References of "McHugh, M"
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See detailAccurate Differentiation of Carotenoid Pigments Using Flight Representative Raman Spectrometers
Malherbe, Cédric ULiege; Hutchinson, I. B.; McHugh, M. et al

in Astrobiology (2017), 17(4), 351-362

Raman spectrometers will be utilized on two Mars rover missions, ExoMars and Mars 2020, in the near future, to search for evidence of life and habitable geological niches on Mars. Carotenoid pigments are ... [more ▼]

Raman spectrometers will be utilized on two Mars rover missions, ExoMars and Mars 2020, in the near future, to search for evidence of life and habitable geological niches on Mars. Carotenoid pigments are recognized target biomarkers, and as they are highly active in Raman spectroscopy, they can be readily used to characterize the capabilities of space representative instrumentation. As part of the preparatory work being performed for the ExoMars mission, a gypsum crust colonized by microorganisms was interrogated with commercial portable Raman instruments and a flight representative Raman laser spectrometer. Four separate layers, each exhibiting different coloration resulting from specific halophilic microorganism activities within the gypsum crust, were studied by using two excitation wavelengths: 532 and 785 nm. Raman or fluorescence data were readily obtained during the present study. Gypsum, the main constituent of the crust, was detected with both excitation wavelengths, while the resonance Raman signal associated with carotenoid pigments was only detected with a 532 nm excitation wavelength. The fluorescence originating from bacteriochlorophyll a was found to overwhelm the Raman signal for the layer colonized by sulfur bacteria when interrogated with a 785 nm excitation wavelength. Finally, it was demonstrated that portable instruments and the prototype were capable of detecting a statistically significant difference in band positions of carotenoid signals between the sample layers. [less ▲]

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See detailPreparations for ExoMars: Learning Lessons from Curiosity
Edwards, P.; Hutchinson, I. B.; Morgan, S. et al

Poster (2016, October 16)

In 2020, the European Space Agency will launch its first Mars rover mission, ExoMars. The rover will use a drill to obtain samples from up to 2m below the Martian surface that will then be analysed using ... [more ▼]

In 2020, the European Space Agency will launch its first Mars rover mission, ExoMars. The rover will use a drill to obtain samples from up to 2m below the Martian surface that will then be analysed using a variety of analytical instruments, including the Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS), which will be the first Raman spectrometer to be used on a planetary mission.To prepare for ExoMars RLS operations, we report on a series of experiments that have been performed in order to investigate the response of a representative Raman instrument to a number of analogue samples (selected based on the types of material known to be important, following investigations performed by NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, MSL, on the Curiosity rover). Raman spectroscopy will provide molecular and mineralogical information about the samples obtained from the drill cores on ExoMars. MSL acquires similar information using the CheMin XRD instrument which analyses samples acquired from drill holes several centimetres deep. Like Raman spectroscopy, XRD also provides information on the mineralogical makeup of the analysed samples.The samples in our study were selected based on CheMin data obtained from drill sites at Yellowknife Bay, one of the first locations visited by Curiosity (supplemented with additional fine scale elemental information obtained with the ChemCam LIBS laser instrument). Once selected (or produced), the samples were characterised using standard laboratory XRD and XRF instruments (in order to compare with the data obtained by CheMin) and a standard, laboratory based LIBS system (in order to compare with the ChemCam data). This characterisation provides confirmation that the analogue samples are representative of the materials likely to be encountered on Mars by the ExoMars rover.A representative, miniaturised Raman spectrometer was used to analyse the samples, using acquisition strategies and operating modes similar to those expected for the ExoMars instrument. The type of minerals detected are identified and compared to the information typically acquired using other analytical science techniques investigating in order to highlight the benefits and drawbacks of using Raman spectroscopy for planetary science applications. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of ozone measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)
Dupuy, Eric; Walker, K. A.; Kar, J. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2009), 9(2), 287-343

This paper presents extensive bias determination analyses of ozone observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite instruments: the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and ... [more ▼]

This paper presents extensive bias determination analyses of ozone observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite instruments: the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) instrument. Here we compare the latest ozone data products from ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO with coincident observations from nearly 20 satellite-borne, airborne, balloon-borne and ground-based instruments, by analysing volume mixing ratio profiles and partial column densities. The ACE-FTS version 2.2 Ozone Update product reports more ozone than most correlative measurements from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. At altitude levels from 16 to 44 km, the average values of the mean relative differences are nearly all within +1 to +8%. At higher altitudes (45 60 km), the ACE-FTS ozone amounts are significantly larger than those of the comparison instruments, with mean relative differences of up to +40% (about + 20% on average). For the ACE-MAESTRO version 1.2 ozone data product, mean relative differences are within +/- 10% (average values within +/- 6%) between 18 and 40 km for both the sunrise and sunset measurements. At higher altitudes (similar to 35-55 km), systematic biases of opposite sign are found between the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise and sunset observations. While ozone amounts derived from the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise occultation data are often smaller than the coincident observations (with mean relative differences down to -10%), the sunset occultation profiles for ACE-MAESTRO show results that are qualitatively similar to ACE-FTS, indicating a large positive bias (mean relative differences within +10 to +30%) in the 45-55 km altitude range. In contrast, there is no significant systematic difference in bias found for the ACE-FTS sunrise and sunset measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailAtmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission overview
Bernath, Peter; McElroy, C. T.; Abrams, Mark et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2005), 32(15),

SCISAT-1, also known as the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment ( ACE), is a Canadian satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere. It was launched into low Earth circular orbit ( altitude ... [more ▼]

SCISAT-1, also known as the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment ( ACE), is a Canadian satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere. It was launched into low Earth circular orbit ( altitude 650 km, inclination 74 degrees) on 12 Aug. 2003. The primary ACE instrument is a high spectral resolution (0.02 cm(-1)) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2.2 to 13.3 mm ( 750 - 4400 cm(-1)). The satellite also features a dual spectrophotometer known as MAESTRO with wavelength coverage of 285 - 1030 nm and spectral resolution of 1 - 2 nm. A pair of filtered CMOS detector arrays records images of the Sun at 0.525 and 1.02 mu m. Working primarily in solar occultation, the satellite provides altitude profile information ( typically 10 - 100 km) for temperature, pressure, and the volume mixing ratios for several dozen molecules of atmospheric interest, as well as atmospheric extinction profiles over the latitudes 85 degrees N to 85 degrees S. This paper presents a mission overview and some of the first scientific results. [less ▲]

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