriques des lits (armurage) sur la mise en mouvement des fractions sableuses. Une attention particulière a par ailleurs été portée sur le rôle des obstacles transversaux sur le transit des sables. Enfin, par rapport aux techniques traditionnelles, l’utilisation des scories a permis d’analyser ces questions sur le temps long (plusieurs siècles), ce qui permet d’intégrer l’évolution historique des lits et de pleinement considérer le caractère très discontinu du transport (difficilement appréhendé lorsqu’on travaille avec le marquage de particules individuelles). [less ▲]

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See detailÉvaluation des impacts des ouvrages transversaux sur le transport sédimentaire et l’hydromorphologie
Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; Petit, François ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege

Conference (2017, May 31)

Le transport naturel des sédiments de la charge de fond est aujourd'hui clairement identifié comme un contributeur essentiel pour atteindre le bon état écologique des cours d’eau (Directive 2000/60/CE ... [more ▼]

Le transport naturel des sédiments de la charge de fond est aujourd'hui clairement identifié comme un contributeur essentiel pour atteindre le bon état écologique des cours d’eau (Directive 2000/60/CE). Lorsque le transport sédimentaire est entravé par des obstacles, l’équilibre hydromorphologique et écologique de la rivière est alors perturbé. Ces obstacles à la continuité écologique sont nombreux dans le bassin versant du Bocq (233 km², affluent de la Meuse en Wallonie) : on en dénombre 76 sur les 135 km de linéaire de cours d'eau, ce qui représente 1 obstacle tous les 1,8 km en moyenne. Il s'agit principalement d'ouvrages transversaux liés à des usages anciens du cours d’eau (moulin, forge, abissage, pompe à eau, etc.). Dans le cadre du projet UE LIFE+ Walphy, des travaux de réhabilitation de la continuité écologique ont été réalisés entre 2009 et 2013 sur 22 ouvrages transversaux du bassin du Bocq. Avant la réalisation des travaux, plusieurs ouvrages ont fait l’objet d’un diagnostic hydromorphologique et sédimentaire, basé sur l'identification des zones impactées (remous liquide et solide) d'une part, et l'évaluation de l'effet de piégeage de l'ouvrage d'autre part. Ce dernier point repose sur la caractérisation de l'ouvrage et du remplissage de sa retenue, ainsi que sur des mesures granulométriques et des marquages de la charge de fond (transpondeurs passifs). Ainsi, nous avons mis en évidence différents cas de piégeage de la charge de fond : absent, partiel ou total. Parmi les travaux de réhabilitation de la continuité écologique, ce sont les projets de suppression d'obstacle qui sont les plus efficaces, comme l'illustre le cas du déversoir de Spontin, pour lequel nous avons quantifié les impacts de son arasement des points de vue hydromorphologique et sédimentaire. Enfin, l’aménagement d'une rampe rugueuse sur un site fortement artificialisé (lit bétonné) à contrainte importante (protection de captages d'eau potable) constitue un cas particulier de réhabilitation de la continuité écologique, pour lequel l'analyse approfondie du transport sédimentaire a fourni les éléments nécessaires au bon dimensionnement des matériaux à utiliser. [less ▲]

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See detailPlio-Quaternary river incision rates inferred from burial dating (Al-26/Be-10) of in cave-deposited alluvium in the Meuse catchment (E Belgium): new insights into the uplift history of the Ardennes massif
Rixhon, Gilles; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Régis et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2017), 19

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See detailFlux sédimentaires des rivières de Wallonie : du Pléistocène à Demain
Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Gob, Frédéric; Hallot, Eric ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2016, July 11)

Livret-guide des journées 2016 de la Commission des hydrosystèmes continentaux du CNFG. Depuis plus de 40 ans, de nombreuses études ont été menées par François Petit et ses collaborateurs sur le transport ... [more ▼]

Livret-guide des journées 2016 de la Commission des hydrosystèmes continentaux du CNFG. Depuis plus de 40 ans, de nombreuses études ont été menées par François Petit et ses collaborateurs sur le transport des sédiments par les rivières du massif ardennais et des régions périphériques. La diversité des processus et des problématiques abordées, des méthodes d'analyse et des périodes considérées nous ont amené à proposer un thème relativement général permettant de regrouper les études portant sur les sédiments de taille variée, depuis les fractions fines jusqu'aux éléments les plus grossiers de la charge de fond ainsi que d'aborder des échelles de temps différentes, depuis les héritages géomorphologiques des périodes froides du Quaternaire jusqu'aux futures évolutions dans le cadre de projets de restauration de cours d'eau. [less ▲]

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See detailWalphy, un projet expérimental de réhabilitation de cours d’eau : suivis hydromorphologiques et écologiques
Castelain, Liévin; Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; Halleux, Marie et al

in Hydroécologie Appliquée (2016)

Le projet Life Environnement WALPHY, co-financé par l’Union Européenne, a eu pour objectif de réaliser des travaux de restauration de la qualité hydromorphologique du Bocq, affluent de la Meuse. La ... [more ▼]

Le projet Life Environnement WALPHY, co-financé par l’Union Européenne, a eu pour objectif de réaliser des travaux de restauration de la qualité hydromorphologique du Bocq, affluent de la Meuse. La continuité longitudinale, qui concerne la libre circulation des poissons et le transport naturel des sédiments, a été fortement perturbée par un grand nombre d’obstacles (vannages, déversoirs, …). Afin de rétablir cette continuité, des travaux d’arasement ou d’aménagement (passes à bassins, bras de contournement, rampes rugueuses...) d’obstacles ont été réalisés. De plus, des travaux de reméandration, de diversification des écoulements ou de création d’habitats piscicoles ont été menés afin d’améliorer la continuité transversale. Ces travaux ont fait l’objet de suivis scientifiques sur base d’analyses géomorphologiques, hydromorphologiques et écologiques. Des méthodes standardisées et reproductibles ont été mises au point pour comparer la situation avant et après travaux. L’application de ces méthodes a montré que le suivi des microhabitats couplé à l’analyse des populations de macroinvertébrés et de poissons est à même de mettre en évidence les évolutions post-travaux. Deux exemples d’études avant et après travaux sont présentés : l’arasement d’un déversoir et la reméandration d’un secteur rectifié. Les résultats montrent une bonne évolution des indicateurs biologiques. [less ▲]

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See detailFlash floods and muddy floods in Wallonia: recent temporal trends, spatial distribution and reconstruction of the hydrosedimentological fluxes using flood marks and sediment deposits
Van Campenhout, Jean ULiege; Hallot, Eric ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege et al

in Belgeo (2015), 1

Flash floods and muddy floods may cause severe human and material damage despite their small spatial extent and low occurrence. In late May 2008, a major event has affected the area of Liège. This paper ... [more ▼]

Flash floods and muddy floods may cause severe human and material damage despite their small spatial extent and low occurrence. In late May 2008, a major event has affected the area of Liège. This paper describes the methodology used to reconstruct the hydrosedimentological parameters of the flood from the geomorphological evidences observed in the field. Bed load and suspended load transport rates estimated during this extreme event were compared to the average values observed in other Walloon rivers and more specifically in the Ardennes Massif. The spatial distribution and the temporal evolution of the flash flood and muddy flood events are then analysed across Wallonia based on several works compiling press archives since the early twentieth century. The biases associated with this type of historical sources and the consequences of flash floods and muddy floods on the vulnerability and the risk of flooding in Wallonia are finally addressed. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the effect of a catchment-scale restoration project in Wallonia (Belgium)
Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; Verniers, Gisèle; De le Court, Bernard

in Angelopoulos, Natalie; Buijse, Tom; van Oorschot, Mijke (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the International Conference on River and Stream Restoration “Novel Approaches to Assess and Rehabilitate Modified Rivers”. FP7 REFORM deliverable 7.5. (2015)

In the context of fulfilling the Water Framework Directive requirements, the LIFE+ project Walphy allowed experimental restoration projects to be undertaken on two medium-size catchments of the Meuse ... [more ▼]

In the context of fulfilling the Water Framework Directive requirements, the LIFE+ project Walphy allowed experimental restoration projects to be undertaken on two medium-size catchments of the Meuse basin in Wallonia (Belgium) between 2009 and 2014. Before undertaking sustainable rehabilitation measures, a multi-scale assessment of hydromorphological conditions (catchment, stream and site) was conducted. It was based on a variety of variables characterizing the river system and its geomorphic processes (e.g. sediment transport), along with human-induced disturbances (e.g. barriers to river continuity). The Bocq catchment has been subject to a large-scale restoration project through the removal or modification of 20 barriers (mainly old weirs), reconnecting the Bocq with the Meuse. In addition, 2.6 km of straightened courses were improved by restoring meanders or diversifying habitats through a wide range of rehabilitation techniques. The success of the restoration projects was evaluated on the basis of a multi-disciplinary monitoring. We compared hydromorphological parameters and biological diversity of benthic invertebrates, fish and macrophytes. 2-3 years post-rehabilitation, hydromorphology was significantly improved. Depending on the rehabilitation measures, the restoration effects observed for invertebrates and fish differ. Weir removal and restored meanders have resulted in the most positive effects, while habitat diversification has led to more contrasted results, depending on the level of ambition. The geomorphological monitoring has focused on the effectiveness of spawning gravel rehabilitation and the effect of barriers on sediment transport. Topographic surveys and the use of pebble tracers have highlighted a natural bedload transport following a weir removal. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of long-term bedload virtual velocity in gravel-bed rivers (Ardenne, Belgium)
Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Levecq, Yannick; Peeters, Alexandre ULiege et al

in Geomorphology (2015), 251

In many gravel-bed rivers, bed material transfer has been interrupted or perturbed by anthropogenic activities. Currently, restoration projects are being conducted in many countries in order to re ... [more ▼]

In many gravel-bed rivers, bed material transfer has been interrupted or perturbed by anthropogenic activities. Currently, restoration projects are being conducted in many countries in order to re-establish bedload continuity. However, until now, few studies have provided indications of the velocity of bed material over the long-term (at least decade to century time-scale). In the context of river restoration projects (e.g. weir removal, addition of spawning gravel), these data are nevertheless crucial to predict the downstream propagation of the geomorphological and biological benefits (e.g. supply-transport equilibrium, morphological and substratum diversity). In our study, PIT-tag tracers were used in eight medium-sized gravel-bed rivers (Ardenne Region, Belgium) to propose a flow competence relationship based on specific stream power, on the one hand, and to determine the long-term virtual velocity of the bed material corresponding to the median diameter (D50) of the surface layer of riffles, on the other hand. After each flow event that exceeded the threshold for sediment entrainment, tagged particles were sought and located, even when they were buried in the subsurface layer. Afterwards, all of the data were used to estimate the virtual velocity of the bed material over the long-term using three approaches. Finally, the results were compared with long-term transport estimations based on iron slag dispersed by the rivers since the end of the middle ages. [less ▲]

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See detailDimensionless critical shear stress in gravel-bed rivers
Petit, François ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Peeters, Alexandre ULiege et al

in Geomorphology (2015), 250

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See detailApproche globale de la conception de chantiers de restauration hydromorphologique : illustration au travers de cas particuliers
Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; de le Court, Bernard; Verniers, Gisèle

Conference (2014, November 26)

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