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See detailEEMCO guidance for the assessment of hair shedding and alopecia.
Pierard, Gérald ULiege; Pierard, Claudine ULiege; Marks, R. et al

in Skin Pharmacology and Physiology (2004), 17(2), 98-110

Knowledge of the hair follicle anatomy and the dynamics of hair cycling is substantial. Recognizing the anagen, catagen and telogen phases as well as teloptosis and the hair eclipse phenomenon clearly ... [more ▼]

Knowledge of the hair follicle anatomy and the dynamics of hair cycling is substantial. Recognizing the anagen, catagen and telogen phases as well as teloptosis and the hair eclipse phenomenon clearly characterizes the typical hair chronobiology. Physiological modulators include hormones, neuromediators, miscellaneous biomolecules, seasons, micro-inflammation and ageing. For individuals who present with the complaint of increased hair shedding or alopecia, a host of evaluation techniques are available in addition to history, physical examination and laboratory assessment. Various clinical hair techniques can help in assessing the efficacy of drugs and cosmetics on hair growth. The methods are quite similar to those used to establish a definite diagnosis in dermatological practice. Great strides have been made during the recent decades in the methodology of hair growth trials in dermatology and cosmetology. Clinical evaluations benefit from a few additional specific techniques that enhance the perception of hair (re-) growth, shedding and alopecia. These assessments include the determination of hair patterning and density that may be helped by the 'black-and-white felt' examination. Daily hair counts, the 'hair pull test' and the 'hair feathering test' are also available. Instrumental methods provide reliable quantitative information that is useful if there are adequate controls. Some photographic methods, the trichogram, hair weighing and variants of the hair growth window technique including the phototrichogram, videotrichogram and tractio-phototrichogram provide insight into the complexities of hair cycling and shedding. Skin biopsy is indicated for diagnostic purposes, especially when the hair loss is accompanied by scarring. [less ▲]

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See detailEEMCO guidance for the efficacy assessment of antiperspirants and deodorants.
Pierard, Gérald ULiege; Elsner, P.; Marks, R. et al

in Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology (2003), 16(5), 324-42

Overproduction of sweat, sweaty skin and body odours are unpleasant for many social groups. Body cleansing products are designed to combat these undesirable features of skin. In addition, antiperspirant ... [more ▼]

Overproduction of sweat, sweaty skin and body odours are unpleasant for many social groups. Body cleansing products are designed to combat these undesirable features of skin. In addition, antiperspirant and deodorant products are more specifically used in the underarm site by a large part of the adult population. Antiperspirants are offered to control emotionally triggered sweating in the armpit. Deodorants are designed to combat malodour generated from bacteria-modified sweat. This review summarizes the physiology of eccrine, apocrine and apoeccrine sweat glands. The mechanisms of action of antiperspirants and deodorants are described as well as the factors influencing their efficacies. A series of tests using various measurement methods can be used to demonstrate the efficacy of antiperspirants. These include the gravimetric method, water evaporation quantification, electrodermal measurements, staining procedures, dye injections and cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings and casting replicas. Deodorant efficacy can be evaluated by sensory assessments performed by an expert panel. Indirect support is provided by visualization of apocrine gland excretion and collection of sweat and volatile compounds. Microbiological assessments and chromatographic analysis also provide indirect information. [less ▲]

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