References of "Mawet, Dimitri"
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See detailDynamical Evidence of a Spiral Arm-driving Planet in the MWC 758 Protoplanetary Disk
Ren, Bin; Dong, Ruobing; van Holstein, Rob G. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2020), 898

More than a dozen young stars host spiral arms in their surrounding protoplanetary disks. The excitation mechanisms of such arms are under debate. The two leading hypotheses—companion-disk interaction and ... [more ▼]

More than a dozen young stars host spiral arms in their surrounding protoplanetary disks. The excitation mechanisms of such arms are under debate. The two leading hypotheses—companion-disk interaction and gravitational instability (GI)—predict distinct motion for spirals. By imaging the MWC 758 spiral arm system at two epochs spanning ∼5 yr using the SPHERE instrument on the Very Large Telescope, we test the two hypotheses for the first time. We find that the pattern speeds of the spirals are not consistent with the GI origin. Our measurements further evince the existence of a faint "missing planet" driving the disk arms. The average spiral pattern speed is 0°22 ± 0°03 yr[SUP]-1[/SUP], pointing to a driver at ${172}_{-14}^{+18}$ au around a 1.9 M[SUB]☉[/SUB] central star if it is on a circular orbit. In addition, we witness time-varying shadowing effects on a global scale that are likely originating from an inner disk. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign, pointing control, and on-sky performance of the mid-infrared vortex coronagraph for the VLT/NEAR experiment
Maire, Anne-Lise ULiege; Huby, Elsa; Absil, Olivier ULiege et al

in Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems (2020), 6

Vortex coronagraphs have been shown to be a promising avenue for high- contrast imaging in the close-in environment of stars at thermal infrared (IR) wavelengths. They are included in the baseline design ... [more ▼]

Vortex coronagraphs have been shown to be a promising avenue for high- contrast imaging in the close-in environment of stars at thermal infrared (IR) wavelengths. They are included in the baseline design of the mid-infrared extremely large telescope imager and spectrograph. To ensure good performance of these coronagraphs, a precise control of the centering of the star image in real time is needed. We previously developed and validated the quadrant analysis of coronagraphic images for tip-tilt sensing estimator (QACITS) pointing estimator to address this issue. While this approach is not wavelength-dependent in theory, it was never implemented for mid-IR observations, which leads to specific challenges and limitations. Here, we present the design of the mid-IR vortex coronagraph for the "new Earths in the α Cen Region (NEAR) experiment with the Very Large Telescope (VLT)/Very Large Telescope imager and spectrometer for the mid-infrared (VISIR) instrument and assess the performance of the QACITS estimator for the centering control of the star image onto the vortex coronagraph. We use simulated data and on-sky data obtained with VLT/VISIR, which was recently upgraded for observations assisted by adaptive optics in the context of the NEAR experiment. We demonstrate that the QACITS-based correction loop is able to control the centering of the star image onto the NEAR vortex coronagraph with a stability down to 0.015 λ / D rms over 4 h in good conditions. These results show that QACITS is a robust approach for precisely controlling in real time the centering of vortex coronagraphs for mid-IR observations. [less ▲]

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See detailNEAR: First Results from the Search for Low-Mass Planets in α Cen
Kasper, Markus; Arsenault, Robin; Käufl, Ulli et al

in Messenger (2019), 178

ESO, in collaboration with the Breakthrough Initiatives, has modified the VLT mid-infrared imager VISIR to greatly enhance its ability as a planet finder. It has conducted a 100-hour observing campaign to ... [more ▼]

ESO, in collaboration with the Breakthrough Initiatives, has modified the VLT mid-infrared imager VISIR to greatly enhance its ability as a planet finder. It has conducted a 100-hour observing campaign to search for low-mass planets around both components of the binary a Centauri, part of the closest stellar system to the Earth. Using adaptive optics and high-performance coronagraphy, the instrument reached unprecedented contrast and sensitivity allowing it to see Neptune-sized planets in the habitable zone, if present. The experiment allowed us to characterise the current limitations of the instrument. We conclude that the detection of rocky planets similar to Earth in the habitable zone of the a Centauri System is already possible with 8-metre-class telescopes in the thermal infrared. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Importance of Thermal Emission Spectroscopy for Understanding Terrestrial Exoplanets
Line, Michael; Quanz, Sascha P.; Schwieterman, Edward W. et al

in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (2019), 51(3), 271

The primary objective of this white paper is to illustrate the importance of the thermal infrared in characterizing terrestrial planets leveraging our experience in characterizing extra-solar jovian ... [more ▼]

The primary objective of this white paper is to illustrate the importance of the thermal infrared in characterizing terrestrial planets leveraging our experience in characterizing extra-solar jovian worlds. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling Debris Disk Evolution
Gaspar, Andras; Apai, Dániel; Augereau, Jean-Charles et al

in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (2019), 51(3), 69

Understanding the formation, evolution, and architectures of planetary systems requires detailed knowledge of their components. Debris disks provide a means with which we can study them. The next decade ... [more ▼]

Understanding the formation, evolution, and architectures of planetary systems requires detailed knowledge of their components. Debris disks provide a means with which we can study them. The next decade will deliver a wealth of new information on the nearest systems. Parallel advances in modeling will be necessary to interpret these new datasets. [less ▲]

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See detailReference Star Differential Imaging of Close-in Companions and Circumstellar Disks with the NIRC2 Vortex Coronagraph at the W. M. Keck Observatory
Ruane, Garreth; Ngo, Henry; Mawet, Dimitri et al

in Astronomical Journal (2019), 157

Reference star differential imaging (RDI) is a powerful strategy for high-contrast imaging. Using example observations taken with the vortex coronagraph mode of Keck/NIRC2 in L′ band, we demonstrate that ... [more ▼]

Reference star differential imaging (RDI) is a powerful strategy for high-contrast imaging. Using example observations taken with the vortex coronagraph mode of Keck/NIRC2 in L′ band, we demonstrate that RDI provides improved sensitivity to point sources at small angular separations compared to angular differential imaging (ADI). Applying RDI to images of the low-mass stellar companions HIP 79124 C (192 mas separation, ∆L′ = 4.01) and HIP 78233 B (141 mas separation, ∆L′ = 4.78), the latter a first imaging detection, increases the significance of their detections by up to a factor of 5 with respect to ADI. We compare methods for reference frame selection and find that pre- selection of frames improves detection significance of point sources by up to a factor of 3. In addition, we use observations of the circumstellar disks around MWC 758 and 2MASS J16042165-2130284 to show that RDI allows for accurate mapping of scattered light distributions without self-subtraction artifacts. [less ▲]

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See detailDeep Exploration of ɛ Eridani with Keck Ms-band Vortex Coronagraphy and Radial Velocities: Mass and Orbital Parameters of the Giant Exoplanet
Mawet, Dimitri; Hirsch, Lea; Lee, Eve J. et al

in Astronomical Journal (2019), 157

We present the most sensitive direct imaging and radial velocity (RV) exploration of ɛ Eridani to date. ɛ Eridani is an adolescent planetary system, reminiscent of the early solar system. It is surrounded ... [more ▼]

We present the most sensitive direct imaging and radial velocity (RV) exploration of ɛ Eridani to date. ɛ Eridani is an adolescent planetary system, reminiscent of the early solar system. It is surrounded by a prominent and complex debris disk that is likely stirred by one or several gas giant exoplanets. The discovery of the RV signature of a giant exoplanet was announced 15 yr ago, but has met with scrutiny due to possible confusion with stellar noise. We confirm the planet with a new compilation and analysis of precise RV data spanning 30 yr, and combine it with upper limits from our direct imaging search, the most sensitive ever performed. The deep images were taken in the Ms band (4.7 μm) with the vortex coronagraph recently installed in W.M. Keck Observatory’s infrared camera NIRC2, which opens a sensitive window for planet searches around nearby adolescent systems. The RV data and direct imaging upper limit maps were combined in an innovative joint Bayesian analysis, providing new constraints on the mass and orbital parameters of the elusive planet. ɛ Eridani b has a mass of {0.78}[SUB]-0.12[/SUB][SUP]+0.38[/SUP] M [SUB]Jup[/SUB] and is orbiting ɛ Eridani at about 3.48 ± 0.02 au with a period of 7.37 ± 0.07 yr. The eccentricity of ɛ Eridani b’s orbit is {0.07}[SUB]-0.05[/SUB][SUP]+0.06[/SUP], an order of magnitude smaller than early estimates and consistent with a circular orbit. We discuss our findings from the standpoint of planet–disk interactions and prospects for future detection and characterization with the James Webb Space Telescope. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time was granted for this project by Caltech, the University of Hawai’i, the University of California, and NASA. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of low-mass companion HD 142527 B
Christiaens, Valentin ULiege; Casassus, Simon; Absil, Olivier ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 617

The circumstellar disk of the Herbig Fe star HD 142527 is host to several remarkable features including a warped inner disk, a 120 au-wide annular gap, a prominent dust trap and several spiral arms. A low ... [more ▼]

The circumstellar disk of the Herbig Fe star HD 142527 is host to several remarkable features including a warped inner disk, a 120 au-wide annular gap, a prominent dust trap and several spiral arms. A low-mass companion, HD 142527 B, was also found orbiting the primary star at ~14 au. This study aims to better characterize this companion, which could help explain its impact on the peculiar geometry of the disk. We observed the source with VLT/SINFONI in H+K band in pupil-tracking mode. Data were post-processed with several algorithms based on angular differential imaging (ADI). HD 142527 B is conspicuously re-detected in most spectral channels, which enables us to extract the first medium-resolution spectrum of a low-mass companion within 0.1'' from its central star. Fitting our spectrum with both template and synthetic spectra suggests that the companion is a young M2.5+-1.0 star with an effective temperature of 3500+-100 K, possibly surrounded with a hot (1700 K) circum-secondary environment. Pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks provide a mass estimate of 0.34+-0.06 MSun, independent of the presence of a hot environment. However, the estimated stellar radius and age do depend on that assumption; we find a radius of 1.37+-0.05 RSun (resp. 1.96+-0.10 RSun) and an age of ~1.8Myr (resp. ~0.75Myr) in the case of the presence (resp. absence) of a hot environment contributing in H+K. Our new values for the mass and radius of the companion yield a mass accretion rate of 2--3% that of the primary. We have constrained the physical properties of HD 142527 B, thereby illustrating the potential for SINFONI+ADI to characterize faint close-in companions. The new spectral type makes HD 142527 B a twin of the well known TW Hya T-Tauri star, and the revision of its mass to higher values further supports its role in shaping the disk. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterizing the Performance of the NIRC2 Vortex Coronagraph at W. M. Keck Observatory
Xuan, W. Jerry; Mawet, Dimitri; Ngo, Henry et al

in Astronomical Journal (2018), 156

The NIRC2 vortex coronagraph is an instrument on Keck II designed to directly image exoplanets and circumstellar disks at mid-infrared bands L‧ (3.4–4.1 μm) and M [SUB] s [/SUB] (4.55–4.8 μm). We analyze ... [more ▼]

The NIRC2 vortex coronagraph is an instrument on Keck II designed to directly image exoplanets and circumstellar disks at mid-infrared bands L‧ (3.4–4.1 μm) and M [SUB] s [/SUB] (4.55–4.8 μm). We analyze imaging data and corresponding adaptive optics telemetry, observing conditions, and other metadata over a three-year time period to characterize the performance of the instrument and predict the detection limits of future observations. We systematically process images from 359 observations of 304 unique stars to subtract residual starlight (i.e., the coronagraphic point-spread function) of the target star using two methods: angular differential imaging (ADI) and reference star differential imaging (RDI). We find that for the typical parallactic angle (PA) rotation of our data set (∼10°), RDI provides gains over ADI for angular separations smaller than 0.″25. Furthermore, we find a power-law relation between the angular separation from the host star and the minimum PA rotation required for ADI to outperform RDI, with a power-law index of ‑1.18 ± 0.08. Finally, we use random forest models to estimate ADI and RDI post-processed detection limits a priori. These models, which we provide publicly on a website, explain 70%–80% of the variance in ADI detection limits and 30%–50% of the variance in RDI detection limits. Averaged over a range of angular separations, our models predict both ADI and RDI contrast to within a factor of 2. These results illuminate important factors in high-contrast imaging observations with the NIRC2 vortex coronagraph, help improve observing strategies, and inform future upgrades to the hardware. [less ▲]

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See detailAround the world: status and prospects with the infrared vortex coronagraph
Absil, Olivier ULiege; Karlsson, Mikael; Mawet, Dimitri et al

Conference (2018, June 11)

Since its first light at the VLT in 2012, the Annular Groove Phase Mask (AGPM) has been used to implement infrared vortex coronagraphy also at the Keck and the LBT. We review the status of these endeavors ... [more ▼]

Since its first light at the VLT in 2012, the Annular Groove Phase Mask (AGPM) has been used to implement infrared vortex coronagraphy also at the Keck and the LBT. We review the status of these endeavors, and highlight the main scientific results obtained so far. We explore the performance of the AGPM and identify the main limitations to its sensitivity to faint, off-axis companions. Based on the lessons learned, we are now preparing the implementation of AGPM-based vortex coronagraphs into a new generation of high-contrast imaging instruments. We explain how the AGPM will be used to hunt for planets in the habitable zone of alpha Centauri A and B with a refurbished version of the VISIR mid-infrared camera at the VLT, and how this project paves the way toward mid-infrared coronagraphy on the ELT with the METIS instrument. We also discuss future LM-band applications of the AGPM on VLT/ERIS, Keck/NIRC2, and ELT/METIS, as well as a possible upgrade of VLT/SPHERE with a K-band AGPM. [less ▲]

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See detailAn H-band Vector Vortex Coronagraph for the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme-Adaptive Optics System
Kühn, Jonas; Serabyn, Eugene; Lozi, Julien et al

in Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (2018), 130(985),

The vector vortex is a coronagraphic imaging mode of the recently commissioned Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme-Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) platform on the 8-m Subaru Telescope. This multi-purpose high-contrast ... [more ▼]

The vector vortex is a coronagraphic imaging mode of the recently commissioned Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme-Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) platform on the 8-m Subaru Telescope. This multi-purpose high-contrast visible and near-infrared (R- to K-band) instrument is not only intended to serve as a VLT-class "planet-imager" instrument in the Northern hemisphere, but also to operate as a technology demonstration testbed ahead of the ELTs-era, with a particular emphasis on small inner-working angle (IWA) coronagraphic capabilities. The given priority to small-IWA imaging led to the early design choice to incorporate focal-plane phase-mask coronagraphs. In this context, a test H-band vector vortex liquid crystal polymer waveplate was provided to SCExAO, to allow a one-to-one comparison of different small-IWA techniques on the same telescope instrument, before considering further steps. Here we present a detailed overview of the vector vortex coronagraph, from its installation and performances on the SCExAO optical bench, to the on-sky results in the extreme AO regime, as of late 2016/early 2017. To this purpose, we also provide a few recent on-sky imaging examples, notably high-contrast ADI detection of the planetary-mass companion \kappa Andromedae b, with a signal-to-noise ratio above 100 reached in less than 10 mn exposure time. [less ▲]

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See detailA New Standard for Assessing the Performance of High Contrast Imaging Systems
Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Mawet, Dimitri; Gómez González, Carlos ULiege et al

in Astronomical Journal (2018), 155

As planning for the next generation of high contrast imaging instruments (e.g., WFIRST, HabEx, and LUVOIR, TMT-PFI, EELT-EPICS) matures and second-generation ground-based extreme adaptive optics ... [more ▼]

As planning for the next generation of high contrast imaging instruments (e.g., WFIRST, HabEx, and LUVOIR, TMT-PFI, EELT-EPICS) matures and second-generation ground-based extreme adaptive optics facilities (e.g., VLT-SPHERE, Gemini-GPI) finish their principal surveys, it is imperative that the performance of different designs, post-processing algorithms, observing strategies, and survey results be compared in a consistent, statistically robust framework. In this paper, we argue that the current industry standard for such comparisons—the contrast curve—falls short of this mandate. We propose a new figure of merit, the “performance map,” that incorporates three fundamental concepts in signal detection theory: the true positive fraction, the false positive fraction, and the detection threshold. By supplying a theoretical basis and recipe for generating the performance map, we hope to encourage the widespread adoption of this new metric across subfields in exoplanet imaging. [less ▲]

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See detailVIP: Vortex Image Processing package for high-contrast direct imaging
Gómez González, Carlos ULiege; Wertz, Olivier; Absil, Olivier ULiege et al

in Astronomical Journal (2017), 154

We present the Vortex Image Processing (VIP) library, a python package dedicated to astronomical high-contrast imaging. Our package relies on the extensive python stack of scientific libraries and aims to ... [more ▼]

We present the Vortex Image Processing (VIP) library, a python package dedicated to astronomical high-contrast imaging. Our package relies on the extensive python stack of scientific libraries and aims to provide a flexible framework for high-contrast data and image processing. In this paper, we describe the capabilities of VIP related to processing image sequences acquired using the angular di↵erential imaging (ADI) observing technique. VIP implements functionalities for building high-contrast data processing pipelines, encompass- ing pre- and post-processing algorithms, potential sources position and flux estimation, and sensitivity curves generation. Among the reference point-spread function subtraction techniques for ADI post-processing, VIP includes several flavors of principal component analysis (PCA) based algorithms, such as annular PCA and incremental PCA algorithm capable of processing big datacubes (of several gigabytes) on a computer with limited memory. Also, we present a novel ADI algorithm based on non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), which comes from the same family of low-rank matrix approximations as PCA and provides fairly similar results. We showcase the ADI capabilities of the VIP library using a deep sequence on HR8799 taken with the LBTI/LMIRCam and its recently commissioned L-band vortex coronagraph. Using VIP we investigated the presence of additional companions around HR8799 and did not find any significant additional point source beyond the four known planets. VIP is available at http://github.com/vortex-exoplanet/VIP and is accompanied with Jupyter notebook tutorials illustrating the main functionalities of the library. [less ▲]

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See detailOn-sky performance of the QACITS pointing control technique with the Keck/NIRC2 vortex coronagraph
Huby, Elsa ULiege; Bottom, Michael; Femenia, Bruno et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 600

A vortex coronagraph is now available for high contrast observations with the Keck/NIRC2 instrument at L band. Reaching the optimal performance of the coronagraph requires fine control of the wavefront ... [more ▼]

A vortex coronagraph is now available for high contrast observations with the Keck/NIRC2 instrument at L band. Reaching the optimal performance of the coronagraph requires fine control of the wavefront incident on the phase mask. In particular, centering errors can lead to significant stellar light leakage that degrades the contrast performance and prevents the observation of faint planetary companions around the observed stars. It is thus critical to correct for the possible slow drift of the star image from the phase mask center, generally due to mechanical flexures induced by temperature and/or gravity field variation, or to misalignment between the optics that rotate in pupil tracking mode. A control loop based on the QACITS algorithm for the vortex coronagraph has thus been developed and deployed for the Keck/NIRC2 instrument. This algorithm executes the entire observing sequence, including the calibration steps, initial centering of the star on the vortex center and stabilisation during the acquisition of science frames. On-sky data show that the QACITS control loop stabilizes the position of the star image down to 2.4 mas rms at a frequency of about 0.02 Hz. However, the accuracy of the estimator is probably limited by a systematic error due to a misalignment of the Lyot stop with respect to the entrance pupil, estimated to be on the order of 4.5 mas. A method to reduce the amplitude of this bias down to 1 mas is proposed. The QACITS control loop has been successfully implemented and provides a robust method to center and stabilize the star image on the vortex mask. In addition, QACITS ensures a repeatable pointing quality and significantly improves the observing efficiency compared to manual operations. It is now routinely used for vortex coronagraph observations at Keck/NIRC2, providing contrast and angular resolution capabilities suited for exoplanet and disk imaging. [less ▲]

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See detailVLT/SPHERE robust astrometry of the HR8799 planets at milliarcsecond-level accuracy. Orbital architecture analysis with PyAstrOFit
Wertz, Olivier; Absil, Olivier ULiege; Gómez González, Carlos ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 598

HR8799 is orbited by at least four giant planets, making it a prime target for the recently commissioned Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (VLT/SPHERE). As such, it was observed on ... [more ▼]

HR8799 is orbited by at least four giant planets, making it a prime target for the recently commissioned Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (VLT/SPHERE). As such, it was observed on five consecutive nights during the SPHERE science verification in December 2014. We aim to take full advantage of the SPHERE capabilities to derive accurate astrometric measurements based on H-band images acquired with the Infra-Red Dual-band Imaging and Spectroscopy (IRDIS) subsystem, and to explore the ultimate astrometric performance of SPHERE in this observing mode. We also aim to present a detailed analysis of the orbital parameters for the four planets. We report the astrometric positions for epoch 2014.93 with an accuracy down to 2.0 mas, mainly limited by the astrometric calibration of IRDIS. For each planet, we derive the posterior probability density functions for the six Keplerian elements and identify sets of highly probable orbits. For planet d, there is clear evidence for nonzero eccentricity ($e \simeq 0.35$), without completely excluding solutions with smaller eccentricities. The three other planets are consistent with circular orbits, although their probability distributions spread beyond $e = 0.2$, and show a peak at $e \simeq 0.1$ for planet e. The four planets have consistent inclinations of about $30\deg$ with respect to the sky plane, but the confidence intervals for the longitude of ascending node are disjoint for planets b and c, and we find tentative evidence for non-coplanarity between planets b and c at the $2 \sigma$ level. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the low-mass companion HD 142527 B
Christiaens, Valentin ULiege; Casassus, Simon; Absil, Olivier ULiege et al

Poster (2017, February)

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See detailThe W. M. Keck Observatory infrared vortex coronagraph and a first image of HIP79124 B
Serabyn, Eugene; Huby, Elsa ULiege; Matthews, Keith et al

in Astronomical Journal (2017), 153(1), 43

An optical vortex coronagraph has been implemented within the NIRC2 camera on the Keck II telescope and used to carry out on-sky tests and observations. The development of this new L'-band observational ... [more ▼]

An optical vortex coronagraph has been implemented within the NIRC2 camera on the Keck II telescope and used to carry out on-sky tests and observations. The development of this new L'-band observational mode is described, and an initial demonstration of the new capability is presented: a resolved image of the low-mass companion to HIP79124, which had previously been detected by means of interferometry. With HIP79124 B at a projected separation of 186.5 mas, both the small inner working angle of the vortex coronagraph and the related imaging improvements were crucial in imaging this close companion directly. Due to higher Strehl ratios and more relaxed contrasts in L' band versus H band, this new coronagraphic capability will enable high-contrast small-angle observations of nearby young exoplanets and disks on a par with those of shorter-wavelength extreme adaptive optics coronagraphs. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the inner disk around HD 141569 A from Keck/NIRC2 L-band vortex coronagraphy
Mawet, Dimitri; Choquet, Élodie; Absil, Olivier ULiege et al

in Astronomical Journal (2017), 153(1), 44

HD 141569 A is a pre-main sequence B9.5 Ve star surrounded by a prominent and complex circumstellar disk, likely still in a transition stage from protoplanetary to debris disk phase. Here, we present a ... [more ▼]

HD 141569 A is a pre-main sequence B9.5 Ve star surrounded by a prominent and complex circumstellar disk, likely still in a transition stage from protoplanetary to debris disk phase. Here, we present a new image of the third inner disk component of HD 141569 A made in the L' band (3.8 micron) during the commissioning of the vector vortex coronagraph recently installed in the near-infrared imager and spectrograph NIRC2 behind the W.M. Keck Observatory Keck II adaptive optics system. We used reference point spread function subtraction, which reveals the innermost disk component from the inner working distance of $\simeq 23$ AU and up to $\simeq 70$ AU. The spatial scale of our detection roughly corresponds to the optical and near-infrared scattered light, thermal Q, N and 8.6 micron PAH emission reported earlier. We also see an outward progression in dust location from the L'-band to the H-band (VLT/SPHERE image) to the visible (HST/STIS image), likely indicative of dust blowout. The warm disk component is nested deep inside the two outer belts imaged by HST NICMOS in 1999 (respectively at 406 and 245 AU). We fit our new L'-band image and spectral energy distribution of HD 141569 A with the radiative transfer code MCFOST. Our best-fit models favor pure olivine grains, and are consistent with the composition of the outer belts. While our image shows a putative very-faint point-like clump or source embedded in the inner disk, we did not detect any true companion within the gap between the inner disk and the first outer ring, at a sensitivity of a few Jupiter masses. [less ▲]

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See detailThe SHARDDS survey: First resolved image of the HD 114082 debris disk in the Lower Centaurus Crux with SPHERE
Wahhaj, Zahed; Milli, Julien; Kennedy, Grant et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 596

We present the first resolved image of the debris disk around the 16 ± 8 Myr old star, HD 114082. The observation was made in the H-band using the SPHERE instrument. The star is at a distance of 92 ± 6 pc ... [more ▼]

We present the first resolved image of the debris disk around the 16 ± 8 Myr old star, HD 114082. The observation was made in the H-band using the SPHERE instrument. The star is at a distance of 92 ± 6 pc in the Lower Centaurus Crux association. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis, we determined that the debris is likely in the form of a dust ring with an inner edge of 27.7[SUP]+2.8[/SUP][SUB]-3.5[/SUB] au, position angle -74.3°[SUP]+0.5[/SUP][SUB]-1.5[/SUB], and an inclination with respect to the line of sight of 6.7°[SUP]+3.8[/SUP][SUB]-0.4[/SUB]. The disk imaged in scattered light has a surface density that is declining with radius of r[SUP]-4[/SUP], which is steeper than expected for grain blowout by radiation pressure. We find only marginal evidence (2σ) of eccentricity and rule out planets more massive than 1.0 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] orbiting within 1 au of the inner edge of the ring, since such a planet would have disrupted the disk. The disk has roughly the same fractional disk luminosity (L[SUB]disk[/SUB]/L[SUB]∗[/SUB] = 3.3 × 10[SUP]-3[/SUP]) as HR 4796 A and β Pictoris, however it was not detected by previous instrument facilities most likely because of its small angular size (radius 0.4''), low albedo ( 0.2), and low scattering efficiency far from the star due to high scattering anisotropy. With the arrival of extreme adaptive optics systems, such as SPHERE and GPI, the morphology of smaller, fainter, and more distant debris disks are being revealed, providing clues to planet-disk interactions in young protoplanetary systems. The reduced images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (<A href="http://130.79.128.5">http://130.79.128.5</A>) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/L4">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/L4</A> [less ▲]

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See detailEnd-to-end simulations of the E-ELT/METIS coronagraphs
Carlomagno, Brunella ULiege; Absil, Olivier ULiege; Kenworthy, Matthew et al

in Marchetti, E.; Close, L.; Véran, J.-P. (Eds.) Adaptive Optics Systems V (2016, July 27)

The direct detection of low-mass planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars is an important science case for future E-ELT instruments such as the mid-infrared imager and spectrograph METIS, which ... [more ▼]

The direct detection of low-mass planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars is an important science case for future E-ELT instruments such as the mid-infrared imager and spectrograph METIS, which features vortex phase masks and apodizing phase plates (APP) in its baseline design. In this work, we present end-to-end performance simulations, using Fourier propagation, of several METIS coronagraphic modes, including focal-plane vortex phase masks and pupil-plane apodizing phase plates, for the centrally obscured, segmented E-ELT pupil. The atmosphere and the AO contributions are taken into account. Hybrid coronagraphs combining the advantages of vortex phase masks and APPs are considered to improve the METIS coronagraphic performance. [less ▲]

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