References of "Monty, Arnaud"
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See detailA few north Appalachian populations are the source of European black locust
Bouteiller, Xavier; Verdu, C.F; Aikio, E et al

in Ecology and Evolution (2019), 9(5), 2398-2414

The role of evolution in biological invasion studies is often overlooked. In order to evaluate the evolutionary mechanisms behind invasiveness, it is crucial to identify the source populations of the ... [more ▼]

The role of evolution in biological invasion studies is often overlooked. In order to evaluate the evolutionary mechanisms behind invasiveness, it is crucial to identify the source populations of the introduction. Studies in population genetics were carried out on Robinia pseudoacacia L., a North American tree which is now one of the worst invasive tree species in Europe. We realized large-scale sampling in both the invasive and native ranges: 63 populations were sampled and 818 individuals were genotyped using 113 SNPs. We identified clonal genotypes in each population and analyzed between and within range population structure, and then, we compared genetic diversity between ranges, enlarging the number of SNPs to mitigate the ascertainment bias. First, we demonstrated that European black locust was introduced from just a limited number of populations located in the Appalachian Mountains, which is in agreement with the historical documents briefly reviewed in this study. Within America, population structure reflected the effects of long-term processes, whereas in Europe it was largely impacted by human activities. Second, we showed that there is a genetic bottleneck between the ranges with a decrease in allelic richness and total number of alleles in Europe. Lastly, we found more clonality within European populations. Black locust became invasive in Europe despite being introduced from a reduced part of its native distribution. Our results suggest that human activity, such as breeding programs in Europe and the seed trade throughout the introduced range, had a major role in promoting invasion; therefore, the introduction of the missing American genetic cluster to Europe should be avoided. © 2019 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of flower functional traits affecting abundance of generalist predators in perennial multiple species wildflower strips
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Uyttenbroeck, Roel; Lopes, Thomas et al

in Arthropod-Plant Interactions (2019)

In agricultural fields, wildflower strips can be sown to enhance conservation biological control of insect pests. However, issues remain regarding the composition of flower mixtures to effectively attract ... [more ▼]

In agricultural fields, wildflower strips can be sown to enhance conservation biological control of insect pests. However, issues remain regarding the composition of flower mixtures to effectively attract and support large communities of natural enemies. Trait-based approaches are promising for this purpose. In the present study, conducted in an agricultural field of Belgium in 2014 and 2015, 15 flower mixtures were considered to explore the relation between the abundance of trapped generalist predators (i.e. lacewings [Neuroptera: Chrysopidae], ladybeetles [Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] and hoverflies [Diptera: Syrphidae]) and the community-weighted means of seven flower traits. Through a redundancy analysis, it was found that the presence/absence of flower ultra-violet pattern and the morphology of the corolla (that determines the accessibility of floral resources) were the traits that significantly affected the abundance of the generalist predators in the flower mixtures. The ladybeetles Harmonia axyridis and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata as well as the lacewings Chrysoperla carnea were more abundant in mixtures with a high cover of flowers showing an ultra-violet pattern, while the opposite was observed for the ladybeetle Coccinella septempunctata. As for hoverflies, Episyrphus balteatus and Eupeodes corollae were more abundant in mixtures with a high cover of flowers with open nectar. These results bring new knowledge regarding how a range of natural enemy species reacts to flower cues in diversified plant communities and should help in elaborating flower mixtures that enhance conservation biological control. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of mining spoils to determine the best substrate for rehabilitating limestone quarries by favoring native grassland species over invasive plants
Pitz, Carline ULiege; Mahy, Grégory ULiege; Harzé, Mélanie et al

in Ecological Engineering (2019), 127

Habitats being restored in Belgian quarries are easily invaded by non-native plant species, which can hamper the germination and development of vegetation deemed to be of high conservation value ... [more ▼]

Habitats being restored in Belgian quarries are easily invaded by non-native plant species, which can hamper the germination and development of vegetation deemed to be of high conservation value. Substrates of terraces created when mining limestone quarries could be inhospitable to native plants. However, they can provide opportunities for establishing specific vegetation, such as dry calcareous grasslands. Applying suitable mining spoils could be a cost-effective way to provide growing substrate when restoring limestone terraces. We assessed the efficacy of using mining spoils, collected on-site, as a potential growing substrate (bedding material). We tested gravely limestone (product of on-site mining activities), limestone dust (by-product), and no addition (bare limestone bedrock) to determine which was best for favoring the growth of native, dry calcareous grassland species and discourage the growth of two non-native invasive species that commonly invade altered mining sites: Buddleja davidii Franch and Senecio inaequidens DC. In a field experiment (in two quarries), we studied short-term (2 y) growth response of native and invasive species after sowing three seed mixtures of native grassland species, varying in functional diversity (and one no-sowing control treatment), all treatments subjected to competitive pressure exerted by invasive species. Percent cover of native and invasive species, species abundance and reproductive characteristics of the invasive species were monitored during 2-y. Native grasslands coverage was low on all substrate types, demonstrating how slowly calcareous grasslands species establish in such harsh substrate conditions. However, type of substrate did show a significant relationship with plant abundance, with limestone dust being the most beneficial for native species establishment (coverage). Although limestone dust appeared to be the best option for restoring grassland species to limestone quarries (based on its low cost, wide availability, and potential to support native species), it was also likely to support the two invasive species. Functional diversity of the seed mixture had no consistent effect. Our study shows the importance of identifying the most appropriate substrate to both establish calcareous grasslands and resist invasive species. This approach provides insights into developing strategies to conserve biodiversity in industrial and agricultural landscapes with limestone quarries. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of flower functional traits affecting abundance of generalist predators in perennial multiple species wildflower strips
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Uytenbroeck, Roel; Lopes, thomas et al

in Arthropod-Plant Interactions (2019), 13

In agricultural fields, wildflower strips can be sown to enhance conservation biological control of insect pests. However, issues remain regarding the composition of flower mixtures to effectively attract ... [more ▼]

In agricultural fields, wildflower strips can be sown to enhance conservation biological control of insect pests. However, issues remain regarding the composition of flower mixtures to effectively attract and support large communities of natural enemies. Trait-based approaches are promising for this purpose. In the present study, conducted in an agricultural field of Belgium in 2014 and 2015, 15 flower mixtures were considered to explore the relation between the abundance of trapped generalist predators (i.e. lacewings [Neuroptera: Chrysopidae], ladybeetles [Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] and hoverflies [Diptera: Syrphidae]) and the community-weighted means of seven flower traits. Through a redundancy analysis, it was found that the presence/absence of flower ultra-violet pattern and the morphology of the corolla (that determines the accessibility of floral resources) were the traits that significantly affected the abundance of the generalist predators in the flower mixtures. The ladybeetles Harmonia axyridis and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata as well as the lacewings Chrysoperla carnea were more abundant in mixtures with a high cover of flowers showing an ultra-violet pattern, while the opposite was observed for the ladybeetle Coccinella septempunctata. As for hoverflies, Episyrphus balteatus and Eupeodes corollae were more abundant in mixtures with a high cover of flowers with open nectar. These results bring new knowledge regarding how a range of natural enemy species reacts to flower cues in diversified plant communities and should help in elaborating flower mixtures that enhance conservation biological control. [less ▲]

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See detailThe invasive potential of introduced exotic trees: what do arboreta tell us ?
Fanal, Aurore ULiege; Mahy, Grégory ULiege; Monty, Arnaud ULiege

Poster (2018, September 05)

An increasing number of woody species are being listed as invasive in Europe. Forestry is the second largest pathway of invasive tree introductions and it is likely that climate change will encourage ... [more ▼]

An increasing number of woody species are being listed as invasive in Europe. Forestry is the second largest pathway of invasive tree introductions and it is likely that climate change will encourage forest managers to plant exotic tree species to maintain wood production. In the early 1900’s, several arboreta were established in Southern Belgium to assess the wood production potential of prospective exotic trees. However, they also offer the unique opportunity to assess the potential invasiveness of exotic tree species. A systematic sampling method was used to conduct surveys in eight arboreta and a buffer zone surrounding them. Regeneration of all exotic trees was recorded as well as biotic (herbaceous competition, composition of the tree stand) and environmental variables (soil type, pH, thickness of litter, canopy closure and climate). A descriptive approach allowed as to identify species showing an abundant regeneration. Linear regressions were implemented to assess whether the patterns in the regeneration of these exotic trees could be explained by their functional traits, dispersal modes, and environmental tolerances. Results revealed that several coniferous species from the North-American West coast exhibit rapid regeneration and/or dispersal, including Tsuga heterophylla, Abies grandis, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Thuya plicata. We therefore recommend to exercise caution when planting these species in future forestry trials given their potentially invasive characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailManaging invasive plants in quarry sites - Patterns, issues and opportunities
Monty, Arnaud ULiege; ortmans, William; Mahy, Grégory ULiege

Poster (2018, September)

Description of the subject. Vegetation of high conservation value can establish in quarries, during or after exploitation. Alien plants could hamper this process and represent additional rehabilitation ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. Vegetation of high conservation value can establish in quarries, during or after exploitation. Alien plants could hamper this process and represent additional rehabilitation costs. The situation of plant invasion in quarries is unknown. Objectives. The aims were to assess alien plant invasion in active and abandoned quarries, and to identify the most invaded sectors. Method. We surveyed 6 692 plots in 31 quarries in Belgium and recorded occurrence, density and cover of the 65 listed alien plants in Belgium. Results. 14 species were recorded, and 25 quarries contained at least one species. The two most occurring species, Buddleja davidii Franch.and Senecio inaequidens DC., were more widespread in quarries in activity. All sectors of the quarries were concerned by invasion. Conclusion. Alien plant invasion in limestone quarries is highly variable, but significant. Considering the ecological potential of quarry sites, the issue should be better tackled. [less ▲]

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See detailPerennial wildflower strips to enhance natural enemies of insect pests in Belgium
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Monty, Arnaud ULiege; Chen, Julian et al

Conference (2018, May 14)

Increasing plant diversity at the local scale is expected to enhance conservation biological control of insect pests. To test this hypothesis, we sowed perennial wildflower strips within a wheat field and ... [more ▼]

Increasing plant diversity at the local scale is expected to enhance conservation biological control of insect pests. To test this hypothesis, we sowed perennial wildflower strips within a wheat field and found that hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) were more abundant and aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were reduced in wheat in between wildflower strips compared to adjacent monocultures. However, wildflower strips did not affect the other natural enemies, i.e. ladybeetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Hymenopteran parasitoids. We then compared the abundance and diversity of these natural enemies in five flower mixtures that were different in their functional diversity based on seven plant traits. No significant effect of functional diversity was found. We hypothesised that the presence of some attractive flower species in the mixtures affected the spread of insects in the field. Finally through an RDA analysis, we identified that visual traits (colour, ultra-violet reflectance) and the shape of the corolla are the flower traits that significantly affect the abundance, in wildflower strips, of the wasps that parasitize oilseed rape beetles. This research highlight that perennial wildflower strips can enhance conservation biological control but understanding the interactions between insects and flower traits in fields is needed to compose flower mixtures that support a diversity of natural enemies. [less ▲]

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See detailDes toitures vertes analogues pour soutenir la biodiversité
Boisson, Sylvain ULiege; Monty, Arnaud ULiege; Mahy, Grégory ULiege

Article for general public (2018)

Imaginez-vous au beau milieu d’une prairie fleurie aux couleurs variées surplombant les toits d’une grande ville. Et si la ville pouvait réellement contribuer au maillage écologique ? Accueillir des ... [more ▼]

Imaginez-vous au beau milieu d’une prairie fleurie aux couleurs variées surplombant les toits d’une grande ville. Et si la ville pouvait réellement contribuer au maillage écologique ? Accueillir des espèces indigènes voire recréer des habitats d’intérêt conservatoire serait incontestablement une opportunité pour la biodiversité. Avec l’investissement dans le Centre de Recherche Terra, la faculté Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Liège Université, s’est lancé le défi d’innover dans le domaine des toitures végétales grâce à l’équipe de l’Unité Biodiversité et Paysage. Près de 450 m² de parcelles sont destinés à mettre en avant les habitats naturels en se basant sur le concept d’« habitats analogues », concept émergeant en écologie urbaine. [less ▲]

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See detailNo evidence for genetic differentiation in juvenile traits between belgian and french populations of the invasive tree Robinia pseudoacacia
Bouteiller, Xavier; Barraquand, F; Garnier-Géré, P et al

in Plant Ecology and Evolution (2018), 151

Background – The role of evolution in biological invasion studies is often overlooked. In order to evaluate the evolutionary mechanisms behind invasiveness, both quantitative and population genetics ... [more ▼]

Background – The role of evolution in biological invasion studies is often overlooked. In order to evaluate the evolutionary mechanisms behind invasiveness, both quantitative and population genetics studies are underway on Robinia pseudoacacia L., one of the worst invasive tree species in Europe. Methods – A controlled experiment was set up using 2000 seeds from ten populations in Southern France and ten populations in Belgium. Seedlings were cultivated in two climatic chambers set at 18°C and 22°C. Early development life history traits (e.g. seedling phenology) and functional traits (e.g. growth rates) were monitored. Genotyping using SNP markers was used to evaluate the genetic differentiation among the populations and a QST – FST comparison was done in order to test for the role of selection. Results – Populations exhibited a strong plasticity to temperature for all measured traits, the warmer environment being generally more suitable, irrespective of their origin. No significant departure from neutral evolution was evidenced by the QST – FST comparisons, although we found a slightly significant differentiation at the molecular level. Conclusion – Plasticity for the functional and life history traits was evidenced but no genetic interaction suggesting no possible evolution of plasticity at those traits. Moreover, no support for genetic differentiation and local adaptation was found among studied populations within invasive range, raising two main questions: first, what is the role of selection on functional and life-history traits; and second, is the elapsed time since first introduction sufficient to allow evolution and local adaptation?. © 2018 Botanic Garden Meise and Royal Botanical Society of Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse de risque phytosanitaire portant sur la berce du Caucase
Monty, Arnaud ULiege; Albert, Arnaud; Fried, Guillaume et al

Report (2018)

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See detailRéalisation d’une analyse de risques relative au houblon du Japon et élaboration de recommandations de gestion
Monty, Arnaud ULiege; Albert, Arnaud; Fried, Guillaume et al

Report (2018)

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See detailEffect of flower traits and hosts on the abundance of parasitoids in perennial multiple species wildflower strips sown within oilseed rape (Brassica napus) crops
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULiege; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas et al

in Arthropod-Plant Interactions (2018)

Reducing the use of insecticides is an important issue for agriculture today. Sowing wildflower strips along field margins or within crops represents a promising tool to support natural enemy populations ... [more ▼]

Reducing the use of insecticides is an important issue for agriculture today. Sowing wildflower strips along field margins or within crops represents a promising tool to support natural enemy populations in agricultural landscapes and, thus, enhance conservation biological control. However, it is important to sow appropriate flower species that attract natural enemies efficiently. The presence of prey and hosts may also guide natural enemies to wildflower strips, potentially preventing them from migrating into adjacent crops. Here, we assessed how seven flower traits, along with the abundance of pollen beetles (Meligethes spp., Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and true weevils (Ceutorhynchus spp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae), affect the density of parasitoids of these two coleopterans in wildflower strips sown in an oilseed rape field in Gembloux (Belgium). Only flower traits, not host (i.e. pollen beetles and true weevils) abundance, significantly affected the density of parasitoids. Flower colour, ultraviolet reflectance and nectar availability were the main drivers affecting parasitoids. These results demonstrate how parasitoids of oilseed rape pests react to flower cues under field conditions. Similar analyses on the pests and natural enemies of other crops are expected to help to develop perennial flower mixtures able to enhance biological control throughout a rotation system. [less ▲]

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See detailL’ambroisie à feuilles d’armoise : une plante discrète aux effets insoupçonnés
Monty, Arnaud ULiege

in Mille lieux (2018)

Les plantes invasives sont aujourd’hui bien connues pour leurs impacts négatifs sur les espèces indigènes et le fonctionnement des écosystèmes. Mais au-delà de ces enjeux environnementaux, certaines ... [more ▼]

Les plantes invasives sont aujourd’hui bien connues pour leurs impacts négatifs sur les espèces indigènes et le fonctionnement des écosystèmes. Mais au-delà de ces enjeux environnementaux, certaines espèces engendrent des difficultés nouvelles, parfois inattendues et couteuses pour la société, etc. C’est le cas de l’ambroisie à feuille d’armoise : ayant pourtant peu d’impact sur les écosystèmes naturels, cette plante n’a pas fini de faire parler d’elle. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a population approach for evaluating grassland restoration-a systematic review
Harzé, Mélanie ULiege; Monty, Arnaud ULiege; Boisson, Sylvain ULiege et al

in Restoration Ecology (2018)

Persistence of restored populations depends on growth, reproduction, dispersal, local adaptation, and a suitable landscape pattern to foster metapopulation dynamics. Although the negative effects of ... [more ▼]

Persistence of restored populations depends on growth, reproduction, dispersal, local adaptation, and a suitable landscape pattern to foster metapopulation dynamics. Although the negative effects of habitat fragmentation on plant population dynamics are well understood, particularly in grasslands, the population traits that control grassland restoration are less known. We reviewed the use of population traits for evaluating grassland restoration success based on 141 publications (1986-2015). The results demonstrated that population demography was relatively well-assessed but detailed studies providing information on key stages of the life cycle were lacking despite their importance in determining population viability. Vegetative and generative performances have been thoroughly investigated, notably the components of plant fitness, such as reproductive output, while genetic and spatial population structures were largely ignored. More work on the population effects of ecological restoration would be welcomed, particularly with a focus on population genetics. Targeted species were principally common and dominant natives, or invasive plants while rare or threatened species were poorly considered. Evaluation of ecological restoration should be conducted at different scales of ecological complexity, but so far, communities and ecosystems are over represented, and more focus should be directed towards a population approach as population traits are essential indicators of restoration success. © 2018 Society for Ecological Restoration. [less ▲]

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See detailNaturally recruited herbaceous vegetation in abandoned Belgian limestone quarries: towards habitats of conservation interest analogues?
Pitz, Carline ULiege; Piqueray, Julien; Monty, Arnaud ULiege et al

in Folia Geobotanica (2018)

We examined if naturally recruited herbaceous vegetation in abandoned Belgian limestone quarries tend towards plant communities analogous to semi-natural habitats of conservation interest. We studied ... [more ▼]

We examined if naturally recruited herbaceous vegetation in abandoned Belgian limestone quarries tend towards plant communities analogous to semi-natural habitats of conservation interest. We studied taxon-based assemblages (using two-dimensional non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination) and functional patterns (relative to Grime’s competitor, stress tolerator and ruderal plant strategies (CSR) classification) of plant communities (n = 360 plots) among three different time periods after quarry abandonment (< 3 y, 3–20 y, > 20 y). We compared those successional assemblages with those of habitat of conservation interest plant communities (n = 53 plots): lowland hay meadows and rupicolous, xerophilous and mesophilous calcareous grasslands. Our results indicate that naturally recruited herbaceous vegetation compositionally resembled mesophilous grassland, even though initial substrate conditions were more similar to rupicolous or xerophilous grasslands. The specific successional pathway we found in CSR state-space differs from Grime's predictions because there was a functional shift in plant assemblages from dominance by ruderals to dominance by stress-tolerant species. The differences in successional trajectories we found on different types of rock substrate suggest that conservation management should adopt a site-specific approach, recognizing that the highest probabilities of success on hard limestone will be restoration to calcareous grassland analogues. [less ▲]

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See detailPlant invasions, cause and effect of global change : focus on two emerging Ambrosia species
Monty, Arnaud ULiege; Tassus, Xavier

Conference (2018)

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See detailAmbroisie trifide et à épis lisses deux poids, deux mesures
Chauvel, Bruno; Fried, Guillaume; Monty, Arnaud ULiege et al

in Phytoma: La Défense des Végétaux (2018), 712

CONTEXTE - À la demande des mi­nistères chargés de la santé, de l'envi­ronnement et de l'agriculture, I' Anses a réalisé les ARP de l'ambroisie trifide (Ambrosia trifida) et l'ambroisie à épis lisses ... [more ▼]

CONTEXTE - À la demande des mi­nistères chargés de la santé, de l'envi­ronnement et de l'agriculture, I' Anses a réalisé les ARP de l'ambroisie trifide (Ambrosia trifida) et l'ambroisie à épis lisses (Ambrosia psilostachya). RÉSULTAT - Malgré la proximité botanique de ces espèces, le groupe d'expert a proposé deux conclusions différentes. Si l'ambroisie à épis lisses ne semble pas nécessiter de mesure stricte de gestion, il a été recommandé une gestion la plus rigoureuse possible de l'ambroisie trifide. À la suite de ce travail, l'ambroisie trifide pourrait être inscrite sur la liste des espèces euro­péennes nécessitant la mise en place de plan de gestion obligatoire. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing plant functional diversity is not the key for supporting pollinators in wildflower strips
Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULiege; Piqueray, Julien; Hatt, Séverin ULiege et al

in Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment (2017), 249

Intensification of agriculture has been one of the major drivers for biodiversity loss in recent decades. Pollinators, which serve an important role in pollinating crops as well as wild plants, have shown ... [more ▼]

Intensification of agriculture has been one of the major drivers for biodiversity loss in recent decades. Pollinators, which serve an important role in pollinating crops as well as wild plants, have shown a decline in species richness. Flower strips can be used to support pollinators in agro-ecosystems, however the question remains as to how their design can be optimized in order to best benefit pollinators. Increasing plant species diversity has been shown to be beneficial for pollinators, and it is often suggested that functional traits are driving this relationship. Therefore, increasing plant functional diversity could be a tool to support pollinator abundance and diversity. As experimental evidence on this relationship is scarce, we developed a field study with experimental sown flower strips with four functional diversity levels, based on multiple flower traits and with equal plant species richness. We monitored vegetation development, as well as the flower-visiting pollinator community and their interaction networks with flowers. We were able to create a functional diversity gradient while controlling for plant species richness and evenness. However, in contrast to our expectations, pollinator species richness and evenness were not influenced by functional diversity, and increasing functional diversity even resulted in lower flower visitation rates. Network stability metrics showed no effect or negative relationships with functional diversity. We conclude that increasing functional diversity was not the key for supporting pollinators in wildflower strips. Our results also suggest that, for a constant amount of flower resources, increasing plant functional diversity and thus decreasing redundancy of potential pollinator feeding niches, decreases the amount of flower resources present per feeding niche. As pollinator species tended to have less overlap in their feeding niches in flower strips with increased functional diversity, this may lead to a reduction of flower resources available for pollinator species with a more specialized feeding niche. [less ▲]

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See detailPlantes invasives dans les carrieres europeennes : quelle est la situation ?
Monty, Arnaud ULiege; Ortmans, William; Jorion, Alexis et al

Poster (2017, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (4 ULiège)