References of "Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland"
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See detailDevelopment and validation of an LC-UV method for the simultaneous analyses of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole in tablet dosage forms: routine application and confirmation of falsifications
Waffo Tchounga, Christelle Ange ULiege; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULiege; Ciza Hamuli, Patient ULiege et al

Poster (2021, October 05)

Poor quality medicines pose a threat to all health systems. It is obvious that they have harmful consequences not only from the public health point of view, but also from the economic and socio-economic ... [more ▼]

Poor quality medicines pose a threat to all health systems. It is obvious that they have harmful consequences not only from the public health point of view, but also from the economic and socio-economic as well [1]. In order to effectively combat this scourge, it is important to determine the quality of these medicines circulating on the pharmaceutical market. In general, this quality control is possible thanks to the methods listed in the pharmacopoeias. However, these methods are generally costly, not environmental friendly and often not easy to implement [2]. In this context and to overcome these disadvantages we undertook the development and validation of a rapid, less polluting and easy to implement HPLC/DAD method for the simultaneous analyses of two anti-infective very used and targeted by falsifiers, ciprofloxacin and metronidazole. Retention times of 1.7min and 3.4min were obtained for metronidazole and ciprofloxacin respectively, using a mobile phase consisting of 0.025M orthophosphoric acid adjusted to pH3 with Triethylamin and Methanol (75:25) (v/v), an XBridge column C18 (2.1*100mm) 3.5µm and a flow rate of 0.3mL/min. At first, this method was successfully validated to confirm its suitability following the total error approach with the accuracy profile as a decision tool in the laboratory of analytical pharmaceutical chemistry (LCAP) of the University of Liège and then transferred to the Laboratoire National de Contrôle des Médicaments et Expertise (LANACOME) in Cameroon to implement its usability. The acceptation limits were set at +/- 10% in total relative error and the tolerance intervals were built with a risk set at 5%. The routine application of this method allowed the identification and quantification of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole in 96 samples collected in the framework of a prevalence study in Cameroon. On the other hand, it was used as a confirmatory method to identify and quantify metronidazole that has been previously detected in tablets by handheld vibrational spectroscopy methods in 4 falsified chloroquine samples seized on the Cameroonian market during the Covid-19 pandemic. [less ▲]

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See detailAfrican shea butter properties related to common extractions technologies: a review
Goumbri, Wendinmi Bertrand ULiege; da Silva, Thais Lomonaco Teodoro; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULiege et al

in Food and Bioprocess Technology (2021)

Shea butter is an important lipid material for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Most of the shea butter consumed in the world comes from Africa. The extraction protocol is not standardized ... [more ▼]

Shea butter is an important lipid material for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Most of the shea butter consumed in the world comes from Africa. The extraction protocol is not standardized among all regions of production. It can be done using either traditional or improved (semi-mechanical) processes. The quality of shea butter and its composition depend on multiple factors such as the edaphic parameters, morphology and harvesting method of the fruits, treatment applied to fruits, nuts and kernels, respectively. In this paper, all traditional and improved extractions processes reported, including the enormous possible variants, were reviewed and summarized. Several optimal conditions have been defined for both the traditional and the modern processes. Nevertheless, we are far from processes harmonization, and therefore from the best conditions of shea butter processing. The screw press extraction was the most widely used among the modern processes due to its yield of butter extraction of about 82 %. Microwave-assisted extraction gave the highest butter yield, 88 %, and traditional shea butter extraction was about 20 %-35 %. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of NIR handheld transmission spectroscopy and chemometrics to assess the quality of locally produced antimalarial medicines in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Ciza Hamuli, Patient ULiege; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULiege; Kanyonyo, M.R. et al

in Talanta Open (2021), 3

In recent decades, more than 15% of the antimalarials marketed in low- and middle-income countries have been of poor quality, in which quinoline derivatives and quinine-based formulations account for 21 ... [more ▼]

In recent decades, more than 15% of the antimalarials marketed in low- and middle-income countries have been of poor quality, in which quinoline derivatives and quinine-based formulations account for 21%. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was chosen for its fast and inexpensive test properties as well as the ability of using handheld devices to monitor drugs directly on the field. Data driven - soft independent modelling of class analogy (DD-SIMCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression models were developed for qualitative and quantitative purpose, respectively. The specificity and selectivity tests were performed using the DD-SIMCA models on the placebo, the quinidine and cinchonine standard samples. Then, PLS regression methods have been developed and validated for the quality control of quinine dosage forms manufactured by a major local manufacturer in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Calibration and validation samples were prepared by dissolving quinine sulphate /quinine hydrochloride in the presence of excipients in HCl 1M. The opportunity to work with dissolved quinine with a cheap and readily available medium in low and middle income countries allowed analysis of different pharmaceutical forms (oral drops, solutions for injection and tablets) with the same regression model. DD-SIMCA models have demonstrated for both equipment perfect authentication of quinine and good discrimination of the two alkaloids close to quinine namely cinchonine and quinidine. The NIR PLS regression models were successfully validated using the total error approach with acceptance limits set at ± 10% with a risk level of 5%. The predictive performance of the methods developed was tested in terms of robustness. [less ▲]

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See detailPoor quality medicines in Cameroon: a critical review
Waffo Tchounga, Christelle Ange ULiege; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULiege; Ciza Hamuli, Patient ULiege et al

in American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (2021)

Poor-quality medicines are the cause of many public health and socioeconomic problems. We conducted a review to acquire an overview of the situation concerning such medicines in Cameroon. Different ... [more ▼]

Poor-quality medicines are the cause of many public health and socioeconomic problems. We conducted a review to acquire an overview of the situation concerning such medicines in Cameroon. Different searches were performed on databases from several websites of the WHO, the Ministry of Public Health of Cameroon, the Anti-Counterfeit Medicine Research Institute, the Global Pharma Health Fund, and the Infectious Disease Data Observatory. We identified 92 publications comprised of 19 peer-reviewed studies and 73 alerts. Based on studies completed, 1,664 samples were analyzed, and the prevalence of substandard and falsified (SF) medicines could be estimated for 1,440 samples. A total of 67.5% of these samples were collected from the informal sector, 20.9% from the formal sector, and 11.6% from both sectors. We found a prevalence of SF medicines across the peer-reviewed studies of 26.9%, whereas most of the SF medicines belonged to the anti-infective class. The problem of SF medicines is not studied sufficiently in Cameroon; therefore, efforts should be made to conduct adequate studies in terms of representativity and methodology. [less ▲]

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See detailClassification of polymorphic forms of fluconazole in pharmaceuticals by FT-IR and FT-NIR spectroscopy.
Alaoui Mansouri, Mohammed ULiege; Ziemons, Eric ULiege; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULiege et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2021), 196

The main goal of this work was to test the ability of vibrational spectroscopy techniques to differentiate between different polymorphic forms of fluconazole in pharmaceutical products. These are mostly ... [more ▼]

The main goal of this work was to test the ability of vibrational spectroscopy techniques to differentiate between different polymorphic forms of fluconazole in pharmaceutical products. These are mostly manufactured with fluconazole as polymorphic form II and form III. These crystalline forms may undergo polymorphic transition during the manufacturing process or storage conditions. Therefore, it is important to have a method to monitor these changes to ensure the stability and efficacy of the drug. Each of FT-IR or FT-NIR spectra were associated to partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for building classification models to distinguish between form II, form III and monohydrate form. The results has shown that combining either FT-IR or FT-NIR to PLS-DA has a high efficiency to classify various fluconazole polymorphs, with a high sensitivity and specificity. Finally, the selectivity of the PLS-DA models was tested by analyzing separately each of three following samples by FT-IR and FT-NIR: lactose monohydrate, which is an excipient mostly used for manufacturing fluconazole pharmaceutical products, itraconazole and miconazole. These two last compounds mimic potential contaminants and belong to the same class as fluconazole. Based on the plots of Hotelling’s T² vs Q residuals, pure compounds of miconazole and itraconazole, that were analyzed separately, were significantly considered outliers and rejected. Furthermore, binary mixtures consist of fluconazole form-II and monohydrate form with different ratios were used to test the suitability of each technique FT-IR and FT-NIR with PLS-DA to detect minimum contaminant or polymorphic conversion from a polymorphic form to another using also the plots of Hotelling’s T² vs Q residuals. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacité et innocuité de la prophylaxie palustique par méfloquine pendant la grossesse à Kisangani, République démocratique du Congo : un essai clinique randomisé
Labama Otuli, Noël; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULiege; Losimba Likwela, Joris et al

in British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (2021)

Aims: Kisangani is an area with intense malaria transmission and sulfadoxine– pyrimethamine resistance. Alternative antimalaria prophylaxis medication and protocols are needed, particularly with pregnant ... [more ▼]

Aims: Kisangani is an area with intense malaria transmission and sulfadoxine– pyrimethamine resistance. Alternative antimalaria prophylaxis medication and protocols are needed, particularly with pregnant individuals. In this study, we compare the tolerance and effectiveness of mefloquine regimen as a split dose with a meal vs. sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine for the intermittent preventive treatment in pregnant individuals in Kisangani. Methods: This study was conducted from 15 May to 30 November 2019 as a singleblind, randomized clinical trial comparing 2 regimens of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy. The first regimen consisted of 4 doses of sulfadoxine– pyrimethamine, and the second of 2 doses of mefloquine taken as a split dose with meal. Results: The occurrence of major or minor side-effects among patients treated with mefloquine and those treated with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine were not statistically significant (major side effects: Fisher exact = 0.5014; minor side effects: P = 0.0961). Intermittent preventive treatment using mefloquine significantly reduced the risk of placental malaria (risk ratio [RR]: 0.4315, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.2201–0.8460), maternal peripheral parasitaemia (RR: 0.4397, 95% CI: 0.2377–0.8132) and low birth weight (RR: 0.4708, 95% CI: 0.2455–0.9029). Conclusion: Splitting dose and intake with a meal increased mefloquine tolerability while keeping its efficacy higher compared to sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine. Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy using mefloquine reduces the risk of placental malaria, maternal peripheral parasitaemia and low birth weight, compared to sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine. Thus, mefloquine is a good alternative to intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy. [less ▲]

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See detailManagement of sickle cell disease: current practices and challenges in a northeastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Kambale-Kombi, Paul; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULiege; Alworong'a Opara, Jean-Pierre et al

in Hematology (2021), 26(1), 199-205

BACKGROUND: The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is the third most affected country worldwide by sickle cell disease (SCD). However, this disease is still orphaned in the country; large-scale ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is the third most affected country worldwide by sickle cell disease (SCD). However, this disease is still orphaned in the country; large-scale control actions are rare, and little is known about its management. OBJECTIVE: To assess current practices in the management of SCD in Kisangani, DRC. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in six health facilities in Kisangani. It involved 198 presumed sickle cell patients attending the above health facilities. The study focused on the sociodemographic and clinical data of the participants, obtained through a clinical examination and their medical records. Diagnostic confirmation of SCD was made by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0. RESULTS: The diagnosis of SCD was confirmed in 194 (98.0%; 95% CI: 94.9-99.2) participants, while it was not confirmed in 4 (2.0%; 95% CI: 0.8-5.1) participants. The diagnosis was mainly made by the Emmel test (42.9%). 45.8% of participants had previously been transfused with the blood of their parents. Folic acid was taken by 48.5% of participants and the previous intake of hydroxyurea was reported in 5.1% of participants. The participants vaccinated against Pneumococcus were 13.6% and against Haemophilus influenzae type b 28.3%. Penicillin prophylaxis was received by only 1.5% and malaria prophylaxis by 11.6% of participants. CONCLUSION: Standard-care practices for SCD patients in Kisangani are insufficient. The Congolese government should regard this disease as a health priority and consider actions to improve its management. [less ▲]

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See detailBio-surveillance of environmental pollutants in the population of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): a small pilot study
BAYEBILA MENANZAMBI, Trésor; Dufour, Patrice ULiege; PIRARD, Catherine ULiege et al

in Archives of Public Health (2021)

Background: Environmental pollutants are known to be ubiquitous and may present toxic effects (endocrine-disruption properties, carcinogenicity ...) and represent a real threat to human health. The aim of ... [more ▼]

Background: Environmental pollutants are known to be ubiquitous and may present toxic effects (endocrine-disruption properties, carcinogenicity ...) and represent a real threat to human health. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the content of environmental pollutants (inorganic, persistent, and non-persistent pollutants) in biological samples (urine, serum, and whole blood), collected from volunteers in Kinshasa, capital of Democratic Republic of Congo, in order to identify pollutants of interest and to design a protocol for a larger scale study. Methods: From randomly selected 15 volunteers living in Kinshasa, aged from 25 to 66 years, (mean age = 43,4 years), including 10 men and 5 women, urine, whole blood, and serum samples were used in this study to estimate the contents in these environmental pollutants, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Results: When compared to data nationally and internationally available, the preliminary outcomes of this study indicated a very high level of exposure to environmental pollutants in the population on Kinshasa, especially for heavy metals, parabens and triclosan. To a lesser extent, contamination measured for glyphosate, phtalates, organochlorine pesticides, pyrethroids and dialkylphosphate pesticides was also significant. In contrast, the investigated population of Kinshasa was found to be weakly exposed to other persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phenolic organohalogens, and perfluoroalkyl substances. Conclusion: Although the biologic fluids were collected from a limited number of volunteers (n = 15), the results of the present report clearly indicate that the population of Kinshasa is not spared by the investigated environmental pollutants. Moreover, this study gives us important information to design a larger scale study protocol. [less ▲]

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See detailPentas longiflora Oliv. (Rubiaceae), a plant used in the treatment of Pityriasis Versicolor in Rwanda: Chemical composition and standardization of leaves and roots
Kagisha, Vedaste ULiege; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULiege; Muganga, Raymond et al

in Fitoterapia (2021), 153

In Rwanda, the roots of Pentas longiflora Oliv. (Rubiaceae) have been used for a long time to treat Pityriasis versicolor. However, many people reported the use of leaves instead of roots. This research ... [more ▼]

In Rwanda, the roots of Pentas longiflora Oliv. (Rubiaceae) have been used for a long time to treat Pityriasis versicolor. However, many people reported the use of leaves instead of roots. This research was conducted to compare the phytochemical composition and establish chromatographic methods for the standardization of roots and leaves extracts of P. longiflora. During this process, three new pentalongin glycosides (pentalonginoside A, pentalonginoside B, and pentalonginoside C) and two known glycosides of the same type (harounoside and clarinoside), as well as rutin, luteolin-7-rutinoside were isolated from methanol extract of leaves. In addition, pentalongin and psychorubrin, previously isolated from ethylacetate roots extract, were also identified in Pentas longiflora ethylacetate leaves extract. The presence of the antifungal compound pentalongin in leaves may explain the traditional use of leaves in the treatment of Pytiriasis versicolor. Furthermore, harounoside, psychorubrin, and pentalongin were selected as markers for HPLC fingerprints of MeOH extract. The accuracy and risk profile demonstrated the reliability of the validated method. In general, considerable variations of concentration in plant metabolites, including pentalongin, were observed between samples from different sites. The content in pentalongin (expressed as juglone) in collected samples ranged between 1.7 and 70.0 mg/100 g. The highest concentration (70.0 ± 17 mg/100 g) was registered in the cultivated samples from Mukoni. This important variation of pentalongin concentrations according to sampling sites, shows that in order to guarantee equivalent efficacy, finished products with P. longiflora should be standardized based on their pentalongin content. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-testing for HIV, HBV, and HCV using finger-stick whole-blood multiplex immunochromatographic rapid test: A pilot feasibility study in sub-Saharan Africa.
Tonen-Wolyec, Serge; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULiege; Batina-Agasa, Salomon et al

in PLoS ONE (2021), 16(4), 0249701

BACKGROUND: The burden of HIV, HBV, and HCV infections remains disproportionately high in sub-Saharan Africa, with high rates of co-infections. Multiplex rapid diagnostic tests for HIV, HBV and HCV ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The burden of HIV, HBV, and HCV infections remains disproportionately high in sub-Saharan Africa, with high rates of co-infections. Multiplex rapid diagnostic tests for HIV, HBV and HCV serological testing with high analytical performances may improve the "cascade of screening" and quite possibly the linkage-to-care with reduced cost. Based on our previous field experience of HIV self-testing, we herein aimed at evaluating the practicability and acceptability of a prototype finger-stick whole-blood Triplex HIV/HCV/HBsAg self-test as a simultaneous serological screening tool for HIV, HBV, and HCV in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). METHODS: A cross-sectional multicentric study consisting of face-to-face, paper-based, and semi-structured questionnaires with a home-based and facility-based recruitment of untrained adult volunteers at risk of HIV, HBV, and HCV infections recruited from the general public was conducted in 2020 in urban and rural areas in the DRC. The practicability of the Triplex self-test was assessed by 3 substudies on the observation of self-test manipulation including the understanding of the instructions for use (IFU), on the interpretation of Triplex self-test results and on its acceptability. RESULTS: A total of 251 volunteers (mean age, 28 years; range, 18-49; 154 males) were included, from urban [160 (63.7%)] and rural [91 (36.3%)] areas. Overall, 242 (96.4%) participants performed the Triplex self-test and succeeded in obtaining a valid test result with an overall usability index of 89.2%. The correct use of the Triplex self-test was higher in urban areas than rural areas (51.2% versus 16.5%; aOR: 6.9). The use of video IFU in addition to paper-based IFU increased the correct manipulation and interpretation of the Triplex self-test. A total of 197 (78.5%) participants correctly interpreted the Triplex self-test results, whereas 54 (21.5%) misinterpreted their results, mainly the positive test results harboring low-intensity band (30/251; 12.0%), and preferentially the HBsAg band (12/44; 27.3%). The rates of acceptability of reuse, distribution of the Triplex self-test to third parties (partner, friend, or family member), linkage to the health care facility for confirmation of results and treatment, and confidence in the self-test results were very high, especially among participants from urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study shows evidence for the first time in sub-Saharan Africa on good practicability and high acceptability of a prototype Triplex HIV/HCV/HBsAg self-test for simultaneous diagnosis of three highly prevalent chronic viral infections, providing the rational basis of using self-test harboring four bands of interest, i.e. the control, HIV, HCV, and HBsAg bands. The relatively frequent misinterpretation of the Triplex self-test points however the necessity to improve the delivery of this prototype Triplex self-test probably in a supervised setting. Finally, these observations lay the foundations for the potential large-scale use of the Triplex self-test in populations living in sub-Saharan Africa at high risk for HIV, HBV, and HCV infections. [less ▲]

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See detailFROM MEDICINAL PLANT TO THE IMPROVED HERBAL MEDICINE
Kagisha, Vedaste ULiege; Frederich, Michel ULiege; muganga, Raymond et al

Poster (2020, December 09)

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See detailAcceptabilité du dépistage néonatal de la drépanocytose au cours de la pandémie au COVID-19 à Kisangani, en République Démocratique du Congo
TEBANDITE KASAI, Emmanuel; ALWORONG'A OPARA, Jean-Pierre; BATINA AGASA, Salomon et al

in Pan African Medical Journal (2020)

Introduction: the implementation of neonatal screening to identify infants with sickle cell disease during the COVID-19 pandemic is a major challenge in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The ... [more ▼]

Introduction: the implementation of neonatal screening to identify infants with sickle cell disease during the COVID-19 pandemic is a major challenge in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The purpose of this study is to determine whether socio-economic factors are associated with acceptability of newborn screening to identify infants with sickle cell disease during the COVID-19 pandemic in Kisangani, DRC. Methods: we conducted an observational study of mothers sensitized to neonatal screening to detect sickle cell disease in their newborns with hemotypeSCTM (HT401RUO-USA). The study was carried out at the maternity wards in Kisangani from March 21st to June 30th 2020. Collected data were parity, educational level, age, socio-economic level, occupation, awareness and the reason for the denial of screening. Results: out of 55,5% (273/492) of sensitized mothers, 107 (39,19%) accepted and 166 (60,80%) refused neonatal screening to detect sickle cell disease in their newborn. The reasons for refusal were lack of information (67,5%; 95% CI [59,8-74,5]), lack of money due to confinement (66,3%; 95% CI [58,5-73,4]), blood test to develop a vaccine for protection against COVID-19 (63,2%; 95% CI = [55,4-70,6]). Factors associated with the acceptability of screening were age > 35 years (p = 0.0009; ORa = 3.04; 95% CI = 1.57-5.87) and low socio-economic level (p = 0.0016; ORa = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.37-3.85). Conclusion: the acceptability of neonatal screening to detect sickle cell disease during COVID-19 is low in Kisangani. The government should identify effective communication channels to promote health care initiatives. [less ▲]

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See detailComposition analysis of falsified chloroquine phosphate samples seized during the COVID-19 pandemic
Waffo Tchounga, Christelle Ange ULiege; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULiege; Ciza Hamuli, Patient ULiege et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2020), 194

The proliferation of falsified medicines can cause serious public health issues, particularly in the context of a global pandemic such as the actual COVID-19 pandemic. Our study involved eight chloroquine ... [more ▼]

The proliferation of falsified medicines can cause serious public health issues, particularly in the context of a global pandemic such as the actual COVID-19 pandemic. Our study involved eight chloroquine phosphate medicines seized in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo and Niger during March and May 2020. These suspect samples were first analyzed in a screening phase using field tools such as handheld Raman spectroscopy (TruScan) and then in a confirmation phase using laboratory tools such as hyperspectral Raman imaging and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results confirmed the falsified nature of the samples, highlighting the presence of metronidazole at low dose in four samples (16.6, 15.2, 15.2 and 14.5 mg/tab), too low levels of chloroquine in two samples (2.4 and 20.2mg/tab), and substitution of chloroquine phosphate by paracetamol in one sample (255.7 mg/tab). The results also confirmed that four samples had been adulterated with paracetamol in trace amounts and two of them presented traces of chloramphenicol. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of practicability and effectiveness between unassisted HIV selftesting and directly assisted HIV self-testing in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a randomized feasibility trial
Tonen-Wolyec, Serge; Kayembe Tshilumba, Charles; Batina-Agasa, Salomon et al

in BMC Infectious Diseases (2020)

Background: HIV self-testing (HIVST) can be performed using directly assisted and unassisted approaches in facilities or communities to reach different populations. The aim of this study was to compare ... [more ▼]

Background: HIV self-testing (HIVST) can be performed using directly assisted and unassisted approaches in facilities or communities to reach different populations. The aim of this study was to compare the practicability andeffectiveness of the two delivery approaches for HIVST, unassisted HIVST (UH) and directly assisted HIVST (DAH), in the field setting of Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Methods: A randomized (1:1), non-blinded, non-inferiority trial using a blood-based and facility-based HIVST method was carried out in four facilities in Kisangani, the DRC, targeting populations at high risk for HIV infection. The primary outcome was the difference in the practicability of the HIV self-test between the two arms. Practicability was defined as successfully performing the test and correctly interpreting the result. Requests for assistance, positivity rate, linkage to care, and willingness to buy an HIV self-test kit constituted the secondary outcomes for HIVST effectiveness. The adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) were calculated using Poisson regression. Results: The rate of successfully performing the test was same (93.2%) in the UH and DAH arms. The rate of correctly interpreting the results was 86.9% in the UH arm versus 93.2% in the DAH arm, for a difference of − 6.3%. After the follow-up 72 h later, participants in the UH arm had a significantly lower chance of correctly interpreting the test results than those in the DAH arm (aRR: 0.60; P = 0.019). Although the positivity rate was 3.4% among the participants in the DAH arm and 1.7% among those in the UH arm, no significant differences were found between the two arms in the positivity rate, requests for assistance, and linkage to care. Willingness to buy an HIV self-test was higher in the UH arm than in the DAH arm (92.3% versus 74.1%; aRR: 4.20; P < 0.001).Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that UH is as practicable and effective as DAH among individuals at high risk for HIV infection in Kisangani, the DRC. However, additional support tools need to be assessed to improve the interpretation of the self-test results when using the UH approach. [less ▲]

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See detailHPLC-UV method for standardization of Neorautanenia mitis, an African plant used in an anti-scabies ointment
Kagisha, Vedaste ULiege; Muganga, Raymond; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2020, September 27)

An HPLC-UV method for standardization of the methanol-soluble extracts from tubers of Neorautanenia mitis (A.Rich.) Verdc., Leguminosae, harvested during different periods and from different sites, is ... [more ▼]

An HPLC-UV method for standardization of the methanol-soluble extracts from tubers of Neorautanenia mitis (A.Rich.) Verdc., Leguminosae, harvested during different periods and from different sites, is described. The chemical fingerprint was established with six identified markers using LC-ESI (+)-MS/MS, including rotenone; the total error was used as validation criterion, the accuracy and risk profiles demonstrated the reliability of the method. The study verified that the major degradation product of rotenone in methanol is dehydrorotenone. The detection range of rotenone was between 40 and 400 µg/ml. The collected samples contained 868-5732 µg/g of rotenone. The concentrations of rotenone in the wild samples from the Ngoma site (5167 ± 565 µg/g) were higher than those registered in the samples from the other sites. No significant differences were observed among the remaining sampling sites, and most of the rotenone was located in the inner part of the tubers (2165 ± 1051 µg/g) when compared to that in their peels (961 ± 320 µg/g). [less ▲]

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See detailHPLC-UV Method for Standardization of Neorautanenia mitis, an African Plant Used in an Anti-Scabies Ointment
Kagisha, Vedaste ULiege; Frederich, Michel ULiege; Ledoux, Allison ULiege et al

in Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia (2020), 30(4), 582-587

An HPLC-UV method for standardization of the methanol-soluble extracts from tubers of Neorautanenia mitis (A.Rich.) Verdc., Fabaceae, harvested during different periods and from different sites, is ... [more ▼]

An HPLC-UV method for standardization of the methanol-soluble extracts from tubers of Neorautanenia mitis (A.Rich.) Verdc., Fabaceae, harvested during different periods and from different sites, is described. The chemical fingerprint was established with six identified markers using LC-ESI (+)-MS/MS, including rotenone; the total error was used as validation criterion, the accuracy and risk profiles demonstrated the reliability of the method. The study verified that the major degradation product of rotenone in methanol is dehydrorotenone. The detection range of rotenone was between 40 and 400 μg/ml. The collected samples contained 868–5732 μg/g of rotenone. The concentrations of rotenone in the wild samples from the Ngoma site (5167 ± 565 μg/g) were higher than those registered in the samples from the other sites. No significant differences were observed among the remaining sampling sites, and most of the rotenone was located in the inner part of the tubers (2165 ± 1051 μg/g) when compared with that in their peels (961 ± 320 μg/g). [less ▲]

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See detailQuality assessment of three imidazole antiparasitics (albendazole, mebendazole and metronidazole) sold in Benin
YEMOA LOCONON, Achille; AMOUSSA, Ahmed; BONOU, Jacob et al

in International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology (2020), 8(5)

Illicit circuit of medicines disrupts the quality assurance system and the rational use of medicines. Substandard and falsified (SF) medicines present a major risk for the public health, due to lack of ... [more ▼]

Illicit circuit of medicines disrupts the quality assurance system and the rational use of medicines. Substandard and falsified (SF) medicines present a major risk for the public health, due to lack of active ingredient and/or toxicity of certain components. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of three imidazole antiparasitic medicines (albendazole, mebendazole and metronidazole tablets) sold in Benin, to describe the different forms of non-compliances of the medicines sold in the illicit circuit. The samples were collected in the formal and illicit (informal) circuits. The results appeared as follows: irregularities of packaging (25.5% of samples from the illicit circuit); mass uniformity test (14.7% of samples from the illicit circuit were noncompliant); disintegration test (2.1% of samples from the illicit circuit and 3.5% from the formal circuit were non-compliant); identification (all samples were compliant) and assay (47.1% of samples from the informal circuit were non-compliant among which 26.5% of under-dosing and 20.6% of overdose). In sum, there were respectively 38.3% (i.e. 18/47) and 3.5% (i.e. 2/58) of non–compliance in the illicit and formal circuits [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance of Sickle SCAN® in the Screening of Sickle Cell Disease in Kisangani Pregnant Women and Attitude towards Results
NEEMA UFOYMUNGU, Yvette; JUAKALI SIHALIKYOLO, Jean Jeannot; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULiege et al

in Open Journal of Blood Diseases (2020)

In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the sickle cell trait carriage is estimated at 25%. Routine neonatal screening is not a common practice, leading to a very late diagnosis. In this study, the ... [more ▼]

In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the sickle cell trait carriage is estimated at 25%. Routine neonatal screening is not a common practice, leading to a very late diagnosis. In this study, the screening of pregnant women was assessed as well as their attitudes. This is an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in 245 pregnant women, sampled by convenience in four hospitals in Kisangani city (Democratic Republic of Congo) and screened using the sickle SCAN® test, from February 1 to July 31, 2019. The sensitivity and specificity of the latter were determined using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry as the gold standard. The attitudes of 240 pregnant women without previous screening history were assessed upon the announcement of the results. The sensitivity of screening for hemoglobin (Hb) AA and Hb AS was 96.69% and 98.39%, respectively; while the specificities were 99.43% and 96.32%, respectively. The Kappa coefficient (κ) was excellent. Concerning attitudes, Hb SS pregnant women and 55.17% of AS pregnant women worried when the results relating to their hemoglobin status were announced. The sickle SCAN® test was found reliable for sickle cell disease screening in Kisangani. The announcement of the results, mainly positive, raises worry among pregnant woman. Therefore, we recommend the involvement of a clinician psychologist for pre-screening counselling and for results announcement, as well as early newborns and unmarried teenage girls screening [less ▲]

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