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See detailSPARC Report on the Mystery of Carbon Tetrachloride
Ahmadzai, H; Bock, R P; Burkholder, J B et al

in Liang, Qing; Newman, Paul A; Reimann, Stefan (Eds.) SPARC Report on the Mystery of Carbon Tetrachloride (2016)

The Montreal Protocol (MP) controls the production and consumption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) for emissive uses. CCl4 is a major ODS, accounting for ... [more ▼]

The Montreal Protocol (MP) controls the production and consumption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) for emissive uses. CCl4 is a major ODS, accounting for about 12% of the globally averaged inorganic chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere, compared to 14% for CFC-12 in 2012. In spite of the MP controls, there are large ongoing emissions of CCl4 into the atmosphere. Estimates of emissions from various techniques ought to yield similar numbers. However, the recent WMO/UNEP Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion [WMO, 2014] estimated a 2007-2012 CCl4 bottom-up emission of 1-4 Gg/year (1-4 kilotonnes/year), based on country-by-country reports to UNEP, and a global top-down emissions estimate of 57 Gg/ year, based on atmospheric measurements. This 54 Gg/year difference has not been explained. In order to assess the current knowledge on global CCl4 sources and sinks, stakeholders from industrial, governmental, and the scientific communities came together at the “Solving the Mystery of Carbon Tetrachloride” workshop, which was held from 4-6 October 2015 at Empa in Dübendorf, Switzerland. During this workshop, several new findings were brought forward by the participants on CCl4 emissions and related science. • Anthropogenic production and consumption for feedstock and process agent uses (e.g., as approved solvents) are reported to UNEP under the MP. Based on these numbers, global bottom-up emissions of 3 (0-8) Gg/year are estimated for 2007-2013 in this report. This number is also reasonably consistent with this report’s new industry-based bottom-up estimate for fugitive emissions of 2 Gg/year. • By-product emissions from chloromethanes and perchloroethylene plants are newly proposed in this report as significant CCl4 sources, with global emissions estimated from these plants to be 13 Gg/year in 2014. • This report updates the anthropogenic CCl4 emissions estimation as a maximum of ~25 Gg/year. This number is derived by combining the above fugitive and by-product emissions (2 Gg/year and 13 Gg/year, respectively) with 10 Gg/year from legacy emissions plus potential unreported inadvertent emissions from other sources. • Ongoing atmospheric CCl4 measurements within global networks have been exploited for assessing regional emissions. In addition to existing emissions estimates from China and Australia, the workshop prompted research on emissions in the U.S. and Europe. The sum of these four regional emissions is estimated as 21±7.5a Gg/year, but this is not a complete global accounting. These regional top-down emissions estimates also show that most of the CCl4 emissions originate from chemical industrial regions, and are not linked to major population centres. • The total CCl4 lifetime is critical for calculating top-down global emissions. CCl4 is destroyed in the stratosphere, oceans, and soils, complicating the total lifetime estimate. The atmospheric lifetime with respect to stratospheric loss was recently revised to 44 (36-58) years, and remains unchanged in this report. New findings from additional measurement campaigns and reanalysis of physical parameters lead to changes in the ocean lifetime from 94 years to 210 (157-313) years, and in the soil lifetime from 195 years to 375 (288-536) years. • These revised lifetimes lead to an increase of the total lifetime from 26 years in WMO [2014] to 33 (28-41) years. Consequently, CCl4 is lost at a slower rate from the atmosphere. With this new total lifetime, the global top-down emissions calculation decreases from 57 (40-74) Gg/year in WMO [2014] to 40 (25-55) Gg/year. This estimate is relatively consistent with the independent gradient top-down emissions of 30 (25-35) Gg/year, based upon differences between atmospheric measurements of CCl4 in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In addition, this new total lifetime implies an upper limit of 3-4 Gg/year of natural emissions, based upon newly reported observations of old air in firn snow. These new CCl4 emissions estimates from the workshop make considerable progress toward closing the emissions discrepancy. The new industrial bottom-up emissions estimate (15 Gg/year total) includes emissions from chloromethanes plants (13 Gg/year) and feedstock fugitive emissions (2 Gg/year). When combined with legacy emissions and unreported inadvertent emissions, this could be up to 25 Gg/year. Top-down emissions estimates are: global 40 (25-55) Gg/year, gradient 30 (25-35) Gg/year, and regional 21 (14-28) Gg/year. While the new bottom-up value is still less than the aggregated top-down values, these estimates reconcile the CCl4 budget discrepancy when considered at the edges of their uncertainties. [less ▲]

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See detailInositol trisphosphate 3-kinase B (InsP3KB) as a physiological modulator of myelopoiesis
Jia, Y.; Loison, F.; Erneux, C. et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2008), 105

Inositol trisphosphate 3-kinase B (InsP3KB) belongs to a family of kinases that convert inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3 or IP3) to inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4). Previous ... [more ▼]

Inositol trisphosphate 3-kinase B (InsP3KB) belongs to a family of kinases that convert inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3 or IP3) to inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4). Previous studies have shown that disruption of InsP3KB leads to impaired T cell and B cell development as well as hyperactivation of neutrophils. Here, we demonstrate that InsP3KB is also a physiological modulator of myelopoiesis. The InsP3KB gene is expressed in all hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell populations. In InsP3KB null mice, the bone marrow granulocyte monocyte progenitor (GMP) population was expanded, and GMP cells proliferated significantly faster. Consequently, neutrophil production in the bone marrow was enhanced, and the peripheral blood neutrophil count was also substantially elevated in these mice. These effects might be due to enhancement of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3/Akt signaling in the InsP3KB null cells. Phosphorylation of cell cycle-inhibitory protein p21(cip1), one of the downstream targets of Akt, was augmented, which can lead to the suppression of the cell cycle-inhibitory effect of p21 [less ▲]

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See detailThe oncoprotein Bcl-3 can facilitate NF-kappa B-mediated transactivation by removing inhibiting p50 homodimers from select kappa B sites.
Franzoso, G.; Bours, Vincent ULiege; Azarenko, V. et al

in EMBO Journal (1993), 12(10), 3893-901

Previously we have proposed a role for Bcl-3 in facilitating transactivation through kappa B sites by counteracting the inhibitory effects of bound, non-transactivating homodimers of the p50 subunit of NF ... [more ▼]

Previously we have proposed a role for Bcl-3 in facilitating transactivation through kappa B sites by counteracting the inhibitory effects of bound, non-transactivating homodimers of the p50 subunit of NF-kappa B. Such homodimers are abundant for example in nuclei of unstimulated primary T cells. Here we extend the model and provide new evidence which fulfills a number of predictions. (i) Bcl-3 preferentially targets p50 homodimers over NF-kappa B heterodimers since the homodimers are completely dissociated from kappa B sites at concentrations of Bcl-3 which do not affect NF-kappa B. (ii) Select kappa B sites associate very strongly and stably with p50 homodimers, completely preventing binding by NF-kappa B. Such kappa B sites are likely candidates for regulation by p50 homodimers and Bcl-3. (iii) Bcl-3 and p50 can be co-localized in the nucleus, a requirement for active removal of homodimers from their binding sites in vivo. (iv) The ankyrin repeat domain of Bcl-3 is sufficient for the reversal of p50 homodimer-mediated inhibition, correlating with the ability of this domain alone to inhibit p50 binding to kappa B sites in vitro. Our data support the model that induction of nuclear Bcl-3 may be required during cellular stimulation to actively remove stably bound p50 homodimers from certain kappa B sites in order to allow transactivating NF-kappa B complexes to engage. This exact mechanism is demonstrated with in vitro experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailThe oncoprotein Bcl-3 directly transactivates through kappa B motifs via association with DNA-binding p50B homodimers.
Bours, Vincent ULiege; Franzoso, G.; Azarenko, V. et al

in Cell (1993), 72(5), 729-39

Bcl-3 is an I kappa B-related protein with ankyrin repeat motifs. Its gene is located at a site of recurrent translocations in a subset of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias. Bcl-3 associates tightly ... [more ▼]

Bcl-3 is an I kappa B-related protein with ankyrin repeat motifs. Its gene is located at a site of recurrent translocations in a subset of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias. Bcl-3 associates tightly with p50B (NFKB2, p52) homodimers in cells, and together these proteins form a ternary complex with DNA at kappa B sites. Such an association functionally leads to a novel and potent form of transactivation through the kappa B motif: the tethering of Bcl-3 to DNA via the p50B homodimers allows Bcl-3 to transactivate directly, while p50B homodimers alone cannot. Transactivation mediated by Bcl-3 requires two cooperating domains located amino- and carboxy-terminal to the ankyrin domain. Bcl-3 is localized to the nucleus, and a Bcl-3-p50B complex is detected in certain lymphoid cells. Our data reveal a novel role for Bcl-3, distinct from that of the inhibitor I kappa B. The results have implications for tumorigenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe candidate oncoprotein Bcl-3 is an antagonist of p50/NF-kappa B-mediated inhibition.
Franzoso, G.; Bours, Vincent ULiege; Park, S. et al

in Nature (1992), 359(6393), 339-42

The candidate oncogene bcl-3 was discovered as a translocation into the immunoglobulin alpha-locus in some cases of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemias. The protein Bcl-3 contains seven so-called ... [more ▼]

The candidate oncogene bcl-3 was discovered as a translocation into the immunoglobulin alpha-locus in some cases of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemias. The protein Bcl-3 contains seven so-called ankyrin repeats. Similar repeat motifs are found in a number of diverse regulatory proteins but the motifs of Bcl-3 are most closely related to those found in I kappa B proteins in which the ankyrin repeat domain is thought to be directly involved in inhibition of NF-kappa B activity. No biological function has yet been described for Bcl-3, but it was noted recently that Bcl-3 interferes with DNA-binding of the p50 subunit of NF-kappa B in vitro. Here we demonstrate that Bcl-3 can aid kappa B site-dependent transcription in vivo by counteracting the inhibitory effects of p50/NF-kappa B homodimers. Bcl-3 may therefore aid activation of select NF-kappa B-regulated genes, including those of the human immunodeficiency virus. [less ▲]

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See detailLymphocyte activation and the family of NF-kappa B transcription factor complexes.
Bours, Vincent ULiege; Franzoso, G.; Brown, K. et al

in Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology (1992), 182

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See detailA novel mitogen-inducible gene product related to p50/p105-NF-kappa B participates in transactivation through a kappa B site.
Bours, Vincent ULiege; Burd, P. R.; Brown, K. et al

in Molecular and Cellular Biology (1992), 12(2), 685-95

A Rel-related, mitogen-inducible, kappa B-binding protein has been cloned as an immediate-early activation gene of human peripheral blood T cells. The cDNA has an open reading frame of 900 amino acids ... [more ▼]

A Rel-related, mitogen-inducible, kappa B-binding protein has been cloned as an immediate-early activation gene of human peripheral blood T cells. The cDNA has an open reading frame of 900 amino acids capable of encoding a 97-kDa protein. This protein is most similar to the 105-kDa precursor polypeptide of p50-NF-kappa B. Like the 105-kDa precursor, it contains an amino-terminal Rel-related domain of about 300 amino acids and a carboxy-terminal domain containing six full cell cycle or ankyrin repeats. In vitro-translated proteins, truncated downstream of the Rel domain and excluding the repeats, bind kappa B sites. We refer to the kappa B-binding, truncated protein as p50B by analogy with p50-NF-kappa B and to the full-length protein as p97. p50B is able to form heteromeric kappa B-binding complexes with RelB, as well as with p65 and p50, the two subunits of NF-kappa B. Transient-transfection experiments in embryonal carcinoma cells demonstrate a functional cooperation between p50B and RelB or p65 in transactivation of a reporter plasmid dependent on a kappa B site. The data imply the existence of a complex family of NF-kappa B-like transcription factors. [less ▲]

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