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See detailK-Stacker: an algorithm to hack the orbital parameters of planets hidden in high-contrast imaging. First applications to VLT/SPHERE multi-epoch observations
Le Coroller, H.; Nowak, M.; Delorme, P. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2020), 639

Context. Recent high-contrast imaging surveys, using the Spectro- Polarimetic High contrast imager for Exoplanets REsearch (SPHERE) or the Gemini Planet Imager in search of planets in young, nearby ... [more ▼]

Context. Recent high-contrast imaging surveys, using the Spectro- Polarimetic High contrast imager for Exoplanets REsearch (SPHERE) or the Gemini Planet Imager in search of planets in young, nearby systems, have shown evidence of a small number of giant planets at relatively large separation beyond 10-30 au, where those surveys are the most sensitive. Access to smaller physical separations between 5 and 30 au is the next step for future planet imagers on 10 m telescopes and the next generation of extremely large telescopes in order to bridge the gap with indirect techniques such as radial velocity, transit, and soon astrometry with Gaia. In addition to new technologies and instruments, the development of innovative observing strategies combined with optimized data processing tools is participating in the improvement of detection capabilities at very close angular separation. In that context, we recently proposed a new algorithm, Keplerian-Stacker, which combines multiple observations acquired at different epochs and takes into account the orbital motion of a potential planet present in the images to boost the ultimate detection limit. We showed that this algorithm is able to find planets in time series of simulated images of the SPHERE InfraRed Dual-band Imager and Spectrograph (IRDIS) even when a planet remains undetected at one epoch. <BR /> Aims: Our goal is to test and validate the K-Stacker algorithm performances on real SPHERE datasets to demonstrate the resilience of this algorithm to instrumental speckles and the gain offered in terms of true detection. This will motivate future dedicated multi-epoch observation campaigns of well- chosen, young, nearby systems and very nearby stars carefully selected to search for planets in emitted and reflected light, respectively, to open a new path concerning the observing strategy used with current and future planet imagers. <BR /> Methods: To test K-Stacker, we injected fake planets and scanned the low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) regime in a series of raw observations obtained by the SPHERE/IRDIS instrument in the course of the SPHERE High-contrast ImagiNg survey for Exoplanets. We also considered the cases of two specific targets intensively monitored during this campaign: β Pictoris and HD 95086. For each target and epoch, the data were reduced using standard angular differential imaging processing techniques and then recombined with K-Stacker to recover the fake planetary signals. In addition, the known exoplanets β Pictoris b and HD 95086 b previously identified at lower S/N in single epochs have also been recovered by K-Stacker. <BR /> Results: We show that K-Stacker achieves a high success rate of ≈100% when the S/N of the planet in the stacked image reaches ≈9. The improvement of the S/N is given as the square root of the total exposure time contained in the data being combined. At S/N < 6-7, the number of false positives is high near the coronagraphic mask, but a chromatic study or astrophysical criteria can help to disentangle between a bright speckle and a true detection. During the blind test and the redetection of HD 95086 b, and β Pic b, we highlightthe ability of K-Stacker to find orbital solutions consistent with those derived by the current Markov chain Monte Carlo orbital fitting techniques. This confirms that in addition to the detection gain, K-Stacker offers the opportunity to characterize the most probable orbital solutions of the exoplanets recovered at low S/N. <P />Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under programs: 095.C-0298, 096.C-0241, 097.C-0865, 198.C-0209, 099.C-0127. [less ▲]

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See detailOngoing flyby in the young multiple system UX Tauri
Ménard, F.; Cuello, N.; Ginski, C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2020), 639

We present observations of the young multiple system UX Tauri to look for circumstellar disks and for signs of dynamical interactions. We obtained SPHERE/IRDIS deep differential polarization images in the ... [more ▼]

We present observations of the young multiple system UX Tauri to look for circumstellar disks and for signs of dynamical interactions. We obtained SPHERE/IRDIS deep differential polarization images in the J and H bands. We also used ALMA archival CO data. Large extended spirals are well detected in scattered light coming out of the disk of UX Tau A. The southern spiral forms a bridge between UX Tau A and C. These spirals, including the bridge connecting the two stars, all have a CO (3-2) counterpart seen by ALMA. The disk of UX Tau C is detected in scattered light. It is much smaller than the disk of UX Tau A and has a major axis along a different position angle, suggesting a misalignment. We performed PHANTOM SPH hydrodynamical models to interpret the data. The scattered light spirals, CO emission spirals and velocity patterns of the rotating disks, and the compactness of the disk of UX Tau C all point to a scenario in which UX Tau A has been perturbed very recently (∼1000 years) by the close passage of UX Tau C. <P />Movies associated to Fig. 3 are available at <A href="https://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6 361/202038356/olm">http://https://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailGap, shadows, spirals, and streamers: SPHERE observations of binary-disk interactions in GG Tauri A
Keppler, M.; Penzlin, A.; Benisty, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2020), 639

Context. A large portion of stars is found to be part of binary or higher-order multiple systems. The ubiquity of planets found around single stars raises the question of whether and how planets in binary ... [more ▼]

Context. A large portion of stars is found to be part of binary or higher-order multiple systems. The ubiquity of planets found around single stars raises the question of whether and how planets in binary systems form. Protoplanetary disks are the birthplaces of planets, and characterizing them is crucial in order to understand the planet formation process. <BR /> Aims: Our goal is to characterize the morphology of the GG Tau A disk, one of the largest and most massive circumbinary disks. We also aim to trace evidence for binary-disk interactions. <BR /> Methods: We obtained observations in polarized scattered light of GG Tau A using the SPHERE/IRDIS instrument in the H-band filter. We analyzed the observed disk morphology and substructures. We ran 2D hydrodynamical models to simulate the evolution of the circumbinary ring over the lifetime of the disk. <BR /> Results: The disk and also the cavity and the inner region are highly structured, with several shadowed regions, spiral structures, and streamer-like filaments. Some of these are detected here for the first time. The streamer-like filaments appear to connect the outer ring with the northern arc. Their azimuthal spacing suggests that they may be generated through periodic perturbations by the binary, which tear off material from the inner edge of the outer disk once during each orbit. By comparing observations to hydrodynamical simulations, we find that the main features, in particular, the gap size, but also the spiral and streamer filaments, can be qualitatively explained by the gravitational interactions of a binary with a semimajor axis of ~35 au on an orbit coplanar with the circumbinary ring. <P />Based on observations performed with VLT/SPHERE under program ID 198.C-0209(N). [less ▲]

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See detailSearching for the near-infrared counterpart of Proxima c using multi-epoch high-contrast SPHERE data at VLT★
Gratton, R.; Zurlo, A.; Le Coroller, H. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2020), 638

Context. Proxima Centauri is the closest star to the Sun and it is known to host an Earth-like planet in its habitable zone; very recently a second candidate planet was proposed based on radial velocities ... [more ▼]

Context. Proxima Centauri is the closest star to the Sun and it is known to host an Earth-like planet in its habitable zone; very recently a second candidate planet was proposed based on radial velocities. At quadrature, the expected projected separation of this new candidate is larger than 1 arcsec, making it a potentially interesting target for direct imaging. <BR /> Aims: While identification of the optical counterpart of this planet is expected to be very difficult, successful identification would allow for a detailed characterization of the closest planetary system. <BR /> Methods: We searched for a counterpart in SPHERE images acquired over four years through the SHINE survey. In order to account for the expected large orbital motion of the planet, we used a method that assumes the circular orbit obtained from radial velocities and exploits the sequence of observations acquired close to quadrature in the orbit. We checked this with a more general approach that considers Keplerian motion, called K-stacker. <BR /> Results: We did not obtain a clear detection. The best candidate has signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) = 6.1 in the combined image. A statistical test suggests that the probability that this detection is due to random fluctuation of noise is <1%, but this result depends on the assumption that the distribution of noise is uniform over the image, a fact that is likely not true. The position of this candidate and the orientation of its orbital plane fit well with observations in the ALMA 12 m array image. However, the astrometric signal expected from the orbit of the candidate we detected is 3σ away from the astrometric motion of Proxima as measured from early Gaia data. This, together with the unexpectedly high flux associated with our direct imaging detection, means we cannot confirm that our candidate is indeed Proxima c. <BR /> Conclusions: On the other hand, if confirmed, this would be the first observation in imaging of a planet discovered from radial velocities and the second planet (after Fomalhaut b) of reflecting circumplanetary material. Further confirmation observations should be done as soon as possible. <P />The reduced images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/638/A120">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/638/A120</A> <P />Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO Programs 095.D-0309, 096.C-0241, 096.D-0252, 097.C-0865, 198.C-D0209, 099.D-0098, 099.C-0127. [less ▲]

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See detailSPHERE+: Imaging young Jupiters down to the snowline
Boccaletti, A.; Chauvin, G.; Mouillet, D. et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

SPHERE (Beuzit et al,. 2019) has now been in operation at the VLT for more than 5 years, demonstrating a high level of performance. SPHERE has produced outstanding results using a variety of operating ... [more ▼]

SPHERE (Beuzit et al,. 2019) has now been in operation at the VLT for more than 5 years, demonstrating a high level of performance. SPHERE has produced outstanding results using a variety of operating modes, primarily in the field of direct imaging of exoplanetary systems, focusing on exoplanets as point sources and circumstellar disks as extended objects. The achievements obtained thus far with SPHERE (~200 refereed publications) in different areas (exoplanets, disks, solar system, stellar physics...) have motivated a large consortium to propose an even more ambitious set of science cases, and its corresponding technical implementation in the form of an upgrade. The SPHERE+ project capitalizes on the expertise and lessons learned from SPHERE to push high contrast imaging performance to its limits on the VLT 8m-telescope. The scientific program of SPHERE+ described in this document will open a new and compelling scientific window for the upcoming decade in strong synergy with ground-based facilities (VLT/I, ELT, ALMA, and SKA) and space missions (Gaia, JWST, PLATO and WFIRST). While SPHERE has sampled the outer parts of planetary systems beyond a few tens of AU, SPHERE+ will dig into the inner regions around stars to reveal and characterize by mean of spectroscopy the giant planet population down to the snow line. Building on SPHERE's scientific heritage and resounding success, SPHERE+ will be a dedicated survey instrument which will strengthen the leadership of ESO and the European community in the very competitive field of direct imaging of exoplanetary systems. With enhanced capabilities, it will enable an even broader diversity of science cases including the study of the solar system, the birth and death of stars and the exploration of the inner regions of active galactic nuclei. [less ▲]

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See detailVLT/SPHERE exploration of the young multiplanetary system PDS70
Mesa, D.; Keppler, M.; Cantalloube, F. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 632

Context. PDS 70 is a young (5.4 Myr), nearby ( 113 pc) star hosting a known transition disk with a large gap. Recent observations with SPHERE and NACO in the near-infrared (NIR) allowed us to detect a ... [more ▼]

Context. PDS 70 is a young (5.4 Myr), nearby ( 113 pc) star hosting a known transition disk with a large gap. Recent observations with SPHERE and NACO in the near-infrared (NIR) allowed us to detect a planetary mass companion, PDS 70 b, within the disk cavity. Moreover, observations in H[SUB]α[/SUB] with MagAO and MUSE revealed emission associated to PDS 70 b and to another new companion candidate, PDS 70 c, at a larger separation from the star. PDS 70 is the only multiple planetary system at its formation stage detected so far through direct imaging. <BR /> Aims: Our aim is to confirm the discovery of the second planet PDS 70 c using SPHERE at VLT, to further characterize its physical properties, and search for additional point sources in this young planetary system. <BR /> Methods: We re-analyzed archival SPHERE NIR observations and obtained new data in Y, J, H and K spectral bands for a total of four different epochs. The data were reduced using the data reduction and handling pipeline and the SPHERE data center. We then applied custom routines (e.g., ANDROMEDA and PACO) to subtract the starlight. <BR /> Results: We re-detect both PDS 70 b and c and confirm that PDS 70 c is gravitationally bound to the star. We estimate this second planet to be less massive than 5 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] and with a T[SUB]eff[/SUB] around 900 K. Also, it has a low gravity with logg between 3.0 and 3.5 dex. In addition, a third object has been identified at short separation ( 0.12'') from the star and gravitationally bound to the star. Its spectrum is however very blue, meaning that we are probably seeing stellar light reflected by dust and our analysis seems to demonstrate that it is a feature of the inner disk. We cannot however completely exclude the possibility that it is a planetary mass object enshrouded by a dust envelope. In this latter case, its mass should be of the order of a few tens of M[SUB]⊕[/SUB]. Moreover, we propose a possible structure for the planetary system based on our data, and find that this structure cannot be stable on a long timescale. <P />The reduced images are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/cat/J/A+A/632/A25">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/cat/J/A+A/632/A25</A> <P />Based on observation made with European Southern Observatory (ESO) telescopes at Paranal Observatory in Chile, under programs ID 095.C-0298(B), 1100.C-0481(D), 1100.C-0481(L) and 1100.C-0481(M). [less ▲]

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See detailRefPlanets: Search for reflected light from extra-solar planets with SPHERE/ZIMPOL
Hunziker, S.; Schmid, H. M.; Mouillet, D. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), in press

RefPlanets is a guaranteed time observation (GTO) programme that uses the Zurich IMaging POLarimeter (ZIMPOL) of SPHERE/VLT for a blind search for exoplanets in wavelengths from 600-900 nm. The goals of ... [more ▼]

RefPlanets is a guaranteed time observation (GTO) programme that uses the Zurich IMaging POLarimeter (ZIMPOL) of SPHERE/VLT for a blind search for exoplanets in wavelengths from 600-900 nm. The goals of this study are the characterization of the unprecedented high polarimetic contrast and polarimetric precision capabilities of ZIMPOL for bright targets, the search for polarized reflected light around some of the closest bright stars to the Sun and potentially the direct detection of an evolved cold exoplanet for the first time. For our observations of Alpha Cen A and B, Sirius A, Altair, Eps Eri and Tau Ceti we used the polarimetric differential imaging (PDI) mode of ZIMPOL which removes the speckle noise down to the photon noise limit for angular separations >0.6". We describe some of the instrumental effects that dominate the noise for smaller separations and explain how to remove these additional noise effects in post-processing. We then combine PDI with angular differential imaging (ADI) as a final layer of post-processing to further improve the contrast limits of our data at these separations. For good observing conditions we achieve polarimetric contrast limits of 15.0-16.3 mag at the effective inner working angle of about 0.13", 16.3-18.3 mag at 0.5" and 18.8-20.4 mag at 1.5". The contrast limits closer in (<0.6") depend significantly on the observing conditions, while in the photon noise dominated regime (>0.6"), the limits mainly depend on the brightness of the star and the total integration time. We compare our results with contrast limits from other surveys and review the exoplanet detection limits obtained with different detection methods. For all our targets we achieve unprecedented contrast limits. Despite the high polarimetric contrasts we are not able to find any additional companions or extended polarized light sources in the data that has been taken so far. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping of shadows cast on a protoplanetary disk by a close binary system
D'Orazi, V.; Gratton, R.; Desidera, S. et al

in Nature Astronomy (2019), 3

For a comprehensive understanding of planetary formation and evolution, we need to investigate the environment in which planets form: circumstellar disks. Here we present high-contrast imaging ... [more ▼]

For a comprehensive understanding of planetary formation and evolution, we need to investigate the environment in which planets form: circumstellar disks. Here we present high-contrast imaging observations of V4046 Sagittarii, a 20-Myr-old close binary known to host a circumbinary disk. We have discovered the presence of rotating shadows in the disk, caused by mutual occultations of the central binary. Shadow-like features are often observed in disks[SUP]1,2[/SUP], but those found thus far have not been due to eclipsing phenomena. We have used the phase difference due to light travel time to measure the flaring of the disk and the geometrical distance of the system. We calculate a distance that is in very good agreement with the value obtained from the Gaia mission's Data Release 2 (DR2), and flaring angles of α = (6.2 ± 0.6)° and α = (8.5 ± 1.0)° for the inner and outer disk rings, respectively. Our technique opens up a path to explore other binary systems, providing an independent estimate of distance and the flaring angle, a crucial parameter for disk modelling. [less ▲]

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See detailOrbital and spectral analysis of the benchmark brown dwarf HD 4747B
Peretti, S.; Ségransan, D.; Lavie, B. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 631

Context. The study of high-contrast imaged brown dwarfs and exoplanets depends strongly on evolutionary models. To estimate the mass of a directly imaged substellar object, its extracted photometry or ... [more ▼]

Context. The study of high-contrast imaged brown dwarfs and exoplanets depends strongly on evolutionary models. To estimate the mass of a directly imaged substellar object, its extracted photometry or spectrum is used and adjusted with model spectra together with the estimated age of the system. These models still need to be properly tested and constrained. HD 4747B is a brown dwarf close to the H burning mass limit, orbiting a nearby (d = 19.25 ± 0.58 pc), solar-type star (G9V); it has been observed with the radial velocity method for over almost two decades. Its companion was also recently detected by direct imaging, allowing a complete study of this particular object. <BR /> Aims: We aim to fully characterize HD 4747B by combining a well-constrained dynamical mass and a study of its observed spectral features in order to test evolutionary models for substellar objects and to characterize its atmosphere. <BR /> Methods: We combined the radial velocity measurements of High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) and CORALIE taken over two decades and high-contrast imaging of several epochs from NACO, NIRC2, and SPHERE to obtain a dynamical mass. From the SPHERE data we obtained a low-resolution spectrum of the companion from Y to H band, and two narrow band-width photometric measurements in the K band. A study of the primary star also allowed us to constrain the age of the system and its distance. <BR /> Results: Thanks to the new SPHERE epoch and NACO archival data combined with previous imaging data and high- precision radial velocity measurements, we were able to derive a well- constrained orbit. The high eccentricity (e = 0.7362 ± 0.0025) of HD 4747B is confirmed, and the inclination and the semi-major axis are derived (i = 47.3 ± 1.6°, a = 10.01 ± 0.21 au). We derive a dynamical mass of m[SUB]B[/SUB] = 70.0 ± 1.6 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], which is higher than a previous study but in better agreement with the models. By comparing the object with known brown dwarfs spectra, we derive a spectral type of L9 and an effective temperature of 1350 ± 50 K. With a retrieval analysis we constrain the oxygen and carbon abundances and compare them with the values from the HR 8799 planets. <P />Based on observations made with the instrument SPHERE (Prog. ID 198.C-0209) and NaCo (Prog. ID 081.C-0917(A)) at the Paranal observatory and with the CORALIE echelle spectrograph mounted on the 1.2 m Swiss telescope at La Silla Observatory. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermining mass limits around HD 163296 through SPHERE direct imaging data
Mesa, D.; Langlois, M.; Garufi, Antonio et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2019), 488

HD 163296 is a Herbig Ae/Be star known to host a protoplanetary disc with a ringed structure. To explain the disc features, previous works proposed the presence of planets embedded into the disc. We have ... [more ▼]

HD 163296 is a Herbig Ae/Be star known to host a protoplanetary disc with a ringed structure. To explain the disc features, previous works proposed the presence of planets embedded into the disc. We have observed HD 163296 with the near-infrared (NIR) branch of SPHERE composed by IRDIS (InfraRed Dual-band Imager and Spectrograph) and IFS (integral field spectrograph) with the aim to put tight constraints on the presence of substellar companions around this star. Despite the low rotation of the field of view during our observation we were able to put upper mass limits of few M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] around this object. These limits do not allow to give any definitive conclusion about the planets proposed through the disc characteristics. On the other hand, our results seem to exclude the presence of the only candidate proposed until now using direct imaging in the NIR even if some caution has to be taken considered the different wavelength bands of the two observations. [less ▲]

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See detailSPHERE view of the jet and the envelope of RY Tauri
Garufi, Antonio; Podio, L.; Bacciotti, F. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 628

Context. Jets are rarely associated with pre-main sequence intermediate- mass stars. This contrasts with the frequent detection of jets in lower mass or younger stars. Optical and near-IR observations of ... [more ▼]

Context. Jets are rarely associated with pre-main sequence intermediate- mass stars. This contrasts with the frequent detection of jets in lower mass or younger stars. Optical and near-IR observations of jet-driving sources are often hindered by the presence of a natal envelope. <BR /> Aims: Jets around partly embedded sources are a useful diagnostic to constrain the geometry of the concealed protoplanetary disk. We intend to clarify how the jet-driving mechanisms are affected by both spatial anisotropies and episodic variations at the (sub-)au scale from the star. <BR /> Methods: We obtained a rich set of high-contrast VLT/SPHERE observations from 0.6 to 2.2 μm of the young intermediate-mass star RY Tau. Given the proximity to the Sun of this source, our images have the highest spatial resolution ever obtained for an atomic jet (down to 4 au). <BR /> Results: Optical observations in polarized light show no sign of the protoplanetary disk detected by ALMA. Instead, we observed a diffuse signal resembling a remnant envelope with an outflow cavity. The jet is detected in the Hα, [S II] at 1.03 μm, He I at 1.08 μm, and [Fe II] lines in the 1.25 μm and 1.64 μm. The jet appears to be wiggling and its radial width increasing with the distance is complementary to the shape of the outflow cavity suggesting a strong interaction with jet and envelope. Through the estimated tangential velocity ( 100 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]), we revealed a possible connection between the launching time of the jet substructures and the stellar activity of RY Tau. <BR /> Conclusions: RY Tau is at an intermediate stage toward the dispersal of the natal envelope. This source shows episodic increases of mass accretion and ejection similarly to other known intermediate-mass stars. The amount of observed jet wiggle is consistent with the presence of a precessing disk warp or misaligned inner disk that would be induced by an unseen planetary or sub-stellar companion at sub- or few-au scales respectively. The high disk mass of RY Tau and of two other jet-driving intermediate-mass stars, HD 163296 and MWC480, suggests that massive, full disks are more efficient at launching prominent jets. <P />Based on observations performed with VLT/SPHERE under program ID 096.C-0241(C), 096.C-0241(F), 096.C-0248(A), 096.C-0454(A), and 1100.C-0481(A). [less ▲]

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See detailTwo cold belts in the debris disk around the G-type star NZ Lupi
Boccaletti, A.; Thébault, P.; Pawellek, N. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 625

Context. Planetary systems hold the imprint of the formation and of the evolution of planets especially at young ages, and in particular at the stage when the gas has dissipated leaving mostly secondary ... [more ▼]

Context. Planetary systems hold the imprint of the formation and of the evolution of planets especially at young ages, and in particular at the stage when the gas has dissipated leaving mostly secondary dust grains. The dynamical perturbation of planets in the dust distribution can be revealed with high-contrast imaging in a variety of structures. <BR /> Aims: SPHERE, the high-contrast imaging device installed at the VLT, was designed to search for young giant planets in long period, but is also able to resolve fine details of planetary systems at the scale of astronomical units in the scattered-light regime. As a young and nearby star, NZ Lup was observed in the course of the SPHERE survey. A debris disk had been formerly identified with HST/NICMOS. <BR /> Methods: We observed this system in the near-infrared with the camera in narrow and broad band filters and with the integral field spectrograph. High contrasts are achieved by the mean of pupil tracking combined with angular differential imaging algorithms. <BR /> Results: The high angular resolution provided by SPHERE allows us to reveal a new feature in the disk which is interpreted as a superimposition of two belts of planetesimals located at stellocentric distances of 85 and 115 au, and with a mutual inclination of about 5°. Despite the very high inclination of the disk with respect to the line of sight, we conclude that the presence of a gap, that is, a void in the dust distribution between the belts, is likely. <BR /> Conclusions: We discuss the implication of the existence of two belts and their relative inclination with respect to the presence of planets. <P />Reduced images of Fig. 1 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-stras bg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A>(ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/625/A21">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/625/A21</A>Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile under programs 097.C-0523, 097.C-0865, 198.C-0209. [less ▲]

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See detailHint of curvature in the orbital motion of the exoplanet 51 Eridani b using 3 yr of VLT/SPHERE monitoring
Maire, Anne-Lise ULiege; Rodet, L.; Cantalloube, F. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 624

Context. The 51 Eridani system harbors a complex architecture with its primary star forming a hierarchical system with the binary GJ 3305AB at a projected separation of 2000 au, a giant planet orbiting ... [more ▼]

Context. The 51 Eridani system harbors a complex architecture with its primary star forming a hierarchical system with the binary GJ 3305AB at a projected separation of 2000 au, a giant planet orbiting the primary star at 13 au, and a low-mass debris disk around the primary star with possible cold and warm components inferred from the spectral energy distribution. <BR /> Aims: We aim to better constrain the orbital parameters of the known giant planet. <BR /> Methods: We monitored the system over three years from 2015 to 2018 with the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE) instrument at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). <BR /> Results: We measure an orbital motion for the planet of 130 mas with a slightly decreasing separation ( 10 mas) and find a hint of curvature. This potential curvature is further supported at 3σ significance when including literature Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) astrometry corrected for calibration systematics. Fits of the SPHERE and GPI data using three complementary approaches provide broadly similar results. The data suggest an orbital period of 32[SUB]-9[/SUB][SUP]+17[/SUP] yr (i.e., 12[SUB]-2[/SUB][SUP]+4[/SUP] au in semi-major axis), an inclination of 133[SUB]-7[/SUB][SUP]+14[/SUP] deg, an eccentricity of 0.45[SUB]-0.15[/SUB][SUP]+0.10[/SUP], and an argument of periastron passage of 87[SUB]-30[/SUB][SUP]+34[/SUP] deg [mod 180°]. The time at periastron passage and the longitude of node exhibit bimodal distributions because we do not yet detect whether the planet is accelerating or decelerating along its orbit. Given the inclinations of the orbit and of the stellar rotation axis (134-144°), we infer alignment or misalignment within 18° for the star-planet spin- orbit. Further astrometric monitoring in the next 3-4 yr is required to confirm at a higher significance the curvature in the motion of the planet, determine if the planet is accelerating or decelerating on its orbit, and further constrain its orbital parameters and the star-planet spin-orbit. <P />The fitted orbits and the histogram distributions of the orbital parameters are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/624/A118">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/624/A118</A>Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programmes 095.C-0298, 096.C-0241, 198.C-0209, and 1100.C-0481. [less ▲]

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See detailA search for accreting young companions embedded in circumstellar disks. High-contrast Hα imaging with VLT/SPHERE
Cugno, G.; Quanz, S. P.; Hunziker, S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 622

Context. In recent years, our understanding of giant planet formation progressed substantially. There have even been detections of a few young protoplanet candidates still embedded in the circumstellar ... [more ▼]

Context. In recent years, our understanding of giant planet formation progressed substantially. There have even been detections of a few young protoplanet candidates still embedded in the circumstellar disks of their host stars. The exact physics that describes the accretion of material from the circumstellar disk onto the suspected circumplanetary disk and eventually onto the young, forming planet is still an open question. <BR /> Aims: We seek to detect and quantify observables related to accretion processes occurring locally in circumstellar disks, which could be attributed to young forming planets. We focus on objects known to host protoplanet candidates and/or disk structures thought to be the result of interactions with planets. <BR /> Methods: We analyzed observations of six young stars (age 3.5-10 Myr) and their surrounding environments with the SPHERE/ZIMPOL instrument on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in the Hα filter (656 nm) and a nearby continuum filter (644.9 nm). We applied several point spread function (PSF) subtraction techniques to reach the highest possible contrast near the primary star, specifically investigating regions where forming companions were claimed or have been suggested based on observed disk morphology. <BR /> Results: We redetect the known accreting M-star companion HD142527 B with the highest published signal to noise to date in both Hα and the continuum. We derive new astrometry (r=62.8[SUB]-2.7[/SUB][SUP]+2.1[/SUP] mas and PA=(98.7±1.8)°) and photometry (∆N_Ha = 6.3[SUB]-0.3[/SUB][SUP]+0.2[/SUP] mag, ∆B_Ha = 6.7 ± 0.2 mag and ∆Cnt_Ha = 7.3[SUB]-0.2[/SUB][SUP]+0.3[/SUP] mag) for the companion in agreement with previous studies, and estimate its mass accretion rate (Ṁ ≈ 1-2 × 10[SUP]-10[/SUP] M[SUB]☉[/SUB]yr[SUP]-1[/SUP]). A faint point-like source around HD135344 B (SAO206462) is also investigated, but a second deeper observation is required to reveal its nature. No other companions are detected. In the framework of our assumptions we estimate detection limits at the locations of companion candidates around HD100546, HD169142, and MWC 758 and calculate that processes involving Hα fluxes larger than 8 × 10[SUP]-14[/SUP]-10[SUP]-15[/SUP] erg s[SUP]-1[/SUP] cm[SUP]-2[/SUP] (Ṁ > 10[SUP]-10[/SUP]-10[SUP]-12[/SUP] M[SUB]☉[/SUB]yr[SUP]-1[/SUP]) can be excluded. Furthermore, flux upper limits of 10[SUP]-14[/SUP]-10[SUP]-15[/SUP] erg s[SUP]-1[/SUP] cm[SUP]-2[/SUP] (Ṁ < 10[SUP]-11[/SUP]-10[SUP]-12[/SUP] M[SUB]☉[/SUB]yr[SUP]-1[/SUP]) are estimated within the gaps identified in the disks surrounding HD135344 B and TW Hya. The derived luminosity limits exclude Hα signatures at levels similar to those previously detected for the accreting planet candidate LkCa15 b. <P />Based on observations collected at the Paranal Observatory, ESO (Chile). Program ID: 096.C-0248(B), 096.C-0267(A),096.C-0267(B), 095.C-0273(A), 095.C-0298(A).The reduced images (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/622/A156">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/622/A156</A> [less ▲]

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See detailSpectral and orbital characterisation of the directly imaged giant planet HIP 65426 b
Cheetham, A. C.; Samland, M.; Brems, S. S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 622

HIP 65426 b is a recently discovered exoplanet imaged during the course of the SPHERE-SHINE survey. Here we present new L' and M' observations of the planet from the NACO instrument at the VLT from the ... [more ▼]

HIP 65426 b is a recently discovered exoplanet imaged during the course of the SPHERE-SHINE survey. Here we present new L' and M' observations of the planet from the NACO instrument at the VLT from the NACO-ISPY survey, as well as a new Y -H spectrum and K-band photometry from SPHERE-SHINE. Using these data, we confirm the nature of the companion as a warm, dusty planet with a mid-L spectral type. From comparison of its SED with the BT-Settl atmospheric models, we derive a best-fit effective temperature of T[SUB]eff[/SUB] = 1618 ± 7 K, surface gravity log g = 3.78[SUB]-0.03[/SUB][SUP]+0.04[/SUP] and radius R = 1.17 ± 0.04R[SUB]J[/SUB] (statistical uncertainties only). Using the DUSTY and COND isochrones we estimate a mass of 8 ± 1M[SUB]J[/SUB]. Combining the astrometric measurements from our new datasets and from the literature, we show the first indications of orbital motion of the companion (2.6σ significance)and derive preliminary orbital constraints. We find a highly inclined orbit (i = 1.07[SUB]-10[/SUB][SUP]+13[/SUP] deg) with an orbital period of 800[SUB]-400[/SUB][SUP]+1200[/SUP] yr. We also report SPHERE sparse aperture masking observations that investigate the possibility that HIP 65426 b was scattered onto its current orbit by an additional companion at a smaller orbital separation. From this data we rule out the presence of brown dwarf companions with masses greater than 16 M[SUB]J[/SUB] at separations larger than 3 AU, significantly narrowing the parameter space for such a companion. <P />Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programmes 199.C-0065 (PI: Launhardt), 198.C-0209 (PI: Beuzit) and 1100.C-0481 (PI: Beuzit). [less ▲]

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See detailSPHERE dynamical and spectroscopic characterization of HD 142527B
Claudi, R.; Maire, Anne-Lise ULiege; Mesa, D. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 622

<BR /> Aims: HD 142527 is one of the most frequently studied Herbig Ae/Be stars with a transitional disk that hosts a large cavity that is up to about 100 au in radius. For this reason, it has been ... [more ▼]

<BR /> Aims: HD 142527 is one of the most frequently studied Herbig Ae/Be stars with a transitional disk that hosts a large cavity that is up to about 100 au in radius. For this reason, it has been included in the guaranteed time observation (GTO) SpHere INfrared survey for Exoplanets (SHINE) as part of the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in order to search for low-mass companions that might explain the presence of the gap. SHINE is a large survey within about 600 young nearby stars are observed with SPHERE with the aim to constrain the occurrence and orbital properties of the giant planet population at large (> 5 au) orbital separation around young stars. <BR /> Methods: We used the IRDIFS observing mode of SPHERE (IRDIS short for infrared dual imaging and spectrograph plus IFS or integral field spectrograph) without any coronagraph in order to search for and characterize companions as close as 30 mas of the star. Furthermore, we present the first observations that ever used the sparse aperture mask (SAM) for SPHERE both in IRDIFS and IRDIFS_EXT modes. All the data were reduced using the dedicated SPHERE pipeline and dedicated algorithms that make use of the principal component analysis (PCA) and reference differential imaging (RDI) techniques. <BR /> Results: We detect the accreting low-mass companion HD 142527B at a separation of 73 mas (11.4 au) from the star. No other companions with mass greater than 10 M[SUB]J[/SUB] are visible in the field of view of IFS (̃100 au centered on the star) or in the IRDIS field of view (̃400 au centered on the star). Measurements from IFS, SAM IFS, and IRDIS suggest an M6 spectral type for HD 142527B, with an uncertainty of one spectral subtype, compatible with an object of M = 0.11 ± 0.06 M[SUB]☉[/SUB] and R = 0.15 ± 0.07 R[SUB]☉[/SUB]. The determination of the mass remains a challenge using contemporary evolutionary models, as they do not account for the energy input due to accretion from infalling material. We consider that the spectral type of the secondary may also be earlier than the type we derived from IFS spectra. From dynamical considerations, we further constrain the mass to 0.26[SUP]+0.16[/SUP][SUB]-0.14[/SUB] M[SUB]☉[/SUB], which is consistent with both our spectroscopic analysis and the values reported in the literature. Following previous methods, the lower and upper dynamical mass values correspond to a spectral type between M2.5 and M5.5 for the companion. By fitting the astrometric points, we find the following orbital parameters: a period of P = 35 - 137 yr; an inclination of i = 121 - 130°, a value of Ω = 124 - 135° for the longitude of node, and an 68% confidence interval of ̃18 - 57 au for the separation at periapsis. Eccentricity and time at periapsis passage exhibit two groups of values: ̃0.2-0.45 and ̃0.45-0.7 for e, and ̃2015-2020 and ̃2020-2022 for T[SUB]0[/SUB]. While these orbital parameters might at first suggest that HD 142527B is not the companion responsible for the outer disk truncation, a previous hydrodynamical analysis of this system showed that they are compatible with a companion that is able to produce the large cavity and other observed features. <P />Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for astronomical research in the southern emisphere under ESO programmes 095.C-0298, 096.C-0241, 097.C-0865 and 189.C-0209.The reduced images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/622/A96">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/622/A96</A> [less ▲]

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See detailPost-conjunction detection of β Pictoris b with VLT/SPHERE
Lagrange, A.-M.; Boccaletti, A.; Langlois, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 621

Context. With an orbital distance comparable to that of Saturn in the solar system, β Pictoris b is the closest (semi-major axis ≃9 au) exoplanet that has been imaged to orbit a star. Thus it offers ... [more ▼]

Context. With an orbital distance comparable to that of Saturn in the solar system, β Pictoris b is the closest (semi-major axis ≃9 au) exoplanet that has been imaged to orbit a star. Thus it offers unique opportunities for detailed studies of its orbital, physical, and atmospheric properties, and of disk-planet interactions. With the exception of the discovery observations in 2003 with NaCo at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), all following astrometric measurements relative to β Pictoris have been obtained in the southwestern part of the orbit, which severely limits the determination of the planet's orbital parameters. <BR /> Aims: We aimed at further constraining β Pictoris b orbital properties using more data, and, in particular, data taken in the northeastern part of the orbit. <BR /> Methods: We used SPHERE at the VLT to precisely monitor the orbital motion of beta β Pictoris b since first light of the instrument in 2014. <BR /> Results: We were able to monitor the planet until November 2016, when its angular separation became too small (125 mas, i.e., 1.6 au) and prevented further detection. We redetected β Pictoris b on the northeast side of the disk at a separation of 139 mas and a PA of 30° in September 2018. The planetary orbit is now well constrained. With a semi-major axis (sma) of a = 9.0 ± 0.5 au (1σ), it definitely excludes previously reported possible long orbital periods, and excludes β Pictoris b as the origin of photometric variations that took place in 1981. We also refine the eccentricity and inclination of the planet. From an instrumental point of view, these data demonstrate that it is possible to detect, if they exist, young massive Jupiters that orbit at less than 2 au from a star that is 20 pc away. <P />Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under programmes 198.C-0209, 1100.C-0481. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-contrast study of the candidate planets and protoplanetary disk around HD 100546
Sissa, E.; Gratton, R.; Garufi, Antonio et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 619

The nearby Herbig Be star HD 100546 is known to be a laboratory for the study of protoplanets and their relation with the circumstellar disk, which is carved by at least two gaps. We observed the HD ... [more ▼]

The nearby Herbig Be star HD 100546 is known to be a laboratory for the study of protoplanets and their relation with the circumstellar disk, which is carved by at least two gaps. We observed the HD 100546 environment with high-contrast imaging exploiting several different observing modes of SPHERE, including data sets with and without coronagraphs, dual band imaging, integral field spectroscopy and polarimetry. The picture emerging from these different data sets is complex. Flux-conservative algorithm images clearly show the disk up to 200 au. More aggressive algorithms reveal several rings and warped arms that are seen overlapping the main disk. Some of these structures are found to lie at considerable height over the disk mid-plane at about 30 au. Our images demonstrate that the brightest wings close to the star in the near side of the disk are a unique structure, corresponding to the outer edge of the intermediate disk at 40 au. Modeling of the scattered light from the disk with a geometrical algorithm reveals that a moderately thin structure (H/r = 0.18 at 40 au) can well reproduce the light distribution in the flux-conservative images. We suggest that the gap between 44 and 113 au spans between the 1:2 and 3:2 resonance orbits of a massive body located at 70 au, which mightcoincide with the candidate planet HD 100546b detected with previous thermal infrared (IR) observations. In this picture, the two wings can be the near side of a ring formed by disk material brought out of the disk at the 1:2 resonance with the same massive object. While we find no clear evidence confirming detection of the planet candidate HD 100546c in our data, we find a diffuse emission close to the expected position of HD 100546b. This source can be described as an extremely reddened substellar object surrounded by a dust cloud or its circumplanetary disk. Its astrometry is broadly consistent with a circular orbital motion on the disk plane, a result that could be confirmed with new observations. Further observations at various wavelengths are required to fully understand the complex phenomenology of HD 100546. <P />Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO Programs 095.C-0298, 096.C-0241, 096.C-0248, 097.C-0523, 097.C-0865, and 098.C-0209). [less ▲]

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See detailDynamical masses of M-dwarf binaries in young moving groups. I. The case of TWA 22 and GJ 2060
Rodet, L.; Bonnefoy, M.; Durkan, S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 618

Context. Evolutionary models are widely used to infer the mass of stars, brown dwarfs, and giant planets. Their predictions are thought to be less reliable at young ages (< 200 Myr) and in the low-mass ... [more ▼]

Context. Evolutionary models are widely used to infer the mass of stars, brown dwarfs, and giant planets. Their predictions are thought to be less reliable at young ages (< 200 Myr) and in the low-mass regime (< 1 M[SUB]☉[/SUB]). GJ 2060 AB and TWA 22 AB are two rare astrometric M-dwarf binaries, respectively members of the AB Doradus (AB Dor) and Beta Pictoris (β Pic) moving groups. As their dynamical mass can be measured to within a few years, they can be used to calibrate the evolutionary tracks and set new constraints on the age of young moving groups. <BR /> Aims: We provide the first dynamical mass measurement of GJ 2060 and a refined measurement of the total mass of TWA 22. We also characterize the atmospheric properties of the individual components of GJ 2060 that can be used as inputs to the evolutionary models. <BR /> Methods: We used NaCo and SPHERE observations at VLT and archival Keck/NIRC2 data to complement the astrometric monitoring of the binaries. We combined the astrometry with new HARPS radial velocities (RVs) and FEROS RVs of GJ 2060. We used a Markov chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) module to estimate posteriors on the orbital parameters and dynamical masses of GJ 2060 AB and TWA 22 AB from the astrometry and RVs. Complementary data obtained with the integral field spectrograph VLT/SINFONI were gathered to extract the individual near-infrared (1.1-2.5 μm) medium-resolution (R ̃ 1500 - 2000) spectra of GJ 2060 A and B. We compared the spectra to those of known objects and to grids of BT-SETTL model spectra to infer the spectral type, bolometric luminosities, and temperatures of those objects. <BR /> Results: We find a total mass of 0.18 ± 0.02 M[SUB]☉[/SUB] for TWA 22, which is in good agreement with model predictions at the age of the β Pic moving group. We obtain a total mass of 1.09 ± 0.10 M[SUB]☉[/SUB] for GJ 2060. We estimate a spectral type of M1 ± 0.5, L/L[SUB]☉[/SUB] = -1.20 ± 0.05 dex, and T[SUB]eff[/SUB] = 3700 ± 100 K for GJ 2060 A. The B component is a M3 ± 0.5 dwarf with L/L[SUB]☉[/SUB] = -1.63 ± 0.05 dex and T[SUB]eff[/SUB] = 3400 ± 100 K. The dynamical mass of GJ 2060 AB is inconsistent with the most recent models predictions (BCAH15, PARSEC) for an AB Dor age in the range 50-150 Myr. It is 10%-20% (1-2σ, depending on the assumed age) above the model's predictions, corresponding to an underestimation of 0.10-0.20 M[SUB]☉[/SUB]. Coevality suggests a young age for the system (̃50 Myr) according to most evolutionary models. <BR /> Conclusions: TWA 22 validates the predictions of recent evolutionary tracks at ̃20 Myr. On the other hand, we evidence a 1-2σ mismatch between the predicted and observed mass of GJ 2060 AB. This slight departure may indicate that one of the stars hosts a tight companion. Alternatively, this would confirm the model's tendency to underestimate the mass of young low-mass stars. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of a planetary-mass companion within the gap of the transition disk around PDS 70
Keppler, M.; Benisty, M.; Müller, A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 617

Context. Young circumstellar disks are the birthplaces of planets. Their study is of prime interest to understand the physical and chemical conditions under which planet formation takes place. Only very ... [more ▼]

Context. Young circumstellar disks are the birthplaces of planets. Their study is of prime interest to understand the physical and chemical conditions under which planet formation takes place. Only very few detections of planet candidates within these disks exist, and most of them are currently suspected to be disk features. <BR /> Aims: In this context, the transition disk around the young star PDS 70 is of particular interest, due to its large gap identified in previous observations, indicative of ongoing planet formation. We aim to search for the presence of an embedded young planet and search for disk structures that may be the result of disk-planet interactions and other evolutionary processes. <BR /> Methods: We analyse new and archival near-infrared images of the transition disk PDS 70 obtained with the VLT/SPHERE, VLT/NaCo, and Gemini/NICI instruments in polarimetric differential imaging and angular differential imaging modes. <BR /> Results: We detect a point source within the gap of the disk at about 195 mas ( 22 au) projected separation. The detection is confirmed at five different epochs, in three filter bands and using different instruments. The astrometry results in an object of bound nature, with high significance. The comparison of the measured magnitudes and colours to evolutionary tracks suggests that the detection is a companion of planetary mass. The luminosity of the detected object is consistent with that of an L-type dwarf, but its IR colours are redder, possibly indicating the presence of warm surrounding material. Further, we confirm the detection of a large gap of 54 au in size within the disk in our scattered light images, and detect a signal from an inner disk component. We find that its spatial extent is very likely smaller than 17 au in radius, and its position angle is consistent with that of the outer disk. The images of the outer disk show evidence of a complex azimuthal brightness distribution which is different at different wavelengths and may in part be explained by Rayleigh scattering from very small grains. <BR /> Conclusions: The detection of a young protoplanet within the gap of the transition disk around PDS 70 opens the door to a so far observationally unexplored parameter space of planetary formation and evolution. Future observations of this system at different wavelengths and continuing astrometry will allow us to test theoretical predictions regarding planet-disk interactions, planetary atmospheres, and evolutionary models. <P />Based on observations performed with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programmes 095.C-0298, 095.C-0404, 096.C-0333, 097.C-0206, 097.C-1001, and 099.C-0891.The reduced images and datacubes are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/617/A44">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/617/A44</A> [less ▲]

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