References of "Massart, Sébastien"
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See detailExploring bacterial communities in diversified aquaponic systems
Eck, Mathilde ULiege; Sare, Abdoul Razack ULiege; Massart, Sébastien ULiege et al

Poster (2018, April 10)

In 2030, the world’s population should reach 8.3 billion people. It is thus necessary to find intensive yet sustainable food production methods to feed this growing population and aquaponics could ... [more ▼]

In 2030, the world’s population should reach 8.3 billion people. It is thus necessary to find intensive yet sustainable food production methods to feed this growing population and aquaponics could contribute to it.. Aquaponics is defined as a combination of hydroponic and aquaculture techniques and seems to be a promising technology to meet this resilience. It functions with plants, fish and microorganisms which play a key role in nitrification and mineralisation of fish wastes into nutrients absorbable by plants. Herein we aim at characterising the bacteria present in diversified systems to better understand the composition and role of their communities in aquaponics. To this end, nine diversified aquaponic systems were sampled. The DNA from each bacteria community was extracted and sequenced with Illumina MiSeq technology by targeting the V1-V3 16S rDNA region. The sequences were then analysed with the QIIME bioinformatic software. Results show that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes are the dominant phyla for all the aquaponic systems. Depending on each system, different proportions of other phyla are also present among the bacterial community. The genera which compose all the identified phyla are more diverse and an important proportion of them are usually found in soils and rhizosphere. One of the roles that could be linked to these genera is the breaking down of complex organic compounds which could be related to the mineralisation phenomenon observed in aquaponic systems. Further studies should be undertaken to identify the exact species present in aquaponic systems and to understand their specific functions. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of apple metagenome in Belgium
Sare, Abdoul Razack ULiege; Jijakli, Haissam ULiege; Massart, Sébastien ULiege

Poster (2018, February 19)

Microbial communities (microbiota) living at the surface of fruit have been the source of most of biocontrol agents. Despite this interest, their role as a community has been poorly studied due to the ... [more ▼]

Microbial communities (microbiota) living at the surface of fruit have been the source of most of biocontrol agents. Despite this interest, their role as a community has been poorly studied due to the lack of techniques to survey the holistic microbiota and their evolution. Thanks to high-throughput sequencing, their holistic study is now possible. In this study, we characterized apple fruit surface bacterial microbiome in Belgium. Seventeen apple varieties grown in four disease management practices [no phytosanitary treatment (conservation orchard), light-organic, organic and conventional] were harvested and their microbiota collected for DNA extraction and Illumina sequencing. The sequencing (2x250 nucleotides) targeted the V3-V4 16s ribosomal DNA and bioinformatic analysis were carried out with QIIME1.9.0. A total of 3,302,088 filtered high-quality sequences were assigned into 13,507 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). Proteobacteria (64%) and Bacteriodetes (22%) were by far the dominant phyla. A total of 60 OTUs were present in 90% of samples, and they can be considered as a bacterial core microbiota. No significant difference (Bonferroni probability > 0,05) of Kruskall-Wallis was identified between tested varieties of Golden, Jonagold and Elstar for conventional and organic treatment as well as varieties of conservation orchard. The overall analysis (without varieties) of alpha diversity (Observed-OTUs, Shannon, Simpson and phylogenetic diversity) and beta diversity show differences among not treated, organic and conventional apples. These results underline not only a diverse microbiota whose role needs to be characterized, but also a diversity of apple microbiota that was reduced across the time by modern agriculture. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysiological and proteomic responses to corticosteroid treatments in Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis: Investigation of immune-related parameters
Milla, S.; Massart, Sébastien ULiege; Mathieu, C. et al

in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics (2018), 25

The comparative effects of cortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), two major corticosteroids in fish, have yet received little attention in teleosts. We evaluated the proteomic and immune responses of ... [more ▼]

The comparative effects of cortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), two major corticosteroids in fish, have yet received little attention in teleosts. We evaluated the proteomic and immune responses of Eurasian perch to chronic corticosteroid treatments. We implanted immature perch with cortisol (80 mg/kg) or DOC (4 mg/kg) and measured the proportions of blood leucocytes, immune indices in the plasma, spleen and liver (complement and lysozyme activity, total immunoglobulin and immune gene expression in the tissues) and differential proteome expression (corticosteroid versus control) in the liver and the spleen on days 2, 4 and 14 post-treatment. Implantation of cortisol decreased the ratio of blood leucocytes and depressed Ig levels in both organs while DOC modulated the proportion of leucocyte sub-populations (increase in lymphocytes and decrease in granulocytes). In contrast, the innate humoral immunity was not strongly influenced by any of corticosteroid implants. The only immune parameter that was significantly affected was lysozyme, after DOC treatment. A number of proteins were differentially regulated by these hormones and some were identified in the liver (21 for cortisol and 8 for DOC) and in the spleen (10 for cortisol and 10 for DOC). None of the proteins was directly linked to immunity, except the natural killer enhancing factor, which was repressed by cortisol in the spleen. Our results also confirm that the proteins involved in energetic and glucose metabolism are affected by corticosteroids. Furthermore, these corticosteroids differently regulate immune status in Eurasian perch and they primarily impact leucocytes, as opposed to innate immune function. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of human activities and lifestyles on the interlinked microbiota and health of humans and of ecosystems
Flandroy, Lucette; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Berg, Gabriele et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2018), 627

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See detailImpact of apple microbiota on Pichia anomala strain K, a biocontrol yeast against apple major postharvest diseases
Sare, Abdoul Razack ULiege; Ait A., Nawel; Jijakli, Haissam ULiege et al

Poster (2017, December)

The yeast Pichia anomala strain K is a Biological Control Agent (BCA) against two postharvest apple pathogens (Penicillium spp. and Botrytis cinerea). Progress has been made during the past two decades to ... [more ▼]

The yeast Pichia anomala strain K is a Biological Control Agent (BCA) against two postharvest apple pathogens (Penicillium spp. and Botrytis cinerea). Progress has been made during the past two decades to understand the modes of action of the strain K through various studies (microbiology, enzymatic, genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic). Nevertheless, BCAs commercial application has been hampered by low or non-reliable efficacies in comparison to fungicide treatments (Droby et al., 2016) as it is the case of the strain K. Massart et al. (2015) identified new alternatives to improve BCA efficacy using microbiota. Once applied on the fruit surface, a BCA will face a complex microbiota where ecological interactions such as parasitism, mutualism and commensalism occur, thus affecting its efficacy. In this study, we evaluate the potential of apple microbiota to influence the efficacy of the strain K. Apple fruit samples of seventeen varieties grown in four disease management practices have been collected and their epiphytic microbiota harvested to create a bank of apple microbiota to be screened. Biological assays on apple fruits have been carried out by co-inoculating each apple microbiota with the strain K and B. cinerea. The results of the preliminary assays revealed that the apple microbiota can either raise, drop or have no effect on the efficacy of the strain K. Study is ongoing to identify ecological strains/species or groups of taxa which are benefic to the strain K efficacy. [less ▲]

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See detailTaxonomic characterisation of bacteria communities from water of diversified aquaponic systems
Eck, Mathilde ULiege; Sare, Abdoul Razack ULiege; Massart, Sébastien ULiege et al

Poster (2017, December)

In 2030, the world’s population should reach 8.3 billion people. It is thus necessary to find intensive yet sustainable food production methods to feed this growing population and aquaponics could ... [more ▼]

In 2030, the world’s population should reach 8.3 billion people. It is thus necessary to find intensive yet sustainable food production methods to feed this growing population and aquaponics could contribute to it.. Aquaponics is defined as a combination of hydroponic and aquaculture techniques and seems to be a promising technology to meet this resilience. It functions with plants, fish and microorganisms which play a key role in nitrification and mineralisation of fish wastes into nutrients absorbable by plants. Herein we aim at characterising the bacteria present in diversified systems to better understand the composition and role of their communities in aquaponics. To this end, nine diversified aquaponic systems were sampled. The DNA from each bacteria community was extracted and sequenced with Illumina MiSeq technology by targeting the V1-V3 16S rDNA region. The sequences were then analysed with the QIIME bioinformatic software. Results show that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes are the dominant phyla for all the aquaponic systems. Depending on each system, different proportions of other phyla are also present among the bacterial community. The genera which compose all the identified phyla are more diverse and an important proportion of them are usually found in soils and rhizosphere. One of the roles that could be linked to these genera is the breaking down of complex organic compounds which could be related to the mineralisation phenomenon observed in aquaponic systems. Further studies should be undertaken to identify the exact species present in aquaponic systems and to understand their specific functions. [less ▲]

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See detailAntifungal effects of volatile organic compounds emitted during infection of barley roots by fungal pathogens
De Clerck, Caroline ULiege; Fiers, Marie; Jallais, Lucie et al

Poster (2017, December)

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See detailBIOCONTROL PROPERTIES OF RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE WATER AGAINST HYDROPONIC ROOT PATHOGENS
Stouvenakers, Gilles ULiege; Massart, Sébastien ULiege; Jijakli, Haissam ULiege

Conference (2017, October 18)

Integrated recirculated systems combining aquaculture and hydroponic, known as aquaponic systems, are today more and more studied. However one critical management point is still unclear, namely plant pest ... [more ▼]

Integrated recirculated systems combining aquaculture and hydroponic, known as aquaponic systems, are today more and more studied. However one critical management point is still unclear, namely plant pest management. In aquaponics, diseases found in the system are commonly the same than in hydroponics. Root pathogens and more specially oomycetes fungi responsible of root rot are among the most problematic due to their capacity of dispersion linked to zoospores production. On the other hand, compared with hydroponics, aquaponic plants production can give similar yields with less mineral nutrients concentration and even better yields for equivalent concentration in the nutritive solution (Pantanella et al., 2010; Delaide et al., 2016; Saha et al., 2016; Suhl et al., 2016). Furthermore one article opens the hypothesis of an in vitro protective activity of fish effluents versus plant pathogens (Gravel et al., 2015). Both phenomena could be linked to microorganisms or compounds present in fish water. Assumptions that don’t seem aberrant in light of suppressive action already observed in hydroponic systems (Postma et al., 2008). In addition, microorganisms potentially involving in this action could be richer because of organic compounds in aquaponic water. To confirm these observations, in vitro and in vivo experimentations have been made on the ability of recirculating aquaculture water to procure a plant protection effect towards Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp, an oomycetes pathogen. Firsts in vitro results show a significant decrease of mycelium production when 25% of fish water is present in a V8 CaCO3 broth. But no difference was made between the control and the broth containing 25% of 0,2 µm filtrated fish water. These finding highlight a direct microbial antagonist activity of recirculating aquaculture water against P. aphanidermatum. However dissolved compounds don’t display a direct action on this pathogen but biostimulation or elicitation effect on plants can’t be excluded. [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneous detection of Wheat dwarf virus, northern cereal mosaic virus, barley yellow striate mosaic virus and rice black-streaked dwarf virus in wheat by multiplex RT-PCR
Zhang, Peipei; Liu, Yan; Liu, Wenwen et al

in Journal of Virological Methods (2017), 249

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See detailIdentification, Characterization and Full-Length Sequence Analysis of a Novel Polerovirus Associated with Wheat Leaf Yellowing Disease
Zhang, Peipei; Liu, Yan; Liu, Wenwen et al

in Frontiers in Microbiology (2017), 8(1689),

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See detailFirst Report of Little cherry virus 1 affecting European Plum (Prunus domestica) in Belgium
Tahzima, Rachid ULiege; Foucart, Yoika; Peusens, Gertie et al

in Plant Disease (2017), 101(8), 1557

Little cherry disease (LChD), one of the major viral diseases of cherry worldwide, can be caused by two viruses (Little cherry virus 1 and 2), both Closteroviridae members. LChD has an important impact on ... [more ▼]

Little cherry disease (LChD), one of the major viral diseases of cherry worldwide, can be caused by two viruses (Little cherry virus 1 and 2), both Closteroviridae members. LChD has an important impact on both yield and fruit quality in commercial sweet and sour cherry (Prunus avium L. and P. cerasus L.) (Ruiz-Garcia et al. 2016). LChV-1 (genus Velarivirus) is known to be graft-transmissible and is spread via infected propagated plant material, but no vector has been identified. For LChV-2 (genus Ampelovirus), at least two species of mealybugs (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae) are known to transmit the virus, namely the apple mealybug (Phenacoccus aceris Signoret) and grape mealybug (Pseudococcus maritimus Ehrhorn). During two growing seasons (2013–15), intensive surveys were conducted in Belgium to monitor the incidence of LChD in sweet and sour cherries and in ornamental Prunus spp., revealing widespread occurrence of both LChV-1 and 2 (De Jonghe et al. 2016). In the close vicinity of a sweet cherry (P. avium cv. Coralise) orchard with an infection rate of 30% with LChV-1, plum (P. domestica L. cv. Opal) trees growing at the edge of a plum orchard and showing sporadic undetermined leaf symptoms such as premature leaf reddening and chlorosis were observed and sampled. RNA of leaves and roots collected from 50 plum trees was extracted using the Spectrum Total Plant RNA kit (Sigma-Aldrich, Machelen, Belgium) and tested using RT-PCR with LChV-1 specific primers as follows: LCUW7090 (5′-GGTTGTCCTCGGTTGATTAC-3′)/LCUWc7389 (5′-GGCTTGGTTCCATACATCTC-3′) (Bajet et al. 2008), amplifying a 300-bp fragment spanning the ORF1b encoding the RNA dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) gene and 1LC_12776F (5′-TCAAGAAAAGTTCTGGTGTGC-3′)/1LC_13223R (5′-CGAGCTAGACGTATCAGTATC-3′) (Nagyova et al. 2015), targeting a 456-bp fragment of the coat protein (CP) gene. The presence of LChV-1 was confirmed in 12% of the samples. Bidirectional sequencing (Macrogen, Amsterdam) was done for each LChV-1 amplicon. BLAST searches of the assembled sequences revealed a distinct variability between the Belgian plum and cherry isolates (8% and 6% divergence in the amplified RdRp and CP sequences, respectively) from the respective adjacent orchards, suggesting separate introduction events. RdRp gene sequences of the Belgian plum isolates (GenBank accession nos. KY173002 and KY173004) shared 99% identity with the Greek cherry (HG792418) and peach isolates (HG792399), while the Belgian cherry isolate (KY173001) showed 99% homology with the deposited RdRp gene sequences of the Greek cherry (HG792420, HG792398). Partial CP gene sequence of the Belgian plum isolates (KY173006, KY173008) were the closest to Italian ITMAR (EU715989) and German V2356 (JX669615) cherry isolates, sharing 96% and 94% identity, respectively. Further investigation is in progress to assess the importance of LChV natural host shift among Prunus spp., its epidemiology in propagation material, and its association with potential vectors. To our knowledge, this description of LChV-1 associated with P. domestica constitutes the first report in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailRachid Tahzima lauréat du journal of general virology for best oral scientific presentation award 2017
Massart, Sébastien ULiege; Tahzima, Rachid

Article for general public (2017)

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See detailFirst Characterization of the Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Banana Plants (Musa sp.)
Berhal, Chadi ULiege; De Clerck, Caroline ULiege; LEVICEK, Carolina et al

Conference (2017, June 16)

Banana fruit (Musa sp.) ranks fourth in developing world's production, and has economical and nutritional key values. The popular and most dominant variety of the dessert banana group is the Cavendish ... [more ▼]

Banana fruit (Musa sp.) ranks fourth in developing world's production, and has economical and nutritional key values. The popular and most dominant variety of the dessert banana group is the Cavendish variety, and Plantain represents that status for the cooking banana group. Despite the importance of the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), which are secondary metabolites with a high vapour pressure, in their utility in the plant protection and communication processes, they were never documented for the plant itself. Thus, the aim of this PHD thesis is to study the VOCs emitted by the plant, rather than their fruits or flowers. A protocol was optimized for the extraction of the banana plant's VOCs. The results of the first analysis showed 11 VOCs for the Cavendish, mainly (E,E)-α-farnesene (87.90 ± 11.28 ng/µl), methyl salicylate (33.82 ± 14.29) and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (29.60 ± 11.66), and 14 VOCs for the Pacific Plantain cultivars, mainly (Z,E)-α-farnesene (799.64 ± 503.15),(E,E)-α-farnesene (571.24 ± 381.70) and (E) β ocimene (241.76 ± 158.49). Most of these compounds belong to the terpenes group (8 for Cavendish, 10 for Pacific Plantain). The other compounds detected were ketones, esters and aldehydes. Eight compounds were common between the two varieties (myrcene, Z and E β-ocimene, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2 one, 6-methyl-3,5-hepadien-2-one, a-farnesene, methyl salicylate and β-ionone). This exploratory study paves the way for an in-depth characterisation of VOCs emitted by Musa plants. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Developments in the Epidemiology of Little cherry virus 1 and its Occurrence in European Plum Prunus domestica L. in Belgium.
Tahzima, Rachid ULiege; Massart, Sébastien ULiege; Peusens, Gertie et al

in Proceedings of the ICVF 2017 (24th International Conference on Virus and Other Graft Transmissible Diseases of Fruit Crops.) (2017, June 05)

Introduction Host range is an important aspect of the viral Little cherry disease (LChD). LChD can be caused by distinct viruses (Little cherry virus 1 and 2, Closteroviridae), and is a major constraint ... [more ▼]

Introduction Host range is an important aspect of the viral Little cherry disease (LChD). LChD can be caused by distinct viruses (Little cherry virus 1 and 2, Closteroviridae), and is a major constraint to sweet and sour cherry (Prunus avium L. and P. cerasus L.) production worldwide (3). LChV-1 (genus Velarivirus), is known to be graft-transmissible, and is spread with infected propagation plant material, but no vector is known so far. For LChV-2 (genus Ampelovirus) at least two distinct species of mealybugs (Phenacoccus aceris and Pseudococcus maritimus, Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae) have been known to transmit the virus. In this study, we characterize novel LChV-1 plum (P. domestica L. cv. Opal) isolates collected in trees growing at the edge of a plum orchard in the vicinity of a sweet cherry (P. avium L.) orchard known to be infected with LChV-1. Materials and Methods Total RNA of leaves and roots collected from plum trees was extracted using the Spectrum Total Plant RNA kit (Sigma-Aldrich, Belgium) and diagnostically tested by RT-PCR with LChV-1 specific primers amplifying major genomic ORFs (1, 2). Subsequently to bidirectional amplicon sequencing, sequences were assembled using BioNumerics V7.6.1 and were compared in GenBank database using BLASTn. The evolutionary relationships of LChV isolates were reconstructed based on partial genomic nucleotide sequences using Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees inference in MEGA6. Results and Discussion From an epidemiological point of view, the presence of LChV-1 on P. domestica L. was confirmed for the first time in Belgium in 12% of the plum samples. BLAST of the assembled amplified sequences revealed a distinct molecular variability between the plum and cherry isolates with significant divergence between the sequences of both adjacent respective orchards suggesting separate viral introductions. Based on RdRp gene sequences, the Belgian plum isolates shared highest identity with the Greek cherry (HG792418) and peach isolates (HG792399) while the Belgian cherry isolate showed homology with the deposited RdRp gene sequences of the Greek cherry (HG792420, HG792398). Partial CP gene sequence of the Belgian plum isolates clustered with the Italian ITMAR (EU715989) and German V2356 (JX669615) cherry isolates sharing 96% and 94% identity, respectively. Further research is needed to provide insight on the importance of LChV natural host shift among Prunus spp., its molecular evolution in association with eventual insect vectors and plant ecological reservoirs. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights into the microbiome of apple fruit surface “cv Pinova” through metagenomics
Dario, Angeli; Massart, Sébastien ULiege; Sare, Abdoul Razack ULiege et al

Conference (2017, June)

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